Russian History of Poisoning

The Soviet History of PoisoningEven in the second half of the 30s to the NKVD was created by a special toxicology laboratory, which in 1940 led brigvoenvrach, and later — the KGB Colonel Dr. Gregory Mairanovskii (up to 1937, he led the team on poisons in the Institute of Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, as operates under the auspices of state security bodies, the NKVD for the same purpose was also Bacteriological Laboratory, headed by Colonel medical services Dr. Sergey Muromtsev). In 1951 Mairanovskii was arrested as part of the campaign against cosmopolitanism, sentenced to 10 years imprisonment, and in 1960, soon after the premature release of the bullpen, died under mysterious circumstances. Most likely, he himself became a victim of poison — knew very much, and even tried to take care of the rehabilitation.

From the bullpen Mairanovskii proudly Beria wrote: "My hand was destroyed more than a dozen sworn opponents of Russian authorities, including the nationalists of all kinds." During the investigation and trial of Beria himself and his subordinate, General Paul Sudoplatov 4 people accused of poisoning. The cases described in the memoirs Sudoplatova "Special operations. Lubyanka and the Kremlin." Incidentally, in the judgment of the case Sudoplatova rendered the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court in 1958 (Paul Anatol'evichu gave 15 years), said:

"Beria and his associates who have committed serious crimes against humanity experienced deadly torturing toxic substances on human beings. Such criminal experiments were made with a huge number of people sentenced to capital punishment, and against those unwanted Beria and his associates. A special laboratory experiments designed to produce for inspection poison acts on the living man, working under the supervision of Sudoplatova Eitington and his deputy from 1942 to 1946, which sought to laboratory workers toxic substances, only tested on humans. "

In 1946, was destroyed in such a makarom one of the favorites of Ukrainian Nationalists Shumsky, who was in exile in Saratov, in 1947 just was destroyed by the Greek-Catholic Archbishop of Transcarpathia Romzha. They both died from acute cardiac deficiency, kotorae in fact it was a consequence of the introduction of the poison curare. Shumsky made lethal injection the train in the presence of a person Mairanovskii Sudoplatova and Romzha poisoned so makarom after car tragedy rigged by security officers.

Mairanovskii victim of toxic substances and became a Jewish engineer from Poland Samet, engaged in 1946, hidden works on submarines in Ulyanovsk. When the "authorities", it became clear that Samet is about to leave for Palestine, security officers grabbed him, taken out of town, made a lethal injection of curare, and then simulated the destruction of acute cardiac deficiency. Another unfortunate — Yankees Oggins, closely collaborated with the Comintern and was arrested in 1938. During the war, his wife turned to the South American authorities to release her husband from the USSR. South American representative in 1943, met in Oggins Butyrskoj bullpen. MGB not let him wish he could not tell the truth in the West about the Gulag. In 1947, in the prison clinic Oggins made lethal injection.

On the assumption Sudoplatova completely thorough, in the same 1947 with the poison in the bullpen was killed Lubyanka Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, the official version of the Soviet-Russian died from acute cardiac deficiency. Motive could be the same as that in the case of Oggins: Wallenberg's fate was interested Swedish Foreign Ministry.

We say that a number of cases in which, as you can imagine, were used poisonous substances from the KGB special laboratory. So, in 1956, Japan has been repatriated from the Soviet Union nephew of former Japanese Prime Minister Prince Konoe, the Japanese army officer, who was involved in negotiations with spicy enough. Along the way he was killed by a transient fever. Last commandant of Berlin Helmut Weidling died in November 1955 in Vladimir clink of acute cardiac deficiency, even after the decision was made about his repatriation. Maybe, Khrushchev did not want to, so he told the public about the last days of Hitler and the circumstances of his suicide. It is possible that a similar manner as was put to death in the same Vladimir bullpen German Field Marshal Ewald von Kleist, who died in October 1954 of acute heart deficiency. Russian control, perhaps not willing that such an experienced leader at one point was in Germany, could also avenge him, as specifically Kleist was one of the initiators of the Cossack units of the Wehrmacht former Russian people. Incidentally, in those years, which killed Kleist and Weidling, Mairanovskii also held in Vladimir. Whether it was the irony of fate, or Grigory M. decided to use on the major field of study?

All sanctions on poisoning give top political control — Stalin or Khrushchev. It is possible that earlier, in 1934, was poisoned recognizable Ukrainian historian Misha Grushevskii, past head of the Central Rada. He died soon after the injection, made in one of the capital's hospitals.

Finally, in 1957 and 1959. using vials of cyanide KGB assassin Bogdan Stashinsky favorites Ukrainian nationalists killed Leo Rebeta and Stepan Bandera (Ukrainians some reason especially lucky to have "gebeshnye" poisoning, at least the ones on which it clearly), as repentant and defected to the 1961 in Germany Stashinsky honestly told the West German court. In 1958, with the help of radioactive talc tried to destroy the Russian defector Nikolai Khokhlov, that the KGB instructed to destroy the head of the NTS Gregory Okuloviča and Chairman of the Provisional Government of Alexander Kerensky. Khokhlova with great difficulty rescued South American doctor, he spent a year at the clinic.

The latter of the recognizable poisoning, which was involved in the KGB, refers to 1980, when in London with a poisoned umbrella was mortally wounded Bulgarian dissident Jora Markov, who worked for the BBC on-Sea. This operation was executed state security agencies in Bulgaria, but the poison he gave the KGB general Oleg Kalugin, was honest in that in the years of perestroika.

In general, not just in the case of Viktor Yushchenko hardly acted intelligence agency, with its strong Toxicology Laboratory: she probably would have chosen a more suitable to poison poison, guaranteeing a deadly final and does not leave, unlike dioxins, persistent traces in the body. Most likely, people who poisoned Yushchenko used the first comer of trapped under the hand of toxic substances useful in order to advance in the mix with his food. For this purpose, toxic substances are not suitable based on hydrocyanic acid, which disintegrate outdoors or react with the sugar and by certain other food substances. (Because, for example, failed to poison cyanide Grigory Rasputin poison was positioned in the sweet cakes and Madeira, and it decayed from the interaction with the sugar.) But persistent dioxins simply dissolve in advance at least some greasy food.

The Soviet History of Poisoning

"Active measures" Russian special services

The legal basis for the "active operations" abroad was dictated by Stali
n and the USSR Central Executive Committee adopted November 21, 1927 judgment, which read: "Those who refuse to go back to the Alliance SSR, are outlawed. Outlawing drags a) confiscation of all property convicted, and b) execution of the convicted within 24 hours after verification of his identity. actual law is the reverse effect. " This ruling was applied against those people from the attached later to the Soviet Union territories, who themselves have never been the subjects of the Russian empire, no Russian citizens of the Union. Russian agents were destroyed by such prominent KGB defector as Ignatius Reiss, Walter Krivitskiy and Jora Agabeyov. Then, in the late 20's, to the Chairman of the OGPU Vyacheslav Menzhinsky was created especially groups of employees of the Comintern and intelligence, the main objective of which was the liquidation of political enemies of the USSR, the first among Russian emigres and defectors. More well-known "active share" Russian special services have been kidnapping generals of Alexander Kutepov and Eugene Miller, murder favorites Ukrainian nationalists Eugene Konovaltsya Leo Rebeta and Stepan Bandera, the head of the political enemy of Stalin and Leon Trotsky Afghan President Hafizullah Amin.

Abduction General Kutepov

Head of the Russian Military Union General Alexander Kutepov was kidnapped Russian agents in Paris January 26, 1930, with the assistance of the 1st of Governors ROVS General Nikolai Skoblina. Employees of the OGPU, one of which was in the form of a French policeman, Kutepov pushed into the car, put him to sleep with an injection and taken to the general in the port of Marseilles. There Kutepov loaded onto a Russian ship in the guise spree chief engineer. In protest against the abduction of 6 thousand Parisian taxi drivers — mostly Russian immigrants staged a strike. Prominent representatives of the Russian emigration claimed by the French authorities to intervene and release the generals, but by the time the ship with Kutepov already left the territorial waters of France. According to the version that comes from the KGB, General Kutepov died of a heart attack soon after the ship passed the Black Sea Straits, 100 miles from Novorossiysk.

A prerequisite for the abduction and maybe killing Kutepov became his active struggle against the Russian government, which he continued in exile, namely, by the sending of a Russian terrorist groups to attack the party leaders and officials of the OGPU.

Kidnapping of General Miller

Kutepov successor as chairman ROVS General Eugene Miller was kidnapped in Paris September 22, 1937 by Soviet secret police with the assistance of their davneshnih agents, General Nikolai Skoblina and former Minister of the Interim Government of Sergei Tretyakov (in a house on the street Colosseum, owned Tretyakov, the headquarters of the EMRO ). Skoblin lured Miller into the trap tipo inviting him to a meeting with representatives of the German intelligence service. Eugene Karlovic became suspicious and left a note which warned that goes to the meeting, along with Skoblin and if you do not return, the means Skoblin traitor. Miller was brought on board the Russian ship "Maria Ulyanov" in a closed wood box under the guise of a particularly valuable cargo. Deputy General Peter Miller Kusonsky protormozil with the opening of the note, which gave an opportunity to escape from Paris Skoblin in Republican Spain. There he was soon murdered by the NKVD. According to the version posted late General Paul Sudoplatov security, Skoblin Franco died in a raid on Barcelona aviation. His last letter from Spain unknown NKVD officer, nicknamed "Stach" dated November 11, 1937. Tretyakov, who has promoted Skoblin disappear after the exposure, was executed in 1943, as the Germans Russian spy. Wife Skoblina, singer Nadezhda Plevitskaya was convicted as an accessory to the French Tribunal kidnapping Miller and died in the French bullpen in 1941.

Following the publication of notes Miller French authorities said Russian embassy protest against the abduction of General and threatened to send a destroyer to intercept only just emerged from Le Havre Russian ship "Maria Ulyanov." Salting Surits Jacob said that the French side will bear all responsibility for the detention of a foreign vessel in international waters, and warned that Miller is still on the ship went out and brought. The French retreated, perhaps realizing that their prey alive security officers will not give up. Miller was taken to Leningrad on September 29 and has already appeared in the Lubyanka. There he was held as a "prisoner hidden" under the name of Peter Vasilievich Ivanov. 11 May 1939 on the personal orders of the People's Commissar of the Interior Laurentia Beria, certainly sanctioned by Stalin, he was shot by the NKVD commander Vasily Blokhin.

Murder Eugene Konovalca

Favorite of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) Eugene Konovalets, the last Austrian army warrant officer and past commander of the Army Corps of Siege Ukrainian People's Republic in 1918-1919, was killed in Rotterdam on May 23, 1938 by a bomb. The bomb was handed to him in the guise of Lviv box of chocolates career member of the NKVD and the future of State Security Lieutenant General Paul Sudoplatov root in the OUN and became a confidant of Konovalca. NKVD dismissed rumors that Konovalets fell victim to a showdown among the Ukrainian emigration. Sudoplatov in flashback justify killing Konovalca that "fascist terrorist Konovalca OUN-Bandera officially declared a state of war with the Russian and Soviet Russia, which lasted from 1919 to 1991 year. "In reality, the OUN as an organization while terrorism was not involved, but only tried to enter his agents in the Soviet Union, which was to lead the future of a popular uprising. Devotees of Terror was the main competitor Konovalca Stepan Bandera. In 1934 without the knowledge of Konovalca arranged the murder of the Polish Interior Minister Gen. Casimir Peratskogo, for which he was sentenced to the death penalty was commuted because of the demonstrations of Ukrainians in Poland indefinite imprisonment. bullpen, he was released from the Germans in 1939. Konovalca death only hastened the transition to the OUN terrorist methods of struggle, is widely used by nationalists in 1941 -1953 years in Ukraine and in the eastern provinces of Poland. It is possible that in the case of Chechnya, Maskhadov's liquidation will only strengthen the "irreconcilable".

The murder of Leon Trotsky

Leon Trotsky was fatally wounded by a blow alpenstocks (ice ax) on the head in his own residence in Coyoacan on the outskirts of Mexico City August 20, 1940. Lev Davidovich had to click and grab your own killer, biting his arm. It gave no power to encroach escape. Security tried to kill him on the spot, but Trotsky stopped flogging, saying that it is necessary to force the man to say who he is and whom sent. Pummels pleaded, "I had to do it! They keep my mom, I was obliged! Destroy immediately or finish to peel!"

Trotsky died in hospital on August 21. Blow was struck by an agent of the NKVD, the Spanish Republican Ramon Mercader. He ran to the residence under the name of Trotsky Canadian journalist Frank Jackson — fan of judgment "of the exiled prophet." When arrested, he had also found a passport in the name of the Belgian Jacques Mornar. At trial, Mercader claimed that he acted alone. Motive he called Trotsky disappointment, as if to offer him to travel to the Soviet Union and Stalin destroyed. This motif tribunal dismissed as magnificent. Mercader was sentenced for the murder of a 20-year prison sentence — capital punishment by Mexican laws.

From the very first day or in the world, no one hesitated that the murderer is the NKVD and Stalin. This is clearly written in the newspapers. Personality Mercader was installed just after the second world war, when
the Spanish found the police file Ramon Mercader with fingerprints, coinciding with the fingerprints assassin of Trotsky. In 1960, after serving Mercader was awarded the title of Hero of the Russian Union. Actions Mercader in Mexico ran a career member of the NKVD, then the KGB Maj. Gen. Naum Eitington. His accomplice and lover was my mother Ramona, Caridad Mercader. In Moscow was preparing an operation and was in charge of the Deputy Chief of the Head of state security management Sudoplatov Paul.

The order to murder Trotsky was given by Stalin and Beria, head of the NKVD Lawrence. In 1931, Trotsky's letter, I propose to make a united front in Spain, where the brewing revolution, Stalin imposed a resolution: "I think that the Emperor of Trotsky, this plow and Menshevik charlatan would have hit on the head by the ECCI (Executive Committee of the Comintern. — BS ..) Let him know his place. " In practice, this was the signal to start hunting for Trotsky. By some estimates, it has cost the NKVD about 5 million dollars.

The murder of Leo Rebeta and Stepan Bandera

Favorites of Ukrainian Nationalists Leo Rebet and Stepan Bandera was killed by KGB agent Bohdan Stashinskomu in Munich on 12 October 1957 and 15 October 1959. The murder weapon was the specially designed device that shoots a vial of cyanide. Victim breathed poisoned, the poison is rapidly disintegrating, and doctors pronounced death from sudden cardiac arrest. Initially, in the case of Rebeta and Bandera police together with the versions of the murder was considering suicide or death from natural circumstances.

For successful attempt Stashinsky was awarded the Order of Lenin and the Red Banner, but under the influence of his wife repented of their deeds, and August 12, 1961, on the eve of the Berlin wall, turned himself in to authorities in West Germany. October 19, 1962 Stashinsky Tribunal sentenced to several years in bullpen, but soon released and granted asylum in the West as the naming of a stranger. As he wrote in his memoirs, then chief of the Federal Intelligence Service, General Reinhard Gehlen, the "own terrorist grace period Shelepina already served and currently lives as a free man in a free world."

The Tribunal issued a personal definition, in which the main blame for the preparation of attempts to put control Russian secret police — Ivan Serov (in 1957) and Alexander Shelepina (in 1959).

It is considered that due to the noise raised during the Stashinsky, the KGB in the upcoming refused to hold "active measures", at least in the western states. Since that time, there was not a resounding 1st murder of involvement which would have been convicted KGB (if, in general, do not take assistance of the Bulgarian secret services to eliminate the dissident writer ZHoru Markov, as said last KGB General Oleg Kalugin). Or Russian intelligence services began to work thinner, or switched to the elimination of people do not quite comparable recognizable, whose death could not make some huge noise, or indeed to refrain from acts of terrorism abroad. The only known exception so far — the murder of Afghan President Hafizullah Amin in the first day Russian invasion of that country.

Murder of Afghan President Hafizullah Amin

The President of Afghanistan and the favorite pro-People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan Hafizullah Amin was killed on the night of December 27, 1979 at the beginning of Russian military intervention in that country. His palace on the outskirts of Kabul, was stormed by a special group of KGB "Alpha" special forces, along with the Head Intelligence Agency. Soldiers of "Alpha" freely arrived in the Afghan capital to protect Tipo Amin. The decision on the winding up of the Afghan president was adopted Russian Politburo on 12 December. KGB agents poured poison in the food Amin. Unsuspecting Russian dictator doctor took almost another world. After that, we had to use the group "Alpha" and the GRU. Amina was shot together with his family and a few dozen fighter protection. The official statement incomprehensible after this murder was attributed to a "healthy forces of the Afghan revolution," although in reality Amin was killed by officers of the "Alpha". The storming of the palace and the killing of Afghan President began to remember about the event only at the end of the 80s, with the advent of glasnost.

BACKGROUND killing Amin lay in the fact that Moscow had gathered earlier to bet on his predecessor as president of the creator of the PDPA Nur Muhammad Taraki and advised him to remove such a severe competitor, Amin, who took advantage of the influence of the Afghan army. September 8, 1978 at the presidential palace guard Taraki tried to destroy Amin, but died only his bodyguard. Amin escaped, raised the upper part of the Kabul garrison and moved Taraki. Taraki was strangled soon. Amin intensified terror against Muslim rebels, but the goals are not headed for. Russian management did not like that Amin came to power without his sanction. They decided to remove, although Amin as Taraki not once asked about entering the country Russian troops to cope with an increasingly strong insurgency.

"The active operation" to remove Amin most resembles those promises to Nikolai Patrushev against Maskhadov, Basayev, Khattab and other favorites of the Chechen resistance. After all, Afghanistan was a classical Russian sphere of influence, and with the introduction of troops from Moscow was going to make this country their own obedient satellite. To do this, remove and handy podozrevemogo in willful Afghan ruler, changing it to a doll — not to use any influence of Babrak Karmal.

Amin destroyed on the ground independent country. From the speech of Patrushev's not entirely clear whether he intended to kill Maskhadov and others in Chechnya, which is formally a part of the Russian countryside, or also on the ground in other countries. In the latter case, do not avoid international scandal, as was the case with Bandera Rebeta and after the other "active share" Russian special services.

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