First Russian strategic bombers had insufficient range. So, after a couple of years of design team running VM Myasishcheva managed to raise the 3M range aircraft to 11-11.5 thousand kilometers. In the application of in-flight refueling system this figure growing up. But strategic bombers since then have had a lot of problems. In light of the increasing range of the greater difficulty was to ensure the timely refueling at risk criteria attack enemy fighters. In the forthcoming due to the development of air defense worsened the problem of distance, also came in handy to begin designing supersonic aircraft strategic class.
By the end of the 50s, when they started looking at these issues, the opportunity to conduct research on other power plants. One of the main options have nuclear power plants. In addition to providing the highest range of flight, including the supersonic, they promised huge savings in financial terms. In the conditions of long flight to the highest range of the 1st Regiment of strategic bombers with jet engines could "eat" several thousand tonnes of kerosene. So Makar, all costs for the construction of a nuclear power plant complex were absolutely justified. But Russian engineers, as well as South American, faced with a number of problems typical of such power plants.
The first documentary evidence of the existence of Russian programs from atomoletov refer to 1952, when the director of the Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the USSR problems of the future academician AP Alexandrov sent IV Kurchatov document, which talked about the creation of a fundamentally capacity of nuclear power for aircraft. The next three years were spent on the slow side of the theoretical study of the issue. Exceptionally, in April 1955 the Council of Ministers of the USSR issued a decree according to which design offices AN Tupolev, SA Lavochkin and VM Myasishcheva had to start developing languid aircraft with a nuclear power plant, and design organizations, ND Kuznetsova and A. Cradles instructed to make engines for them. In this step, Russian programm to create aircraft with a nuclear power plant was divided into several projects, differing from each other by the type of the aircraft, the motor circuit, etc.
For example, the OKB-301 (SA Lavochkin chief designer) requested the creation of an intercontinental cruise missile "375." The basis for this gun was supposed to be a rocket "Storm", also popular under the designation "350". After a series of investigations determined the kind of modern missiles "375." In practice, this was still the same, "The Tempest", but instead of the ram jet engine on kerosene on it proposed to establish a small nuclear reactor. Passing through the channels inside the rocket, outboard air had to come in contact with the reactor core and warm. It is at once protected the reactor from overheating and provides sufficient traction. It was also planned to change the initial design of the assembly in the absence of the need for fuel in the tanks. Development of the missile itself was comparable to normal, but, as is often the case, summed subcontracting. OKB-670 under the control of MM Bondaryuk long enough could not cope with the creation of a nuclear ramjet engine for the product "375." As a result, the newest cruise missile is not even built in the metal. Soon after the death of Lavochkin in 1960, the theme of "375" together with the unique "Storm" was closed. By this time the design of the nuclear engine moved off the ground, but to test the final standard as before was still far away.
A more difficult task teams got VM Myasishcheva and AM Cradles. They had to make a strategic bomber with a nuclear power plant. Aircraft project with an index of "60" or M-60 at first seemed normal. It was supposed to put on a bomber developed by M-50 nuclear turbojet engines, which would not require additional costs of time and effort. M-60 was listed as serious contender for the title of the first true atomoleta not only in the Soviet Union and in the world. Only a few months after the start of the project it became clear that the construction of the "60 Products" is postponed for at least a couple of years. The project had to solve a lot of specific questions that were previously just did not get up in front of Russian aircraft manufacturers.
First, the questions evoked protection for the crew. Naturally, one would seat pilots in a seamless iron capsule. But in this case it was necessary to somehow provide a reasonable overview, also do some rescue systems. Second severe problem of M-60 project concerned the safety of ground personnel. According to preliminary calculations, after all 1st flight was due to a similar bomber "fonit" for a couple of months. Service similar technology sought a new approach, for example, the creation of some systems for remote operation with the parts and assemblies. In the end, the plane "60" had to be done from the new alloys: structure, built in accordance with the available technology would have a resource that is missing due to radiation and thermal loads. Adding to the complexity project is assigned elected Engine type: turbojet open circuit.
All the technical difficulties associated with the corresponding features in the end forced the designers absolutely reconsider their first ideas. The plane M-50 could not be used in conjunction with nuclear engines. So there was a refreshed view of the "60". Now atomolet looked like midwing with a narrow tapered wing. The stabilizer of similar shape was planned to install the keel. In the front part of the fuselage in front of the wing positioned vozduhopoglotiteli semi-circular cross-section. They walked along the fuselage along its entire length, skirting gruzootsekah in the middle. Four nuclear turbojet engine open-loop located in the tail of the fuselage, putting them in a 2×2 square package.
In the nose, the M-60 was supposed to establish a multi-layer capsule, the cabin crew. Maintaining the operating pressure inside the cabin was made with the help of supplies of liquefied air on board. From the air intake declined rapidly because of the ability to enter the plane of radioactive particles. Capsule cabin to ensure the level of protection tribu
te had no glazing. Monitoring the situation pilots had to drive through periscopes, Telecommunication Systems, also with the help of radar. To ensure the take-off and landing was planned to make a special automatic system. Curiously, plans for an automatic control system almost did not change the status of the project. There was an idea to make the M-60 unmanned hundred percent. But as a result of disputes military insisted on the development of specific manned aircraft. Go with the M-60 flying boat, the project was created M-60M. Such atomolet not needed vulnerable to air attack runways, also eased slightly to ensure nuclear safety. From unusual aircraft "60" flying boat was different location vozduhopoglotiteley and other ski gear type.
Preliminary calculations showed that at take-off weight of 250 tonnes plane M-60 is required to have traction engines at 22-25 tons each. With these engines bomber at an altitude of about 20 km could fly at a speed of about 3000 km / h The design bureau AM Cradles considered two main options similar nuclear turbojet engines. The coaxial scheme involves the placement of a nuclear reactor at the place where everyday is a turbojet combustion chamber. In this case, the motor shaft passed directly through the construction of the reactor including a core. Also considered the motor circuit, which received conditional title "rocker". In this embodiment, motor reactor was brought to the side of the compressor and turbine shaft. Vozduhopoglotitelya air from the curved pipe reached the reactor and just got to the turbine. In terms of safety the motor units were profitable scheme "rocker", but she lost coaxial engine in the simplicity of the design. With regard to radioactive threats, but this nuance scheme did not differ. Constructors DB-23 worked on two options assembly of engines according to their size and structural differences.
By the end of the draft M-60 and the customer, and the designers have come to the not very pleasant conclusions about the prospects for atomoletov. All acknowledged that the benefits of their own nuclear engines have a number of severe shortcomings as a constructive and radiation temper. With all of this specifically in the construction of nuclear engines came up against all the programm. Despite the difficulties with the creation of engines, Myasischev assured the military of the need for the upcoming continuation of research and development work. At the same time, the project involved the installation of a new nuclear engines closed.
The new aircraft has received the title of M-30. By the end of the 50s designers determine his views. It was a flying machine, made on a "duck" and kitted out with 2 keels. Located in the middle of the fuselage and gruzootsekah reactor, and in the rear — 6 turbojet engines closed nuclear cycle. The power plant for the M-30 was developed in the design office, ND Kuznetsova and involves the transfer of heat from the reactor to the air through the coolant in the engine. As last seen lithium and sodium in a watery state. In addition, the construction of nuclear turbojet Closed allowed to use in their everyday kerosene, which promised to simplify the operation of the aircraft. The corresponding feature of the new engine has a closed circuit no need for a dense assembly of engines. Through the use of the pipeline with the coolant, the reactor can be shut tightly insulating structures. In the end, the engine will not dispose of radioactive material into the atmosphere, thus simplifying the ventilation system of the cockpit.
In general, the implementation of closed-end motor was more profitable in comparison with the previous one. First, the weight gain was "embodiment." Of the 170 tons of take-off weight of the aircraft accounted for 30 engines and heat transfer system and 38 on the protection of the reactor and the crew. Go with this desired load the M-30 was 25 tonnes. Estimated flight properties of the M-30 nekordinalno deviate from the M-60. The first flight of a new bomber with a nuclear power plant was scheduled for 1966. But a couple of years before all of the projects with the letter "M" have been curtailed. At first, DB-23 enticed to work on another topic, and was later reorganized. According to some sources, the engineers of the organization do not even have time to deploy the current design of the M-30 bombers.
Go with DB-23 on their project work of the designers Tupolev. Their job was little more than usual: to modify the existing Tu-95 for use with a nuclear power plant. Until the end of the 55-year study of engineers engaged in various issues relating to the structure of the aircraft-specific power plant, etc. Around that time, Russian spies working in the U.S., began sending the first information on similar American projects. Russian scientists became clear on the first flights of the American flying laboratory with a nuclear reactor on board. With all of this available information was far from complete. Because our engineers had to brainstorm, the results of which they concluded that the usual "hauling" reactor, without using it as an energy source. Practically speaking, as was the case in reality. In addition, the purpose of our test flights, scientists have considered the measurement of different characteristics, directly or indirectly related to the effects of radiation on the structure of the aircraft and its crew. Soon after that Tupolev Kurchatov and agreed to hold similar tests.
Development of a flying laboratory based on the Tu-95 was carried out by fascinating. Constructors OKB-156 and nuclear scientists often held workshops during which the latter were in charge of all aspects of the first nuclear power plants to protect them and the features of the construction. So makarom engineers, aircraft manufacturers have received all the necessary information, without which it would be able to do atomolet. According to the memoirs of the participants in those events, one of the most memorable moments was the discussion of the protection of reactors. As the nuclear industry, ready with all the reactor protection systems is the size of a small house. Division of the assembly design office became interested in this problem of the newest and soon developed a scheme of the reactor in which all units have dimensions and immediately applicable to this level of protection ensured tribute. With the annotation-style "home on planes do not carry" This scheme has been demonstrated to scientists-physicists. The new version of the assembly of the reactor has been painstakingly checked, approved and adopted by the nuclear scientists as a base for power plants to the latest flying laboratory.
The main objective of the project Tu-95LAL (flying nuclear laboratory) was to test the level of protection of on-board reactor and development of all aspects of the design associated with it. Already at the stage of designing a fascinating approach was used. In contrast to the collective Myasishcheva, Tupolev decided to protect the crew with just over unsafe areas. The main elements of radiation protection positioned behind the cab, and the other areas were covered by less severe
packet of materials. In addition, the future development of the idea got a small-sized reactor protection, which came with some changes to the draft Tu-95LAL. At first it was planned to test the flying laboratory applied the idea of defending units and crews, and use the acquired data for future development of the project and, if useful, configuration design.
By 1958, built the first test reactor designed to test. It was positioned in the overall simulator fuselage of the Tu-95. Soon test shield together with the reactor was sent to the landfill near Semipalatinsk, where in 1959 the work came to the trial run of the reactor. Until the end, he was taken to the design capacity also improved the protection and control system. Immediately with the trials of the first assembly of the second reactor was set up for a flying laboratory, modifications, serial bomber used in this experiment.
Tu-95M Serial number 7800408 when retrofitting a flying laboratory was deprived of all weapons, including the associated equipment. Immediately behind the cockpit installed pyatisantimetrovym lead plate and a package of polymeric materials with a width of 15 cm in the nose, tail and middle part of the fuselage and the wings were installed sensors that monitor radiation levels. In the back gruzootseke positioned experimental reactor. His defense in some measure resembles using the cab, but the reactor core was placed inside a circular guard. Since only the reactor was used as a light source, it was necessary to equip it with a cooling system. Distilled water is circulated in a particular vicinity of nuclear fuel and cools it. On warm water passed the second circuit, which received energy dissipated by the radiator. Last blew over the running stream. The outer shell of the reactor as a whole fit into the fuselage of the former bomber, but the top and along the edges of cladding had to cut a hole and cover up their fairings. In addition, the lower surface of the fuselage brought the radiator intake device.
In the experimental use protective shell of the reactor was equipped multiple windows placed in different parts of it. The opening and closing of windows or other happening on the pitch from the control panel in the cockpit. Through these windows could increment the radiation in a certain direction and measure the level of reflection from the medium. All assembly work completed by early 1961.
In May 1961, the Tu-95LAL for the first time rose into the air. Over the next three months was made 34 flights with a "cold" and the working reactor. All experiments and measurements have proved fundamentally the possibility of placing a nuclear reactor on board. At the same time, we found some problems of constructive character, which was planned in the upcoming fix. And yet the tragedy of this atomoleta, despite all defenses threatened severe environmental consequences. Fortunately, all test flights of Tu-95LAL passed cleanly and without problems.
In August the 61st with a flying laboratory reactor was removed, and the plane put on the airfield parking at the site. A couple of years later, the Tu-95LAL without reactor distilled in Irkutsk, where he was later scrapped and cut into scrap metal. According to some sources, the aircraft became a prerequisite for cutting bureaucratic affairs since Perestroika. During this period, a flying laboratory Tu-95LAL Tipo considered combat aircraft and have done with it in accordance with international agreements.
Projects "119" and "120"
According to the test results of the Tu-95LAL nuclear scientists modified the reactor for the aircraft, and the Tupolev Design Bureau started work on a new atomoleta. In contrast to previous experimental aircraft, the new proposed to do on the basis of passenger Tu-114 fuselage with a little more width. The Tu-119 was intended to equip with 2 kerosene turboprop engines NK-12M and 2 NK-14A made on their basis. "Fourteenth" engines except the standard combustion chamber equipped with a heat exchanger to operate in heating mode, the air from the reactor in a closed circuit. Assembling the Tu-119, to some extent reminiscent of accommodation units in the Tu-95LAL, but now the lines envisaged by plane to the coolant, the reactor and connected the two motors.
Create turboprop engines with heat exchangers to transfer heat from the reactor is not easily passed from constant delays and problems. As a result, the Tu-119 had not received new engines NK-14A. Plans for the creation of 2-flying laboratories with 2 nuclear engines for each were not implemented. The trouble with the first experimental aircraft "119" has led to the disruption of subsequent plans, includes the construction of the aircraft immediately with 4 SC-14A.
Project Closure Tu-119 and buried all the plans for the project "120." This vysokoplan with swept wings had to be equipped with 4 engines, as in the fuselage to carry anti-submarine equipment and weapons. Such anti-submarine aircraft, estimated to be able to create patrols for 2-days. Range and duration of the flight is practically limited only by the ability of the crew. Also during the project "120" were studied abilities creation of strategic bombers such as the Tu-95 or 3M, but with six engines and supersonic attack aircraft with the possibility of a low-altitude flight. Due to problems with engines NK-14A, all these projects have been closed.
Despite the unfortunate ending of the "119", the military did not lose the desire for ultra-long anti-submarine aircraft with a large capacity. In 1965, as the base for it decided to take a transport plane An-22 "Antaeus". Inside the wide fuselage of the aircraft can be positioned and the reactor, and a host of weapons and operator positions, along with special equipment. As the engines for the aircraft AN-22PLO again proposed the SC-14A, work on which began to move slowly forward. According to the calculations, the duration of such patrol aircraft could reach 50 (pyatidesyati!) hours. Take-off and landing were performed with the introduction of kerosene, flying at cruising speed — on a selectable reactor heat. It should be noted, only 50 hours were recommended duration of the flight. In practice, such anti-submarine aircraft could fly more, while the crew is not effective will lose the ability to work or until the start prepyadstviya technical nature. 50 hours in this case is a typical warranty period, during which the An-22PLO would have no problems.
Employees of the design bureau DC Antonov ordered with the brain's internal volumes gruzootsekah "Anthea". Immediately behind the cabin crew is a compartment for the motivated equipment and its operators, followed by domestic premises provided for relaxation, then "pasted" compartment for the rescue boat in the event of an emergency water landing, an
d at the rear of the cargo compartment positioned reactor protection. With all of this virtually no room for weapons. Mines and torpedoes offered to put in enhanced chassis fairings. But after the preparatory work for the assembly was revealed severe discrepancy: ready plane went very weary. Nuclear NK-14A engines with a capacity of 8900 hp simply could not provide the required flying characteristics. This dilemma decided by the design configuration of the reactor protection. Revised its mass is palpable decreased, but the level of protection is not only not injured, but even slightly increased. In 1970, the An-22, № 01-06 equipped with a point source of radiation protection, made in accordance with the later versions of the An-22PLO. In the course of 10 test flights revealed that the new version of one hundred percent protection was justified, while not only in the weight nuance.
This reactor was created under the control of AP Alexandrov. In contrast to previous designs, the new aircraft reactor equipped with their own control systems, automatic protection, etc. To control the reaction of a new nuclear plant control system was refreshed carbon rods. In the event of a critical situation provided a special mechanism, almost catapulting these rods into the reactor core. A nuclear power plant mounted on the aircraft № 01-07.
The program tests codenamed "Stork" began in the same year 1970. During the test was conducted 23 flight, almost all passed without prirekany. The only problem of techno touches connector of the 1st of the functional units. Because of the departed contact during the 1st flight of the reactor could not be included. Small repairs "in the field" has permitted to continue these flights. After the 23rd flight tests of AN-22 with a working nuclear reactor on board recognized the successful test aircraft delivered to the parking lot and continued research and development work on the project of An-22PLO. But in this time and the complexity of the design flaws of nuclear power plant led to the closure of the project. Outbound antisubmarine aircraft went super expensive and a Rocket. In the middle of the 70 AN-22PLO project was closed.
After the cessation of work on anti-submarine version of "Anthea" for a certain time to consider other options atomoletov implementation. For example, seriously sought to make based on the An-22 or similar machines him loitering support strategic missiles. Over time, there were also proposals related to increasing the level of security. The main equipment of the reactor was to his rescue system based on parachutes. So Makar, with tragedy or severe damage to the plane, its power plant could without the help of others to commit Myagenko landing. Its landing area is not threatened of infection. Yet, these proposals did not receive future development. Because of past failures main customer, through the Ministry of Defence lost interest atomoletam. Seemingly boundless prospects for this class of vehicles could not withstand the pressure of the technical problems and, as a result, have not led to the expected results. In recent years, at times there are reports of new aircraft to attempt the creation of a nuclear power plant, and after half a century after the flights flying laboratory Tu-95LAL no aircraft did not fly with the introduction of the energy of nuclear fission of uranium.
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