In the second half of the 1940s, Russian nuclear programm developed with stunning speed. It spent vast resources. The main impetus was the presence of a potential enemy — the United States — a nuclear bomb. Management of the country understand that we need to catch up with America, which not only has the gun, but it is already successfully applied in hostilities (nuclear strikes on Hiroshima and Nagasaki).
First Russian atomic charge was tested in 1949. And then came the question of how to deliver atomic charge on the terrain the United States. Russian military made several 10-s bombs, which the developers have given the title of «Tatiana» (probably due to the fact that the index of the product began with a «T») in the United States district were only capable bombers Tupolev Tu-4. But in 1952, these slow-moving, filled piston engines, bombers for the U.S. fighter jet F-86 was an easy target. In addition, the Tu-4 could fly to the U.S. territories only from the crotch landing on the ice airfield at some of the northern islands or on the ice at the North Pole. With all of this bomber crew had a one-way ticket. It was their only way out after the operation — to try to reach the Mexican border and jump out with a parachute.
Naturally, this situation did not satisfy any of Governors of the country or the military. Started elaboration of the question because the use of atomic bombs and in the interests of different genera of the Armed Forces of the USSR. Management of the country give preference rocketry and bombers. But the Navy wanted to get their hands on nuclear weapons.
While most countless class ships in the Russian Navy had submarines. The Navy before the war was a leader among global countries by the number of submarines. During the Russian war majestically proved their effectiveness against enemy action. Submarines under the water column, in the criteria of a nuclear war had a clear advantage over the enemy surface ships. They were able to get close enough to the coast of the enemy and to strike. Because the Navy initially wished to have nuclear weapon specifically on submarines. But then immediately appeared other technical difficulties and challenges: the largest diameter torpedo tubes Russian submarine was 533 mm and the diameter of the «wearable» of the atomic bomb, tested in 1951 — 1500 mm. What after all do in this situation? Navigators offered to reduce the charge to the desired size, and nuclear scientists sought to increment size of torpedoes. That’s why there was two projects torpedo weapons with nuclear warheads.
T-15 — «King-torpedo»
The initiator of the project T-15 was Alferov VI, whose activity was linked to a different time with the Navy, the People’s Commissariat of the shipbuilding industry and the Ministry of Medium Machine Building. Captain First Rank VI Alferov KB-11 took an active role in the development of the atomic bomb, developed the scheme and instrumentation systems for detonating a nuclear charge. Alferov VI, using his authority in the industry, immediately after the first test of a hydrogen bomb Russian organized the development of ultra-torpedoes under hydrogen charge received the designation T-15.
The creator of the idea of the creation of the super-power nuclear torpedo is Andrei Sakharov, who proposed to use as a «means of delivery» of a massive nuclear warhead (100 megatons!) Developed nuclear submarine of project 627. This is confirmed by his own memoirs. These torpedoes to be used against naval bases in the United States, and to strike the towns located on the coast (although against the latter option were many people, including sailors). As a result, such a bomb explosion created a huge wave — the tsunami destroys everything on the coast and even far away from the shoreline.
According to the judgments of privacy, taking into account personal relationships (in the Navy to Alferov treated very badly, as his letter to Beria and Bulganin, illegal transfer of Tipo Yankees documentation aviatorpedu 45-36AV-A during the war, was the occasion for an unfair trial of the Admirals Kuznetsov, Haller, Alafuzovym and Stepanov) development of the T-15 torpedo was launched without verbovaniya Navy. 6th Department of the Navy torpedo vyznat on this project only after the first nuclear submarine — «Project 627» — which was the main designer of VN Peregoudov
Alleged nuclear weapons boat fleet, it became clear only in December 1953, after the approval of the tactical and technical characteristics of conceptual design 627. Sailors it very amazed. In the first compartment of the submarine was located one huge torpedo tube, which is almost completely oppressed ordinary torpedoes. Length torpedo was 23.5 meters (22 per cent of the total length of the submarine). On the submarine, not counting a four-foot torpedo provided for the installation 2-bow 533-mm torpedo tubes with torpedoes for self-defense. Spare torpedoes had been made.
This extraordinary assembly of the submarine explained dimensions developed by NII-400 under the control of head designer Shamarina NN T-15 torpedo. Length of the torpedo was about 23 meters, weight torpedoes — 40 tons weight battle Parts — 3,5-4 thousand kilograms. The main weight load fell on the battery, which provided the torpedo speed of 29 knots, with all this speed range was 30 km. Presumably torpedo T-15 was proposed to use a nuclear warhead. Torpedo warhead designed to KB-11 Minsredmasha USSR, under the control of head designer Chariton YB Undermining the thermonuclear device had to carry a weapon or remote (time) fuzes. Management of shooting a torpedo T-15 was provided with putts (post torpedo fire control) «Tantalus.»
Tactical and technical elements of the submarine approved 21.12.1953. In July next year, SKB-143 have graduated from a technical project nuclear submarine. Minsudprom and Minsredmash 18/10/1954 Technical Proposal submitted to the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. After that, the Ministry of Defence was asked to see the project and bring its conclusions to the Council of Ministers. Defense Minister Nikolay Bulganin instructed to deal with this issue, Admiral Kotovu PG, Assistant Minister for Naval Affairs. Then decide the issue of admission to the project management professionals and the Navy. In 1954, the expert committee was formed, headed by Vice-Admiral Falcon AE, head of the Office of the Head of Staff of the Navy. Navy priemuschestvenno objected on the composition of the nuclear submarine weapons. According to experts of the Navy, the submarine fleet has similar weapons is not necessary. In addition, there were severe doubts about the fact that the submarine will be able to walk up to a distance of launching a torpedo T-15 (40 km), and the torpedo itself will work, as needed.
Against this background, the results of the examination of the Navy, it was decided to correct technical project 627 nuclear submarine. Resolution of the Council of Ministers of 03.26.1955 № 588-364 Tekhproekt submarine was approved only with a 533-mm torpedo tubes, and work on the T-15 discontinued.
But the history of Russian nuclear torpedoes on it is not completed.
Nuclear torpedo T-5
As previously mentioned, the sailors were opposed to the growth of the dimensions of torpedoes and wanted to get a nuclear charge applicable dimensions (533 mm). Specifically, for this reason, the 6th Division of the Navy at the end of 1953 issued by the 6th Department of the Ministry of Defense Industry tactical and technical requirements on nuclear recoilless guns (warhead section) ship 533-mm torpedo.
The development of this product, received in the process of creating the designation T-5, 400-engaged Research Institute (CRI «Gidropribor»). The development team was headed Borushko AM Nuclear charge for torpedoes — RDS-9 — developed in KB Ministry of Medium Machine Building of the USSR under the academician Chariton YB For all the warhead, including automation, replied Lieutenant General Spirits NL, corresponding member of the Academy of the USSR, the chief designer of the Moscow branch of the KB-11. The design of the torpedo did not have any «revolutionary» innovation — an ordinary 533-mm gas-vapor pryamoiduschaya torpedo With a range of travel 10 km at a speed of 40 knots. The torpedo had an inertial control system and thermal oxygen spirtovodyanoy combined-cycle piston engine.
Developers almost immediately encountered technical difficulties. So, for example, for a long time could not reach the depth of resistance torpedo speed. During the test run the torpedo T-5 with inert warhead of fifteen shots made during the four after passing it about half way done «bag» and there is an early activation of the hydrostatic contactor, which is equivalent to issuing commands to undermine the warhead, as by this time were recorded all the stages of its protection. Another discrepancy was to provide thermal regime of the nuclear warhead, because its normal operation required temperature +5 … +25 Co, it was hard to provide an unheated submarine torpedo tube, especially if it is based in the North.
While designers have addressed these and other prepyadstviya, September 21, 1955 in accordance with the decree of the Council of Ministers on 13 April 1955 on the landfill Bimbo ground nuclear tests were carried recoilless guns (warhead section) T5 torpedo. Recoilless guns had been omitted from the trawler project 253L and undermined at a depth of 12 meters, the average yield was 3 kilotons.
In 1957, tests were conducted municipal torpedo T-5. According to the program there, the tests had to spend two sighting shots without special torpedo warhead — one in the control configuration (with a special warhead, without fissile material in it), one live shot. Initially, it was planned to produce undermining the charge at a depth of 25 meters, but later changed this setting to 35 meters. One of the shots of the initial steps of the municipal tests failed. In this regard, Admiral Golovko AG, the first Deputy Commander of the Navy, found that the tests have to finish. Commission Chairman Adm. bass NE, after a meeting with spices and report in-Chief of the Navy decided to conduct live-fire with a nuclear warhead section. Terms tests were followed: Submarine Project 613 C-144 (73 separate division of submarines of the Northern Fleet) under the command of Captain First Rank G. Lazarev was «at periscope depth, speed 40 knots torpedoes, depth explosion — 35 meters …». Shooting accomplished October 10, 1957 at 10:00 when the air temperature -6 degrees and visibility of 20 km. Deviation torpedoes during the course (10 km) was 130 meters.
In 1958, the Navy took a torpedo T-5 for service. These torpedoes were produced in small batches for the Northern and Pacific fleets Kirov Plant (Alma-Ata). Creating a torpedo was discontinued at the end of 1960. In June of 1960 in the Pacific held their control tests with inert warhead. The circumstances of the termination of production of the T-5 torpedoes were several. In-1’s, developing a fairly short period of time is very affected driving performance and reliability of the torpedo because it is in many ways inferior to persons already in the armed torpedoes. In-2, and this is for sure, most importantly, at the end of 1960 began to come into service 533-millimeter ASBZO (self-contained special warhead section) for production models of torpedoes. ASBZO development capacity of 20 kilotons started according to Council of Ministers of the USSR on February 13, 1957 at KB-25 Minsredmasha USSR and SRI-400 Minsudproma USSR. Specifically enacting ASBZO was the end for special nuclear torpedoes.
The main properties of the torpedo T-15 / T-5:
Caliber — 1550 mm / 533 mm;
Weight torpedo — 40,000 kg / 2200 kg;
Length of torpedoes — 2355 cm / 792 cm;
Type of energy — electronic / combined cycle;
Nuclear weapon — a nuclear / atomic;
The carrier torpedo — nuclear submarine of project 627 / PL of all projects;