The U.S. administration has begun to develop questions occupation land of the rising sun in just 10 months after the attack on Pearl Harbor. At the State Department was created by the "Committee of postwar programs" under the control of Secretary of State Hull. One of the central questions is quite a heated discussion in the middle of the committee members was related to the imperial system of rule in the Land of the Rising Sun.
Heated debate went long. In May 1944, the committee decided that the need to preserve the imperial system, the territory of the Land of the Rising Sun should not be divided into parts, the Japanese government will be without the help of others to make administration of the state. But it was a world of diplomats. In the U.S. military, to strengthen its influence in the war years, there were my own eyes on the future policy of occupation in the Land of the Rising Sun.
Soon after the surrender of Germany, this discrepancy started the South American Joint Chiefs of Staff. To address issues related to the occupation, was created so called "snow-white team." Appointed to the command generals and colonels were concerned not so much neuvvyazkami future land of the rising sun, as the current issues the use of troops.
Planning a landing south of Kyushu in November 1945 ("Operation Olympic"), and then in March of next year on the east coast of the main Japanese island of Honshu (Operation "Coronet"), the developers of these operations came from the possible prospects of losing up to 1 million American and up to half a million British soldiers and officers.
Coupled with the fact manufactured according to calculations, after the surrender of the Land of the Rising Sun for the occupation would have 23 divisions, or 800 thousand people. Responding to a question, you never know it, the members of "snow-white team" led following arguments: "The peculiarity of the Land of the Rising Sun is that even after the surrender of the central government may be continued resistance on the ground in different parts of the country. Received information that the Land Japan announced the mobilization of volunteers, and therefore need to be prepared for the worst situation. " Without the perceived role of the USSR, the war dragged on and the protracted nature would be another 2 years! The loss of the Japanese could be up to 10 million people.
Although it has first '45 Allied command firmly delayed the initiative in the Pacific theater of war, Japan did not even think of ending the war. She launched preparations to repel the coming of the Anglo-American troops on the Japanese islands, and to the defense of Korea and to the north-east of China, having decided to reincarnate the area into a "fortress."
Russian entry into the war of the Union was profitable for the United States, Britain, China and other countries that fought against the land of the rising sun.
From a military point of view, the allocation of 800 thousand troops to occupy the land of the rising sun almost created a huge problem of. The problem was different. After the surrender of Germany and the end of the war in Europe in the public opinion of the United States have increased expectations of an early return of American soldier home. How will Americans continue the war?
Taking care of public opinion, the coming entourage of President Truman was to speak in favor of the occupied Japan with Ally. Admiral Leahy believes that it should greatly reduce the number of U.S. occupation forces and that the United States should take the primary responsibility in the management of Japan. We must assume that compiled Leahy note "On the reduction of the role of the U.S. military occupation in Land of the Rising Sun and the speedy demobilization "reflects the mood of Truman.
After receiving the note, the staff has accelerated the development plan for the dismemberment of the Land of the Rising Sun into zones of occupation. Its founders came from the fact that in the war against the land of the rising sun, not counting the United States should participate Britain, China, France, the Netherlands, Bimbo Zealand, the Philippines and several other countries. Apart from England, which as near a natural ally of the United States regarded member of the occupation of the rising sun, is also expected to attract China. Taken into account that Japan, justifying their anger, conducted propaganda against the yellowish race with a "white-imperialism." Chinese military occupation of the country land of the rising sun would undermine the propaganda and weakened the "racial character" occupation.
The prospect of the Soviet role in the war against the land of the rising sun created the preconditions extensive use of Russian connections for the following areas of Japanese occupation of the islands. But U.S. politicians worried that in this case Russian The Alliance will get a huge rights in the management of Japan.
Meanwhile, the judgment of military commanders like to make the South American press for verbovanii of mandatory USSR to defeat the land of the rising sun. The Minister of War Stimson in the U.S. Truman memo dated 2 July 1945, wrote: "The start of the invasion, we have, in my opinion, to top it off even more violent contractions than those that took place in Germany. As a result, we will suffer great loss and Japan will have to quit. " Because in the course of the Berlin Conference, despite the information on the successful test of the atomic bomb in the United States, Truman had emphasized that "the United States are waiting for help from the Soviet Union." In response, Stalin assured that "Russian Alliance is ready to come into effect by mid-August, and that he would keep his word."
Russian plans in the Far East Command provided of Manchurian offensive, South Sakhalin and the Kuril offensive amphibious operations, and a large landing on the landing peninsula Hokkaido.
Landing operation on the peninsula was to begin with areas of southern Sakhalin after his release.
Twentieth August 1945, Stalin confirmed instructed to prepare the 87th Rifle Corps for a role in the landing operation on the peninsula of Hokkaido. Marshal Vasilevsky, following the instructions of the Supreme Command, gave the order to the commander of the 1st and 2nd Far Eastern fronts, the Pacific Fleet and the Air Force in the Far East to be ready to conduct operations in Hokkaido to the ending August 23, 1945.
By this time the control of the United States has had a definite plan for the occupation of the Japanese homeland forces 4 countries — the U.S., Britain, the USSR and China.
In determining the occupation zones Americans proceeded from the assumption that the central area of the brain the Japanese island of Honshu with the developed infrastructure should be controlled by the United State
s. Peninsula Kyushu planned to allocate England. Backward areas of the island of Shikoku land intended for the Chinese army.
Alleged Russian occupation zone over the area even surpassed South American. USSR had to locate their military units not only in the peninsula of Hokkaido (the second largest in the middle of the Japanese islands), and take the north-eastern part of Honshu.
But the possession of the atomic bomb prompted Truman entirely abandon the plan allocation for the Soviet zone of occupation of the Japanese islands. Truman admitted in his memoirs: "Although I have lusted hot draw the Soviet Union into the war against Japan, then, based on the experience of Potsdam languid, strengthened in the outlook does not allow the Russian Union to participate in the management of Japan. At heart, I decided that after the victory over Japan, the power in the this country will be transferred to General MacArthur. "
Moreover, Stalin sent on August 15, "General Order number 1" of the surrender of Japanese forces, Truman "forgot" to indicate that the Japanese garrisons in the Kuril Islands to give the troops of the USSR. This was a signal that Truman may violate the Yalta agreement on the transition to the Kuril Islands Russian Union.
Stalin replied discreetly but firmly suggested that the "General Order number 1" subsequent amendments "include in the area surrender of Japanese forces Russian troops all the Kuril Islands, which according to the decision of 3 powers in the Crimea to pass into the possession of the Russian Union.
Included in the area to be surrendered by the Japanese armed forces Russian troops to the northern half of the island Hokkaido, adjacent to the La Perouse Strait while it between the peninsula and Sakhalin Hokkaido.
Demarcation line between the northern and the southern half of the island of Hokkaido to spend on the strip that runs from the town of Kushiro on the eastern shore of the island to the town of Rumoe on the west coast of the island, with the inclusion of the designated cities in the northern half of the island. "
Explaining the desirability of the area of occupation on the ground is actually the Land of the Rising Sun, Stalin stated that "… it is of particular importance for the Russian public opinion. As you know, the people of the country of the rising sun in 1919-1921 were holding their own troops occupied the whole Russian Far East. Russian public opinion would be seriously offended if Russian troops the district did not have any part in the occupation of the Japanese countryside in fact "(Impcommiss: And then leader of all peoples as usual is right — I like the personal part of Russian public opinion," offended "and outraged by the absence of a Russian occupation of the islands of Japan!) . Their suggestions Stalin referred moderate and expressed the hope that they will meet objections.
Truman agreed "to include all of the Kuril Islands in the area, which should surrender to Russian troops in the Far East." As for the second sentence about the occupation of northern part of Hokkaido, it was rejected by Truman. Moreover, it is the name of the South American government expressed the desire to "have the rights to air bases for land and sea planes on one of the Kuril Islands, the best in the central group."
Not hiding his own displeasure response Truman, Stalin quite bluntly refused to allow U.S. bases in the Kuril Islands, stating that "the requirements of this kind usually subject or the defeated state, or such a union state is itself unable to protect" part of its territory. "It was given to understand that in accordance with the Yalta agreements of the USSR have the right to dispose of the Kuril Islands in its sole discretion.
August 22 in the first half of the day or Stalin ordered Marshal Vasilevsky stop training for landing on Hokkaido. A 27 August 45 the chief of staff of the Head of command of the Russian troops in the Far East, General-Colonel Ivanov sent out an order of the Supreme "In order to avoid the creation of conflicts and misunderstandings in relation allies categorically deny sending any whatsoever ships and planes in the direction of the island of Hokkaido."
So it was decided to "do the occupation Land of the Rising Sun only South American company. "
PS Among the subsequent abilities figured as the creation of the Russian zone of occupation of the Japanese People's Democratic Republic on the model of the GDR and the DPRK in the division captured allies Germany and Korea, respectively, and the abandonment of land of the rising sun on the model of a single postokkupirovannoy Austria.