Russian experimental aircraft 346

The projects, which arrived in the Soviet Union, German spices, were at different stages of development. OKB-2 under the control of G. Ressing continued to develop experimental aircraft with liquid-propellant rocket engine, which in Germany was designated DFS-346. In the USSR, the airplane was given the designation "346". Construction of the first machines began in Germany, and it was transferred to TsAGI in 1946.

Aircraft "346" was an all-metal sredneplanom. The fuselage consisted of three parts. The nose of — body rotation with the contour formed by the profile NACA 00121-0,66-50. After it was followed by a cylindrical portion and a tail, a round cross-section of which passed into a vertical oval. Under the fuselage had retractable landing skid. In the fore part of the body was placed pressurized cabin pilot. Bed placed horizontally makarom that the pilot was face down in the prone position. This assembly job was to reduce the drag of the fuselage. System Rescue pilots in emergency situations was a match for her. The cab is attached to the fuselage by means of bolts and vzyvnyh in emergency situations could be separated from the aircraft. The back wall of the cab there is a small parachute, stabilizing its position in free fall. We had their own bed ejection device. It throws out the pilot from the cockpit after a while after its separation.

The Soviet experimental aircraft "346"

The Soviet experimental aircraft "346"

Power plant experimental aircraft "346" — two-chamber liquid-propellant rocket engine "Walter". The total thrust at sea level was 3740 pounds, at the height — 4 thousand kg. The total in store fuel (kerosene), hydrogen peroxide and an oxidizer (nitric acid) was 1.9 million kg. According to the supplies of fuel ensured a two-minute job liquid rocket engine at full thrust. In energy saving mode, the camera was working alone.

Wing 45 has been "swept along lines quarters chords. Naborki used for its profile type NACA-0 ,012-0 ,55-1, 25, which had a relative thickness of 12 percent. Wing area was 19.87 m2. Planter Mechanization — deflectable flaps.

Ailerons consisted of a pair of sections having a kinematic connection of external and internal parts of the aileron, a variable pilot. Angles differences aileron sections at low speeds should be similar, at tremendous speeds deviate had only the outer section (at the time of test aircraft gear ratio to the inner sections of the aileron control stick was half that of the outer). Empennage — T-shaped. Stabilizer — traveling with angles different from 2 "40 'to 2'. Two-piece elevators as ailerons deflected at different angles. Over the stabilizer installed a small mobile surface — so-called. padtsel.

Plane was designed to achieve a speed of approximately 2 M. Starting weight was estimated to be between 5230 to 5300 kg.

Aircraft autumn of 1946 brought in TsAGI, then started blowing in the tube T-101. During the tests we found out that on the wing at large angles of attack, there is a pronounced end stall, which extends almost the entire area of the wing and leads to a loss of longitudinal stability. It was natural, since the wing were recruited from similar profiles across the span. But even despite the ailerons shear flow remained satisfactory performance. Stall unable to substantially reduce the aerodynamic setting partitions on the upper side of the wings.

By the flight test "346" started in 1948 at the airport in Teply Stan. Aircraft carrier — one of the American bombers Boeing B-29 got on the Russian countryside Union. Aircraft "346" was suspended under the right wing to the support between the pods.

The Soviet experimental aircraft "346"

Glider "Kranich" before flying this machine was worked out control of the machine, in which the pilot is in the supine position. In LII tested and adjusted detachable cabin with catapult device. Lifting and office cabin during the flight were carried out with the help of a carrier-bomber. Of flying the aircraft "346" with a working liquid rocket engine tests were conducted glider version, which was not designed to fly with a jet engine. Gliding version wore the title "346-P". It was refined technique towing and reset tested stability during free flight at different centers of gravity have been worked out flying and landing on a ski without the use of crutches underwing. "346-P" on the outside is actually no different from the experimental aircraft with rocket engines, with his shot fairings skiing in the retracted position and the underwing fairings set of crutches. Weight of the glider was 1180-2180 kg. Tests "346-P" engaged engineer pilot of the first class Tsize Wolfgang, who had already by then 20 years of flight operations (V. Tsize graduated flight school in Hanover at Aviation Institute). Lead engineer for the tests — VJ Molochaev

The construction of the aircraft was completed May 5, 1949. It installed the engine, however, in the prototyping, ie inoperative. The aircraft carried the title of "346-1". In all summer and in September 1949 was conducted ground training aircraft for flight tests. First flight was made on September 30. Aircraft weight — 3145 kg. Cutaway plane "346-1", piloted by W. Tsize occurred at an altitude of 9.7 thousand meters in the process of testing it was found out that the aircraft has a number of shortcomings in management. Those deficiencies were applied at the glider "346-P", but then the pilot did not consider them unsafe. By plane "346-1" the situation was different — in some flight conditions did not seem likely to create evolution. Despite the difficulties, the pilot managed to seize control. But the calculation of landing made inaccurate and "346-1" went to the ground at high speed (about 310 km / h). After the plane touched the ground he "jumped" to a height of about 4 meters, proparhav another 800 meters. In the second touch of the landing skid has developed and run to a stop on the fuselage of the aircraft has passed. Safety harness and bed pilot were also not completely reliable. During hard braking on the run Tsize moved forward and hit his face on the front cross brace cabin lost consciousness. Fortunately, the pilot of the acquired injuries were insignificant, and after a number of days in the hospital after the healing Tsize was able to return to work.

To learn the background of the tragedy made the commission, headed by test pilot Rybko NS The Commission found that the premise of the disaster was incomplete release of the landing skis. Emergency Act was following record: "The only plausible premise for the partial release skiing during the flight … Tsize actions were incorrect. It is not absolutely pressed the button clutch lever release skiing. As a result of this
lever hoist idled because ski placed on the lock was not. " To this can be added the conclusion that in view of the difficulties that have emerged in the management of all the pilot's attention may have focused on piloting because Tsize absolutely not press down on the clutch lever release skiing.

After the tragedy of the plane was repaired, it made some improvements, then he was transferred to FRI. Piloted vehicle test pilot Kaz'min PI In his flight focused on aircraft handling qualities, "346-1". Liquid rocket slider do not get it. During the first flight of the ski vno not got a lock. But the snow produced completely ended safely landing, and the plane "346-1" was not actually warped. Kaz'min after a while made a second flight, during which the "346-1" hauled TU-2 to a height of two thousand meters, then was uncoupled to perform a free flight. Landing again failed because there was a undershoot. Again it took repair.

Once built the second plane, which was given the designation "346-3", was conducted ground tests liquid rocket motor. After obtaining satisfactory results, it was decided to conduct a flight test with the engine. Preference was given to V. Tsize, who had more experience of flying on "346."

The Soviet experimental aircraft "346"
The nose of the aircraft "346"

B-29 aircraft with a suspended "346-3" was launched from the airfield in Lukhovitsy, as its runway was a longish in comparison with the band in Teply Stan. At an altitude of about 10 thousand meters of the unit uncoupled. Joined LRE and "346-3" candle went up rapidly gaining speed. After going to the cabin aircraft carrier, continued to climb. The spectacle was impressive, but short-lived. Soon, the pilot said that the "346" out of control, then he received a command to eject. The device bailout worked flawlessly, and Tsize landed by parachute. The conclusion of the commission LII MAP test-flying "346", "Plane "346" — this is an experimental aircraft-laboratory, the main task of which is to study the flight with transonic and supersonic speeds, the aircraft is equipped for this special recording. installation, double ailerons, Torque suspension wings, two-chamber liquid-propellant rocket engine, elevators with different aerodynamic compensation. Start aircraft "346" was carried out from the carrier aircraft B-29, which was equipped with special hinged. a system that allowed them to create separation "346" at an altitude of 8,000 to 10,000 meters.

Just did two flying prototypes — "346-1" and "346-3" having a working power plant with liquid rocket engine. "346-3" from "346-1" features a huge sweep angle of the horizontal tail, the lack of landing flaps and the lower section width G.O.3. Aircraft "346" has an iron structure, not including hermetic cockpit made out of wood.

Start by detaching the plane carried at a height of 9.3 thousand meters at a speed of 300 km / h The climb to 10 million meters, the envisaged program that was at a loss, as the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft carrier had deteriorated suspension under the wing of the aircraft "346". Climb to great heights decreased, and a significant time of climb was painful for the pilot.

The Soviet experimental aircraft "346"

The Soviet experimental aircraft "346"

The Soviet experimental aircraft "346"
Aircraft "346" under the wing of the Tu-4

In time With years subsequent flight test aircraft features "346": the largest height — 12-13 thousand meters, the maximum flight speed of 950 km / h, the highest number of M in level flight — 0.9-0.95, the maximum rate of climb of 100 m / s. Dive speed reached during the last flight at the working liquid rocket engine was supersonic.

Aircraft performance properties of experimental aircraft "346":
Modification — "346-1";
Wingspan — 9.00 m;
Length — 15.81 m;
Height — 3.54 m;
Wing area — 19.86 m2;
The biggest take-off weight — 5260 kg;
Motor type — jet engine Walter HWK 109-509C;
Thrust — 4000 kg;
The highest speed — 950 km / h (M = 0.8);
Crew — 1 person.

Based on materials from the website

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