Development of active-rockets codenamed "special ammunition", first in 1943, we led the People's Commissariat of the aviation industry, and myself — NII-1. Goal — to increase the firing range with standard tools. On the instructions of the Head of artillery shells were developed to control the divisional gun ZIS-3 (76 mm) gun cabinet mod. 1910/34, G. (152 mm) and the regimental mortar (120 cm). At quite an old 152-mm cannon was chosen, it may be because its shells and charges were unified with a new hull weapon — a gun-howitzer ML-20.
76mm APC was obtained eventually rework standard high-explosive grenades weighing 6.28 kg. Since the projectile had to build the engine, we had to divide it into vintnoy partition on a virtual warhead with a bursting charge and reactive the bolt where to put the single-channel block of gunpowder N-40/8-150 weighing 0,285 kg. The gases from the combustion of gunpowder came after 6 days of the nozzles in the shell, it also provided an opening for the ignition. As is typical of ARS, due to the introduction of reactive weight of the explosive charge in the projectile dropped from 760 g to 200 g With all this increased distance of a mile — from 13.3 to 14.8 km.
152 mm weighing 43.6 kg APC has also been created on the basis of full-time high-explosive cannon shells. But the 120-mm ARS is the latest design of a mass of 31.5 kg versus standard 120-mm mortar shells weighing 16 kg.
During the years 1944-1945 range tests revealed that the 76-mm and 152-mm APC gunpowder bombs cracked during firing. This led to uneven combustion of fuel pressure spikes and eventually explode. The only exception was a 120-mm mortar shells — probably, this is what they were constructed anew. But try them in failed: the war came to an end.
The same method
The famous rocket designer Boris Chertok in his own memoirs, travel in post-war Germany to study engineering heritage of the Third Reich once saw that, regardless of distance, borders, military and political barriers, and science in the USSR and Germany, and the United States developed parallel ways, as if some scientists linked the telepathic connection. Studying German trophies, representatives of Russian defense industry can make sure that the theme of APC was completely just close our defeated enemies.
Work on the active-rockets have been launched in Germany in 1934, and immediately before the designers identified their prepyadstviya. Not enough that the need to accommodate reactive chambers reduced weight bursting charge, so also aggravated patterning: stabilization of missiles in flight — a much more difficult task than the stabilization of the cannon projectile. Initially, experiments were with gauges 75 and 100 mm, and as a rocket fuel was used dark powder. But here the Germans came the same difficulties as the latest in Russian designers: gunpowder bombs bursting, exploding shells in advance.
Only in 1938, in the town of DAG Dyuneberge able to make the technology of strong compression sticks of smokeless gunpowder and reliable ignition circuit. Only then could reach from the shells of reliability and increment their range by 30%.
In 1939, it developed a 150-mm active-missile R.Gr.19 for languid field howitzers arr. 18 and 18/40. After the tests, the projectile was adopted.
Get to Britain
Regardless of the number of successful designs, the Germans quickly realized that the benefits of active and reactive schemes can be very manifest in the application not to field artillery, and a super-range shooting. In an era when the missile weapon has not shown its effectiveness, Germany relied on huge guns and huge shells. One of these was the superpushek railway gun K5 (E) 280 mm caliber. The gun length of 32 meters and weighed 218 tonnes based on the 2-six-axle railway platforms.
To increment range, in the course of the war for this gun, nicknamed "Bertha A well-composed," have been made active and rockets Raketen-Granate 4341 weight of 245 kg. As the fuel in the engine was 19.5 kg diglycosic gunpowder. Firing range Raketen-Granate 4341 was 87 km, in other words from the gun could fire at Calais or Boulogne number of southern cities in England.
For the first time at supersonic speed
But the most exciting development of the theme of an artillery shell with jet acceleration obtained in the work of German designer Wolf Trommsdorffa. Instead of powder accelerator he planned to implement a shell … air-breathing ramjet engine type. His idea Trommsdorff invited the Office of the Third Reich weapons in October 1936, and the German military bureaucrats accepted the idea of benevolence abruptly. The scientist has been allocated for laboratory tests with the famous "ChAT-comma-ChAT" — anti-aircraft gun, 88 mm, which lay within a framework of an entire line of field and tank guns. The projectile E1 (according to some reports, the Subcaliber with pallet) was first tested in 1939, though not at first with a ram engine, as with the accelerator in the form of a powder checkers. In 1942, after all, have passed tests missile with a watery fuel, which were a mixture of carbon disulphide and diesel fuel. The oxidant was naturally aspirated oxygen. The missile flew at a speed of 920 m / s, which is about 3M. For the first time in history was demonstrated using supersonic flight jet engine. On our laurels Trommsdorff not braked, and in the process of the second world developed shells for caliber of 105 mm (E2), 122 (£ 3) and 150 (E4). Last reached a speed of up to 4.5 M, using the same fuel as carbon disulfide.
In 1943 he was created a shell C1 for 210-mm cannon. Of the 90 kg weight of the shell 6 kg accounted for rocket fuel. Thanks to the work-flow engine speed projectile headed for C1 1475 m / s, and the range — 200 km.
Violence over the air
Next Trommsdorffu is scheduled to speak in languid weight. Inspired by experiments with APC, which were intended for supergun K5 (E), the designer is starting a long-range megasnaryada C3, in which the role of the accelerator instead of the rocket motor will perform once-through air-jet engine. With the announced length 1.35 m, weight of 170 kg and 280 mm caliber C3 had to reach speeds of up to 5.5 M and fly a distance of 350 km, which would completely from French banks to keep a good half of the UK under fire. The muzzle velocity of the projectile was with all this would be 4400 km / h As fuel to be used in diesel engine fuel, which is ignited by compression of hot air (as is the case in a diesel engine). By the way, particularly the achievement of an appropriate density of the air is one of the main problems in the design of ramjet engines. In engines of this type in contrast to the turbo compressor, no turbine and compressed air during the braking process is the incoming flow in the special input device — diffuser. The air flows around the needle (a conical protrusion) of the central body of the diffuser, and then flows into the annular channel. Configuration of the central body such that in the process of wrapping around it shocks occur — some oblique shocks and one closing line. This multi-hop scheme for avoiding losses during braking air was developed Slovenian-Austrian researcher in the field of gas dynamics Osvatichem Claus (1910 — 1993). Wolf Trommsdorff had the opportunity to talk personally with Osvatichem and other leading lights of gas dynamics such as Ludwig Prandtl, before the war, when he was invited to work at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for big-name (now — the Max Pla
nck) in Göttingen. Later, the designer was able to verify and apply the ideas of their own advisers in practice. But, apparently, neither the 1st shot out of a cannon shell C3 K5 (E) before the end of the war produced and was not.
The logical continuation of the work of the ARS Trommsdorffa engine with a ram was a project of D-6000 is one of the attempts of the Nazi Reich engineers to "long arm" and offer an asymmetric response to total domination of the Anglo-American bombers. We are talking about an intercontinental cruise missile, which is theoretically could endure the punishing blade with the European coast to the New World. At first D-6000 was seen as a two-tier system. The plan Trommsdorffa, rocket length 10.2 m, a diameter of 1.12 m and a weight of 9 tons was supposed to go up by a bomber to a height of 8,000 m, where supposed to create a start-up. At a later stage of development of the topic it was decided to launch a catapult mounted on the ground. After the start, attached to the ends of the wings solid boosters to disperse D-6000 up to 850 m / s, then cut one straight through the engine. He had to bring the velocity of the projectile to 3.55 M, and send it to cruise at an altitude of 24,000 m spent 5 tons of fuel missile, if it ever was embodied in the metal, could throw 1t warhead to a distance of 5300 km . There are also unconfirmed reports that as a first step to start this projectile ballistic missile seen the V-2, but the V-2 in the form in which we know it, could not cope with this task because of insufficient capacity. D-6000 and has remained a project, but it seems to have informal descendants. In the 1940 — 1950-ies in the USSR and the USA were the development of intercontinental supersonic cruise missile with a ram air — jet engine to deliver a nuclear warhead on a possible enemy terrain. In America, a project of North American Navaho, and in our country — La-350 "Storm", which have built in KB Lavochkin. Both projects have led to the creation of the flying models, and both have been terminated for the same reason — for the intended target ballistic missiles appeared to be more promising.
Fundamentally see what his thoughts Trommsdorffa Russian designers have to meet specific. After the war, on the ground defeated Germany Russian authorities in the deepest secrecy made two rocket research institute, whose task was active exploration of the experience of German designers, including in particular their participation. One of these was organized by the Institute on the basis of the Berlin plant "Gema" and received the title of "Berlin". The institute was put task of collecting material made in Germany, anti-aircraft guided missiles and ground-based rockets and the repetition of these designs in the metal. "Berlin" are divided into several size. For example, CB-2 missiles studied "Wasserfall", CB-3 — SAM "Schmetterling" and "Reyntohter." But the share of the KB-4 under the control of NA Sudakova fell work with the legacy Trommsdorffa, while the scientist has taken in this CB position of senior designer. At that moment in the Russian defense industry were enthusiastic APC C3 — the same 280-mm projectiles that shoot from the K5. Trommsdorffu was asked to do a modified version of VRS, which was supposed to test the repaired captured guns. But not for very obvious reasons, work on the APC was some time later collapsed. Maybe played a role war between Russian ambitions chief designers.
Wolf Trommsdorff not the most eminent figure in the middle of the Third Reich, missile, and therefore his fate after working in the KB-4 institutes "Berlin" understood not so much. In Russian sources have to meet the information that the designer died in late 1946 in a plane crash, which suffered a Russian military transport plane. Perhaps, in these reports, we hear echoes of some official versions to clarifying where at one point gone from Germany recognized scientist. But, apparently, the version of the death of Trommsdorffa the crash does not correspond to reality. In 1956, the most authoritative magazine on Aviation Flight Global said in one of the rooms of their own scientific symposium, held that year in Munich. Assignment of the symposium was to summarize the experience of German scientists and engineers since the second World War in the field of research and construction of jet propulsion rocket and air-breathing jet engines. The magazine reports that the symposium with a lecture about their own projects from E1 to D-6000 declared himself Wolf Trommsdorff, recently returned from Russian captivity. This is probably true when you consider that just the other day, in 1955, the Soviet Union officially freed prisoners last second World War. In addition, specifically in 1956 in Germany has released a small book with a report on the work on parallel flow engine, the founder of which is listed Trommsdorf. It created, namely, confirms that the shell-type C3 tests still held (possibly controlled by Russian representatives) and it showed properties meet the design. But what has led the work of the German rocket scientist, almost a decade while in the Russian Union is unclear. Maybe this is something known archives Russian aerospace companies.
On the sketch perfectly noticeable spindle-shaped central body of the diffuser — the 1st of the main parts of the ramjet engine