Much of Africa has received the "independence" after the second world war, 1960 is the Year of Africa. In this year of "freedom" has received 13 countries. Most of them are former French colonies and wards areas the UN is under the control of France. Countries such as Cameroon, Togo, the Malagasy Republic, Congo (formerly French Congo), Dahomey, Upper Volta, Ivory-sparing, Chad, Central African Republic, Gabon, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Mali. Nigeria got independence (the largest country in terms of population belonging to London, the Belgian Congo, the largest largest territory.
At the current time, these countries rarely get into the lens of global media (or disinformation?). Is that the report will show how the war broke out somewhere, there was a coup, elections were held to demonstrate the nature of love.
One of these "forgotten" of Mali. Mali — a "former" French colony, seemingly quite prosperous country in the last 15 years there have been no wars, genocides revolts, coups relevant for sub-Saharan Africa. Available all the signs of a democratic country: democratic elections, social stability and economic growth of more than 10% per year.
But one fact is alarming — the U.S. military base in Gao, South American fighters there and in the adjacent Niger, and the entire northern part of the desert of Mali occupied by the Mauritanian army, with the consent of the democratically elected government of Mali.
While on the planet was the Soviet Union, the United States dominated the military-strategic interests. In practice, this resulted in the creation of new and improvement of old times of military bases.
1 January 1983. was created "Central Command» (CENTCOM), the scope of the acts of which the 2002 area spanned 25 countries, including 11 African countries (Egypt, Djibouti, Kenya, Somalia, the Republic of Mauritius, Republic of Seychelles, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia and Eritrea). Speaking December 22, 1983 in Congress, U.S. Defense Secretary K. Weinberg read about the U.S. global strategy, "the deployment of forces on the front lines."
This command, and other strategic military commands U.S. plays an important role at the U.S. administration policy in imperial style. A defense of the strategic principle of land, sea and air communications, which in the case of military action could be used to transport troops and supplies. In addition a defense of the fundamental ways to deliver important for the U.S. economy of raw materials from the encroachments of the potential (s) of the opponent (Cove) in any international conflict, which involved the United States and its NATO allies.
In practical terms, this has turned into a building or upgrading existing, military bases for various purposes. In Egypt — Cairo is the West, Wadi Qena, Luxor, Aswan, Ras Banas (Reddish on the coast of the Sea), military installations near the Farafra Oasis, near Mersa Matruh, and in the area of El Alamein (on the Mediterranean Sea); in Kenya — Mombasa port waters upgraded to receive larger ships, in Somalia — reconstructed airfield and port in Berbera, in Sudan — the military base in Sawakin (Reddish on the shore of the sea), El Fasher (near the border with Libya and Chad) and in Dongola (north of Khartoum), in Djibouti, by special agreement the United States had access to the French base in this country, and in Morocco — military facilities in Tangier, Sidi Yahia, Sidi Buknadele, Ben Gerire, Ben Slimane. Between the U.S. and Morocco agreed on a "strategic agreement".
It was assumed that all these bases and facilities created for "frisky deployment of forces" that will be applied in the framework of CENTCOM, and strategic command of U.S. forces in Europe. In the area of operational responsibility which includes Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, DRC, Gabon, Gambia , Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tunisia , Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
On about. Diego Garcia (Chagos Archipelago in the Indian Ocean) were constructed air and naval bases that can make strategic B-52 bombers and nuclear submarines. In a combat situation, these objects have found the use of three times: in 1991 during "Operation Desert Storm" against Iraq in 2001, during the fighting against the regime of movement "Taliban" in Afghanistan. In 2003, during the military occupation of Iraq — "Iraqi Freedom."
From Zaire (now DRC) in 1983. signed an agreement on the construction of its Air Force base area of testing of cruise missiles.
Since the 90's, due to the configuration of the overall global environment (the destruction of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact) in Washington in the first place out of the military-political nuance in U.S. strategy in Africa. During this period the United States have focused on the formation of the "inter-African force" peacekeeping.
In August 2001, the Pentagon has developed a "Strategy for sub-Saharan Africa". Its essence: the role of the armed forces of the United States in securing supplies of strategic minerals from African States (first oil well as gold, diamonds, copper, bauxite, uranium, manganese and cobalt) in the fight against organized crime and drug trafficking, in peacekeeping operations, in ostroinfektsionnyh combat the spread of disease (especially AIDS).
The terrorist attacks of September 2011 did North Africa — the "second front" against terrorism.
The Pentagon has developed rapidly and is implementing a number of programs to African countries
The first of them concerns the Joint special battle group in the Horn of Africa (Combined Joint Task Force — Horn of Africa). In her struggle puzzle comes with a mesh "Al-Qaeda" and its adherents in East Africa — Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen. In ground operations involving more than a thousand soldiers from the U.S. Special Forces mission. Patrolling the coastal waters of the United manufactures special battle group: it includes warships from the U.S., Germany, Spain and England. At the same time in the region has created a special squadron to search for and destruction from the air of "terrorist purposes". The Republic of Djibouti is a radio station "Radio Sawaa", which is open around the clock broadcasts in Arabic on Sudan and the countries of Near East. The country is one of the great African recipient of U.S. military aid.
Second regional applets security in Africa Pan-Sahel Initiative (Pan-Sahelian Initiative). Initially, it was attended by four countries — Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger. Its purpose is not to give the "who left Afghanistan after the U.S. military action of terrorists already fabulous" Al-Qaeda "
;and its supporters in Iraq to do on the ground in these countries' armed and well-trained group of Islamic militants who receive ample funding from own patrons. "
In practice, the implementation of this initiative comes in the form of units of the role of American forces for specific purposes (US Special Forces) in cooperation with the local military operations — first in the search and the winding up of so-called. "Islamic terrorists" (This category is rapidly written any enemies of local pro-Western regimes). The current US-African units are equipped army trucks and special equipment that allows rapidly determine the precise whereabouts of objects to strike (Global Positioning System). Designated units have conducted several successful operations, more prominent of which was the capture of control based on the location of Algeria, the organization under the name "Groupe Salafiste pour la Predication et le Combat".
Then, based on intelligence disk imaging, U.S. Department of Defense concluded that the Pan-Sahel Initiative should be extended to a larger number of African, than it was conceived in 2001. As a result, in 2005. This program has been converted to the Initiative to combat terrorism in the Sahara region (Trans-Saharan Counter Terrorism Initiative). Her action was vserasprostraneno excluding previously identified four African countries also Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Senegal and Nigeria. As for the U.S. military plans in the region extraordinary value represented her role in Senegal — a "more francophone principal partner" in the U.S. sub-Saharan Africa, and Algeria, where the overlap of trans-Saharan routes of movement.
To realize this initiative In 2005 the South American Congress has allocated 500 million dollars for 5 years ($ 100 million per year). This program was officially launched in June 2005goda when carried out joint military exercises of U.S. special forces units and the destination of all the African countries affected by the designated initiative, entitled "Flintlock 2005".
3rd programm military disposition was launched in 2003. and called the Initiative to combat terrorism in East Africa (East Africa Counter-Terrorism Initiative). It covers Djibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. This example program is in control of the Municipal Department of the United States, which provides its funding — $ 100 million a year. Its purpose — to kill created over the years, "the terrorist network al-Qaida in East Africa." Prevent the recurrence of situations in the region, as an attack on the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, IN 1998, at tourist sites in Israel in Mombasa 2002godu. As part of this initiative is applets "unsullied sky over Africa" (Safe Skies for Africa Initiative), which ensures the safety of air traffic in the region.
African countries are divided according to the principle of priority for the United States:
— 1st group — is the country's North, North-East Africa, because they are specifically adjacent to the Middle East, which are concentrated in the strategic interests of the United States.
— The second group, the big African countries ("regional centers of power"), which support the policy of the United States, the "war on terror". This is South Africa, Nigeria, Algeria, Ethiopia, Kenya, Senegal.
-The third group — the main "raw material zones" of the West, the country's oil production Gulf of Guinea. They are important from the economic viewpoint.
— The fourth group, a country where there are no large natural resources, the United States, show them episodic enthusiasm.
Apart from these three programs U.S. pursues a policy of military-technical cooperation.
It is first of Programmke international military education and training (International Military Education and Training — IMET). African countries have made in the United States to train their own personnel. So, together with a purely military nature, this example program has a political significance. Vorachivayas in their countries, African military personnel receive training in a spirit of reverence for the power of America, its politics and culture and, in the case of its own role in the military coup (which often occur in African countries), will inevitably become agents of U.S. policy in Africa. In 2005, a role in this program perceived the 41 African countries in 2006 — already 45 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Apart from Libya, the North African countries also are participating in this program.
Another example program — is The program fund military operations abroad (Foreign Military Financing Program-FMF). Its purpose is to provide a friendly South American regimes U.S. military equipment and technology. In 2006, eight African countries have participated in this program: Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda.
In 2006, Washington enacted program from the Global Initiative for peacekeeping operations (Global Peace Operations Initiative — GPOI), which is applied to African countries took the form of applets Akoto (Assistance in training of counterterrorism operations in Africa or the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance — ACOTA). This program has changed which operated from 1996 Initiative crisis management in Africa (ACRI) or African Crises Response Initiative. The main difference between applets from Akot ACRI is the fact that it focuses on the training of personnel to conduct offensive operations in the Horn of Africa (CJTE-HOA Initiative), East Africa (EACTI Initiative) and the Pan-Sahel region (PSI and TSCTI Initiatives ). The main recipients of military-technical and financial assistance, within the framework of programs from Akot are — Mali, Niger, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda.
Created the command of U.S. forces in Africa (AFRICOM).
Background of big U.S. activities in Africa
— the rich resources of many countries (for example: Nigeria);
— competition with China for natural resources;
— Development of the state is not "black" country "elite" just go to the service of a "white masters", although it may vary each month.