Create a Tupolev Tu-121 and Tu-123 "Hawk" in the Soviet Union laid the base for aerodynamic calculations taking into account the specificity of the UAV design and production of aircraft equipment, automatic control laws and, above all, control and navigation systems. Were laid release technology in the production and testing of UAVs, their refinement and testing. Very splotchenno with research institutes Air Force did a great job and picked the ideology of combat deployment and technical operation of this kind of systems in military units.
Remote unmanned reconnaissance system designed for aerial reconnaissance of airfields, missile sites, naval bases and ports, military and industrial facilities, connections ships, missile defense and air defense, and implement control over the fruits of the use of weapons of mass destruction (chemical and nuclear). Photographic reconnaissance was carried out by photographing large areas and long-distance routes and detailed aerial cameras general intelligence.
Electronic reconnaissance was carried out by recording the radio signals of the enemy, who were working in the area of surveillance aircraft. Recorded radio allows you to find the seat and the type of radio equipment deployed enemy. Tu-123 "Hawk" allowed the creation of: a photographic reconnaissance route or strip area of width of 60-80 km. and up to 2,700 km. a scale of 1 km. 1 See also the band width of 40 km. and up to 1400 km with 200 m scale of 1 cm electronic reconnaissance was carried out with the depth of side-scan up to 300 km.
On its own UAV design Tu-123 "Hawk" match made earlier attack aircraft Tu-121, the main difference is the placement of the intelligence apparatus. This equipment, combined with a certain number of parts of navigation and piloting complex was located in the nose of the aircraft a total weight of 2 tons. The part has been returned and landing on the ground with the help of a parachute. The nose of the chassis was equipped with a special lightweight design that is released into the air immediately before planting. The rest of the design of the Tu-123 after completion of the intelligence task was dying.
Compartments with established photographic reconnaissance did the typical "shop", which was heat-resistant glazing of glass filled with a special system airflow. This system prevents the formation of so-called effect of "haze" in the space between the glass and the camera lens. Above the nozzle motor was placed a container in which the drag chute was used to quench the airspeed before undocking bow compartment with equipment installed in it.
The control system "Hawk" worked independently on advance this program there. Conclusion scout the place of landing with reconnaissance equipment carried by the drive radio. UAV was preparing to fly to the starting position, which included starting a car-tractor STA-30 which was developed on the basis of the missile MAZ-537 with semi — starting the installation, control and start the car CARDS 1. In the back of the CARDS-1 was test equipment. Specifically, prior to starting the control system, "Hawk" was introduced programm flight. UAV Tu-123 was launched from an inclined ramp. Start coming off the machine with the launcher and the acceleration to the required initial velocity produced by the starting solid boosters PRD-52, holding a thrust at 80,000 kgs. each. Both the accelerator stopped working for 5 seconds into the flight, then separated from the fuselage of the UAV.
March flight Tu-123 "Hawk" provided by the engine KR-15-300 which for 9 seconds worked in afterburner with a thrust of 15,000 kg., then came shooting vozduhopoglotitelya manifold and the engine was transferred into cruising mode for maximum traction in 10,000 kgs. In flight, the onboard cameras cut in and off on command. After the job is an unmanned spy plane program unfolded in working direction and at a distance of 400-500 km. going from the base of the drive switch-board equipment.
After identification of the aircraft ground-based capture to delivery and tracking of the UAV teams needed for its output at a given point landing rescued compartment with reconnaissance equipment. By going off programmke THD and residual fuel is drained, then the unit was transferred to the climb to quench speed and braking parachute release occurred. After that razvedoborudovaniem compartment separated and descended to the ground.
Serial production of the Tu-123 UAV "hawk", and other members of the complex are often carried out in Voronezh until 1972, previously have been released 52 UAV. Flying Tu-123 "Hawk" in order to maintain the practical abilities of professionals parts of BSR and testing is usually carried out only on a fairly large Russian landfills (Far East and Trans-Baikal region, Central Asia). The flight routes were laid over sparsely populated regions of the USSR. If, due to failure of onboard equipment drone bowed out of the route with the trend care polygonal, carried out its liquidation: the ground sends a command that disables the engine drone and translated into a dive with deep slope.
System DBR-1 was in service with the Soviet Air Force for intelligence, who were stationed in the western border area of the military, right up to 1979. Apparatus Tu-123 "Hawk", starting with the areas of the USSR, could be successfully conduct reconnaissance of virtually all areas of Western Europe. Operation of the system in the Soviet Union once tested a huge number of polygons starts in the Air Force exercises. But without looking at the real objectives of this exploration of the terrain of the NATO TU-123 "Hawk" was never fulfilled.
After adopting a supersonic reconnaissance aircraft MiG-25R in 1972 DBR-1 complexes began to appear evenly with weapons and their components are disposed of. Part of drones Tu-123 was transferred to the Air Force for the creation of polygons targets (data UAV simulated South American missiles "Pershing"). At the current time surviving copy of Tu-123 "Hawk" is presented at the exhibi
tion aircraft, located at the Central Airport them. MV Frunze in Moscow.
On the basis of the Tu-123 UAV was created several different versions of the initial draft:
— manned version of the Tu-123P (Hawk-P), the scout returned with a pilot on board, was drafted;
— UAV Tu-139 (2 Hawkeye) — quite salvable version of Tu-123, was built several prototypes;
— unmanned plane-target Tu-123M (Hawk-M), was ready prototype of;
— UAV project Tu-123 with ramjet, calculated on the fly at speeds corresponding M = 3-4;
— UAV project Tu-123 with a nuclear power plant;
— project implementation drones Tu-121 or Tu-123 at the final stage in the impact of the planning system "DP".
Flight and technical properties of the Tu-123 "Hawk":
Dimensions: Wingspan — 8.41 m, length — 27,83 m, height — 4.78 m
Empty Weight — 11,450 lbs., Maximum takeoff weight — 35610 kg.
The supplies of fuel — 16 600 liters.
Motor type — 1 Turbojet R-15K-300, the thrust unforced — 10,000 kgs.
Accelerators — 2 TX TX-52 kgf thrust 2h80000.
The highest speed — 2700 km / h
Operational range — 3560-3580 km.
Flying height at the beginning of the cruise portion — 22,800 m at the end of midcourse — 19 000 meters.
Sources disk imaging: