Despite the heavy defeat of the first months of the war, the preparation of the best shooters in the units of the best bands of the front lasted an accelerated pace and did not stop for a minute. Education snipers, apart from this, was done in spare parts and training for Short term courses specifically in combat formations of troops.
But the military command understood the whole need for centralized training, "sverhmetkih shooters." More September 18, 1941 issued a decree on general of mandatory military training for people of the USSR, which has given the opportunity to organize military training of the population on the job. The program was designed to study 110 hours. Apart from other military specialties (gunner, mortar, the messenger), studies on the band and was sniping. All the same, prepare snipers in such a short time it was very hard, because soon it was decided to open a special "school shooters good sniper training" (SHOSSP) at the military area. The training came in 3-4 months is being discontinued. One only Capital Military District had three such schools. As teachers involved instructors sniping Osoaviahima that, as in time of peace, continued to train sniper shots in their own schools. In addition, it was decided to organize a centralized training with the highest caliber sniper instructor's abilities. To do this, March 20, 1942 in Vishnyaky of Moscow was created by school instructors snipers (http://unitkiev.io.ua/s106217).
Our enemies Germans also had special sniper school, but as broad coverage and so austere approach in the preparation of snipers from the Germans were not, and they ended up in the sniper case far behind the Red Army.
During the second world war sniper case a lot of attention was paid to the troops of the coalition, but the results of the Anglo-American snipers were much more modest, if in Russian, Germans and Finns. Over cooked snipers in the middle of the main allies were the British, South American snipers in the main, have distinguished themselves in battles with the Japanese in the Pacific.
Languid and unsafe work was a sniper, for hours, even days the men had to lie down in the snow or swamp, in constant voltage and attention, outfitting Russian sniper period majestically Russian war was quite greedy. In addition to an optical sight for surveillance purposes, they had different field binoculars (often 6 — and 8-fold) and a trench periscope TR and TR-8. For self-defense in close combat sniper often took with him on the job a few hand grenades, a pistol and a knife. If the ambush was a sniper team, the armament was supplemented to the same sub-machine gun PCA or PPP. Throughout the war and after it, right before adopting SVD (in 1963), standard sniper rifle in our army remained rifle mod. 1891/30 years. with PU scope.
Total from 1941 to 1945 year the Soviet Union produced 53195 sniper rifles reference 1891/30 years. 489
92 and sniper rifles SVT. In wartime it is quite a big figure, but if look at the actual number of prepared for this time of human snipers and make adjustments to the natural loss of guns in the course of the war, it becomes clear that all front-line "sverhmetkie arrows" just would not have been provided with a special sniper instrument (http://unitkiev.io.ua/s106217).
By mid-1942 Russian snipers have worked intensively on all fronts majestically Russian war against their German troops had unleashed the most realistic Sniper terror, the moral effect on the enemy fighter by our snipers exerted tremendous, and it's clear why, because fighter our enemy sniper shot off almost every day and almost every minute.
The most famous Russian sniper, of course, is the hero of Stalingrad Vasily Zaitsev, which destroyed 242 German soldiers and officers, including managing the Berlin Sniper School Major Konings. In total, the group Zaitsev for four months of fighting has killed 1,126 soldiers of the enemy. Comrades-in-arms were Zaitseva Nikolai Ilyin, who had on his own account 496 Germans, Pyotr Goncharov — 380, Viktor Medvedev — 342. It must be emphasized that the main reward Zaitsev — not so much in his personal battle run, but in the fact that he was the chief figure in the deployment of sniper movement among the ruins of Stalingrad, of course, a group Zaitsev worked and all the then Russian agitprop, because he and all of us sign.
A basic record-holder for the destruction of enemy fighter according to the "death list" was Mike Illich Surkov sniper (4 sd), his account was recorded 702 dead soldiers and officers of the enemy, then the number of destroyed enemy combatant in the first 10-ments are:
— Vladimir G. Salbiev (71 and 95 GvSD GvSD) — 601chel.
— Vasily Shalvovich Kvachantiradze (259 sp) -534 people.
— Akhat Abdulkhakovich Akhmet'yanov (260 SP) -502 people.
— Ivan Sidorenko (1122 sp) — 500 people. + 1 tank, 3 tractor
— Nikolay Yakovlevich Ilyin (50 Guards rifle regiment) — 494 people.
— Ivan Kulbertinov (23 otd.lyzh.br.; Gv.vozd.-des.p. 7) 487 people.
— Vladimir Pchelintsev (11 s.br.) 456 people. (Including 14 snipers)
— Nikolai Antonovich Kazyuk-446 pers.
— Peter A. Goncharov (44 Guards rifle regiment) — 441chel.
In total there are 17 Russian snipers at the expense of public enemy fighter destroyed exceeds 400 people. Destroyed more than 300 enemy fighter recorded at the expense of 25 Russian snipers, 36 Russian snipers killed more than 200 enemy fighter.
Best of enemy snipers are registered in Finnish sniper Simo Hayha-fifth in the overall list, to his credit more than 500 dead soldier enemy snipers from the Wehrmacht is the most effective in the 20 seventh overall list Mathias Hetzenauer, to his credit 345 people. killed by enemy fighter and Sepp Allerberg to his credit 257 enemy soldiers and officers. (Http://www.wio.ru/galgrnd/sniper/sniperru.htm).
According to the views of some researchers, the real accounts of many Russian snipers in fact more than confirmed. So, for example, Fyodor Okhlopkov, 259 sniper rifle regiment, according to some reports, only destroyed more than 1000 (!) Germans, using all of this as well and a machine gun, but the official battle account he recorded only destroyed 429 enemy combatant, perhaps the situation on the battlefield is not always given the opportunity to consider their results more precisely.
The diaries and letters, found at the slain soldier and officers of the Wehrmacht, there are phrases like: "the Russian sniper — this is something very terrible, he can not hide from nowhere, In the trenches can not raise his head. The smallest indiscretion — and immediately get a bullet between the eyes … Russian snipers lie for hours in the same place in the ambush and take aim at anyone who seems. Exclusively in the dark you can feel safe. " But it turns out in the dark, too, the Germans could not feel themselves safe. For example, a sniper 1st Gv.artpolka, Ivan Kalashnikov (in the artillery is too had a sniper) of the 350 fighter destroyed, and 45 Nazis destroyed the Night — truly feline vision was this hand!
By the middle of 1943, Russian snipers were already more than 1,000 women, during the war, they were credited with more than 12,000 killed fascists, the best of the ladies of the snipers is Ludmila Pavlyuchenko, 54 sniper rifle regiment, during the war, she was able to kill 309 enemy fighter out of them 36 were themselves snipers.
Adopted by the Red Army in 1942 "Battle wearied infantry" so conditioned range of combat tasks undertaken by snipers at the front: "destruction of snipers, officers, observers, artillery and machine-gun crew (especially flanking and dagger), crews stopped tanks, smallish hovering enemy aircraft and general principle of appearing on kutsee time and is rapidly disappearing … Sniper targets should also be able to show a tracer bullet and other methods of infantry, artillery, mortars and anti-tank guns of the principal goals is not vulnerable bullet tanks, bunker (bunker), tools. "
And Russian sniper did everything correctly, these tasks assigned to them, as a sniper, a Marine shirt of Philip Y. (393 otd.bat.mor.peh.) Destroyed 346 enemy fighter, 1 tank, and knocked out the garrisons 8 enemy bunkers, sniper 849 ris Ivan Abdulov destroyed 298 German fighter of their 5 people. themselves were snipers, plus a brave soldier killed with grenades besides two enemy tanks. Sniper 283 Guards rifle regiment Anatoliy a kid than 194 people killed them. enemy fighter, kno
cked out two tanks with grenades and destroyed three armored Germans and a lot of such examples, our snipers managed to incite even the German planes, so it is clear that the sniper 82nd Infantry Division Misha Lisov in October 1941 from an automatic rifle with a sniper scope dive bomber shot down SW 87. Data on the number of fallen Marines, unfortunately, is not available, and the sniper 796th Infantry Division Sergeant Antonov Vasily Antonovich in July 1942 near Voronezh with 4 shots from a rifle shot down a twin-engine bomber Ju-88! Data on the number of fallen Marines just do not.
Killed by Russian sniper fire even Hitler's generals, as counted by the sniper Seeds Nomokonova among the 367-minute they destroyed the German soldiers and officers, one was in the rank of General of the Wehrmacht. On account of a sniper rifle regiment 14 NKVD
Eugene Nikolaev also recorded a German general.
There were even a sniper specially created to deal with enemy snipers, so sniper 81Gv.s.p. Vasily vote just killed 422 people. enemy fighter out of them 70 people. themselves were snipers.
The special use of snipers was common practice at the time the troops of the NKVD. After classes and special training "sverhmetkie arrow" went on combat training in the army. These sniper teams usually have 20 to 40 people, duration of the stay — from 10 days to a month. So Makar, a significant portion of the personnel not only received special training, and being tested in real-world criteria best. For example, in the 23rd Division of the NKVD for the protection of railways during the war, trained snipers 7283.
In a memorandum "On the battle of the snipers of the NKVD of the USSR for the protection of fundamental industry companies for the period from 1 October 1942 on December 31, 1943" states: "… Some of the troops during this period have been the practice in the combat formations of the Red Army, acting, with some of them at 2-3. As a result of the fighting forces snipers killed 39,745 enemy soldiers and officers. Besides, shot down by enemy aircraft and destroyed 10 telescope and periscopes. Losses of our snipers: killed 68 people and injured 112 people. " (Http://unitkiev.io.ua/s106217)
During the war, a total difficulties were trained snipers 428335 good — it's a tremendous figure in any army in the world was that of mass training of snipers, who have greatly increased military orders the infantry. In addition, the training formations under the Central Government has been prepared of the highest caliber sniper 9534.
Reluctantly to remember and celebrate Lieutenant General G.F.Morozova it exactly he raised his great contribution to the company centralized training of sniper shots, this is it, heading a department of the General Staff of the war saved his combat experience and analyzed the Russian snipers.
During the war, 87 snipers became Heroes of the Russian Union, 39 — Holders of the Order of Glory.
Girls snipers 3rd Shock Army of the 1st Belorussian Front. From left to right:
1st row of the audience — Guard Sergeant V. Stepanov (on her account — 20 opponents), Guard Sergeant JP Belousov (80 opponents), Guard Sergeant AE Vinogradov (83 enemy);
2nd row — Guard Lieutenant EK Zhibovskaya (24 enemies), Guard Sergeant KF Marinka (79 opponents), Guard Sergeant OS Marenkina (70 opponents);
3rd row — Guard Lieutenant NP Belobrova (70 opponents), Guard Lieutenant NA Lobkovsky (89 opponents), Guard Lieutenant VI Artamonov (89 opponents), Guard Sergeant MG Zubchenko (83 enemy);
4th row — Guard sergeant NP Obukhov (64 enemies), Guard sergeant, AR Belyakov (24 enemies).
Sniper Rose Shanin with his own rifle.
Roza Shanina in active forces on April 2, 1944. On account of confirmed killed 54 soldiers and officers, among whom 12 snipers. Knight of the Order of Glory 2 and 3 degrees. Killed in action 28 January 1945, 3 km south-east of the village Ilmsdorf, DC Rihan, Eastern Prussia.
Russian Sniper Maxim Passard. Ethnic Nanai, sniper 71st Guards Rifle Division, destroyed over 230 Nazis. Died January 17, 1943 in a battle near the village of gerbil Gorodishchenskoye district.
February 16, 2010 Presidential Decree number 199 was awarded the title of Hero of the Russian Federation