History remembers many countries Afghan wars. Military coup in April 1978 gave birth to the beginning of the next war, when Russian The Alliance decided to intervene in the internal affairs of this country. At the end of the Revolution, in December of the same year, in Moscow, a contract was signed between the USSR and Afghanistan, according to which Russian Alliance took on the obligation to re-Afghan army.
So Makar, the Afghan armed forces virtually under the control of Russian military command, the total number of military advisers arrived from the Soviet Union in Afghanistan, made up thousands of people. Among whom also were representatives of the KGB, the Interior Ministry and border troops.
Local military conflict which Russian government has unleashed on the ground in Afghanistan — only since the second world war, in which Russian armed forces, namely, land troops and the connection of the Air Force, perceived specific role in the past 10 years. The decision to start the war took a group made as part of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU, which included Leonid Brezhnev, Yu.Andropov, D. Ustinov, Andrei Gromyko, Konstantin Chernenko. The basis for this decision was the inability of the Afghan government to resist the counter-revolutionary forces, as the country had no effective army.
Entering the Russian troops began Dec. 25, 1979, when near Termez 108th Motor Rifle Division TurkVO crossed the Amu Darya river in the direction of Kabul. After a day or two 5th Guards Motor Rifle Division moved from the area Kushka at Shindand, Herat and Kandahar. At the same time on the Bagram military air bases in Kabul and appeared airborne troops, which were in the 103rd Airborne Division and the 345th separate airborne regiment. So Makar, the beginning of a long and bloody war was necessary.
Initially, the presence of target Russian armed forces in the Afghan countryside was defined as the stabilization of the situation in the country. Under the plan, the military units had only to stay, but under no circumstances should you engage in military action. Their main task was to assist the local population in the form of protection from the guerrillas, providing food and everything necessary. But, as is evident from the history, evenly troops were drawn into the fighting. Because the decision was made about the need to expand Russian military contingent to 120-150 thousand people.
Since the fighting capacity of the Afghan government forces was very low, since the beginning of the 80s Russian troops actually took the whole struggle with armed opposition troops. So, thanks to Russian divisions were broken up huge groups of insurgents near Taloqan, Faizabad, Kandahar, Tahara, Jalalabad, Bagram. In this situation, the Afghan opposition refused to conduct armed conflict bolshennymi forces. They pitched their connections into small groups of 100-200 people, and fled to the strategy of guerrilla warfare. Foreign instructors are specially trained to make the center militants appeal to modern means of communication and a tool is also capable of blasting the case. Part of the foreign countries started supplying guns. So, were obtained 12-mm machine guns ANC Chinese-made automatic small tool manufactured in China, Egypt and Iraq, the Italian anti-tank and anti-personnel mines, grenades. Not later appeared and anti-aircraft missile complexes "Stinger", "Strela-2". In 1982 appeared the first "U.S.", that there is clear evidence that Israel had supplied the rebels gun. Moreover, the Israeli instructors acted on the spot, especially not in hiding. From Pakistan were established supply copies of the "taking", "Brownings", "Walter", well, besides the Afghans have learned to do without the help of other gun. Japan has not once stated that it delivers tool Afghan militants, although the Mujahideen were Japanese radio adapted to the conditions of the highlands. In addition, severe tool that delivered a lot of problems Russian art, was a British carbine "Bor", able to pierce armor.
At a time when the Russian military units were only the Afghan terrain, the number of militias was small. But until 1983 their numbers have gained already 45 thousand people, while in 1986 — 150 thousand. At the same time, the total number of Afghan and Russian armed forces amounted to about 400 thousand people (out of them Russian — 150 thousand). They are fully able to control a quarter of state areas. Rural areas were in the main under the control of the Mujahideen. Prior to 1988, in Afghanistan there were already five thousand armed groups, as part of which was already 200 thousand people. A distinctive feature of them had a good knowledge of the terrain and the highest durability.
When Russian troops defected to the organization of raids by reinforced battalions and the amphibious assault groups, a similar strategy was not always successful, as the militias mobile withdrawn his main forces or generally avoid fighting.
In most cases, military actions carried out in the mountains, in the desert, close roads, and in those areas where there were a lot of bushes and trees. In such a situation, it turned out that military technology has certain drawbacks: the tanks were deprived of the right of operational areas, and artillery could not do without roads.
In the process of fighting these types of weapons were used, as the RPG-7, recoilless guns, homemade bombs and anti-personnel mines, 12-mm DShK machine guns, portable air defense system "Strela-2M", "Stinger", "Red Eye", "Bloupayp" 37 — and 40-millimeter anti-aircraft guns mountain, 76-mm mountain guns, 60 — and 80-mm mortars, 4 -, 6 -, and 12-barrel rocket launchers.
Strategy militants different effect of surprise and a huge number of stratagems. So, they painstakingly conducted a study of the situation in which the criterion of planned military actions, fully prepared for battle — used ambushes, mining, piles of stones, undermining roads. More effective were the exploration militants have their own agents in the middle of civil servants and in the midst of local residents, and they do not turn away from the spread of misinformation, of the attacks, blocking roads.
Russian units initially fought against small mobile groups of fighters on the traditional pattern, but it was ineffective because a similar strategy implied in the conduct of hostilities against the standard criteria for the regular troops. In addition, the Afghan conflict was not like a strip of the front and rear areas, which greatly complicated the task Russian troops. They had to be in constant alert, to throw a huge force in the embodiment of the rear guard, also maintain constant battles throughout areas of the country, so Makarov, spraying power.
Much has been learned in the application of military equipment, the strategy is constantly changing. Thus, numerous fights in the mountains showed that the troops can cover with self-propelled anti-aircraft ZSU-23-4 "Shilka" and ZU-23-2. For more efficient use of a shot gun mount and radar equipment installed an additional 4 thousand rounds of ammunition for each installation, and storage transported in a truck.
More and more popular to use the automatic grenade launcher AGS-17 "Flame". Thanks to these weapons have been improved ability of BMP-1 and BTR-60, Mi-8 helicopter. Coupled with the fact of the eq
uipment has certain shortcomings. So, 85-mm field howitzer D-44, despite the fact that they could reach targets at a distance of 15 km, had a small angle of elevation. Because they were changed to the more massive 122-millimeter howitzer D-30, and after some time on self-2C1 "Carnation". For the highlands came as 152-mm self-propelled howitzer "Acacia", and self-propelled guns 2S5 "Geotsint" also 2A36 of the same caliber. Excellent was used, and 82-mm mortar BM-37. Later it was changed to 82-mm 1B14 "tray". During the war in Afghanistan have been tested mortars and automatic 2B9 "Cornflower" 82-mm and 120 mm self-propelled guns universal NONA based on the BTR-D.
Since the number of militants in bolshennom used RPG-7, then the Russian troops were some difficulties in ensuring the protection equipment. For this purpose, the means are at hand — bags or boxes with sand, which was attached to the outside of the equipment.
There was also a factory modernization: some military vehicles was covered with additional layers of armor, reinforced by the bottom of the well and the tower. Command tried to find a more effective method of protection. One example — the protection tractor MT-LB from small guns and grenades cumulative. These tractors were used as fighting vehicles, but they had only just 7.62-mm machine gun. It was decided to establish their 12-millimeter guns DSHKMT and NSVT "Utes", but, unfortunately, was not found enough of this kind of machine guns.
In the middle of small tools necessary to allocate 7.62-mm AKM rifle and namely its modifications — AKMS. As for the Kalashnikov 5.45-mm caliber AK-74, AK-74, AKS-74U, they were also quite effective. But when doing battle in the bushes, in the case of cartridges with bullets with a displaced center of gravity, which were used in the initial period of operations, there has been a lot of bounce. Everyday the same cartridge no bounce in the bushes did not give.
It is worth noting Kalashnikov machine gun 7.62 mm machine gun mnogokaliberny "The Rock" 12.7-mm caliber sniper rifle SVD 7.62, curb optical sight PSO-1.
Specifically, in the course of the war in Afghanistan for the first time were used grenade launchers GP-25 caliber 40 mm below the AK and its variants. Troopers used the RPG-18 "Fly" in order to force the militants to leave their refuge. Effective were also mortar "Cornflower" fighting vehicle BMP-2 and flamethrowers.
The Soviet-Afghan War to substantiate the effectiveness of combat operations depends not only on the ability to destroy enemies, and by constantly upgrading weapons. Now of course, that the Russian commanders did not consider a number of fundamental reasons for entering their own troops to the Afghan area, namely, the nature of terrain, limited capacity for military equipment. Acquired experience has given the opportunity to find value in the modernization of weapons in the criteria of the highlands.