Nepoprostu party organs called the question of supplying grain "political." The fact that the presence or absence of shops bakery products is typical for people indicator situation. If, for example, does not have enough milk, matches or salt, but still had in abundance bread — Means the situation was not critical. Foods such as whole grains, cereals, sugar and salt, usually population always kept about in store. The bread product perishable, it must be taken every day. Because the lack of it in the store was seen as a harbinger of hunger with all the ensuing consequences. On the other hand, people have associated this situation to the fact that business in the country and that is bad on the front. Irregular supply of bread began in late July 1941 This immediately affected the mood of the population, panic, some workers even refuses to go to work.
In the 30 years of the USSR food has never been in surplus, as in general, and at other times, as with the start of stateliness Russian war situation began to deteriorate even further. Because uniform was rationed rassredotachivaniya. In the capital, it was introduced already in the first month of the war. July 16, Department of Commerce City Council signed a decree number 289 on the introduction of cards for certain products and manufactured goods in the town of Moscow. Then on July 18 cards were introduced in Leningrad, and the nearby towns. On the chairmen of the executive committees of the district councils assigned task "to explain the working value card system for uninterrupted supply of the organization."
In August 1941, acquired a shortage of grain and other commodities began to be felt in almost all the towns of the Union of Russian. Supply of goods cards were introduced in bread, cereals, sugar, oil, meat, fish, pastries, and of manufactured goods — the soap, shoes, fabrics, garments, knitwear and hosiery products. Rations were established based on availability (including production) or those of other products and were differentiated by groups of the population dependent on the nature and importance of the work performed. But there were exceptions. Once in the category of "shock troops" and "Stakhanovite", you could get additional coupons. They also have a usable hot shops, donors, unhealthy and pregnant ladies.
Cards and coupons for themselves by themselves did extensive field for fraud and speculation. In the first months of the war has not been established tribute to monitor the work of agencies and house management for the issuance of cards started various kinds of abuse, uncontrolled worked grocery stores. "It is wrong issued or fraudulently acquired cards resulted in additional expenditure of goods supply, and in the criteria of the siege of the town is tantamount to stab in the back. But selfish, in the worst sense of the word, fabricating false information, fraudulently, where he managed to received an additional card. Path to the illegal acquisition of their invented various. Some superintendent in collusion with the windshield wipers wrote out cards to those fabrications, card tenants returned to the retired or dead people in some kinds of cases assigned dishonest employees in house management in enterprises. They used every omission management accounting and issuance of ration cards … Card was more money, more majestic paintings of painters, more than all the other masterpieces of art "(Pavlov DV" Leningrad under siege ", L., Lenizdat, 1985, p. 107).
Apart from this, workers stole card printing, on which they were printed. All this led administration headed by Leningrad Zhdanov take action. In 1-x, the issuance of single coupons were banned. In-2, claimed the cards are issued only after a painstaking inspection of source documents. B-3, it was decided to strengthen the cadres of workers on account of cards "best people" and the Communists. In order to prevent the introduction of fake cards Leningrad City Council decided in October 12 to 18 hold a mass prodkartochek re-issued in October. Attackers picked up the paper, ink and calligraphy, hand-produced fake cards. The shops at Merkle light bulb or the flickering light of oil lamps are often hard to distinguish the fakes from the originals. But people fucking was not enough, because the event instructed to carry out all the same and building management companies that have these cards and issued. In the end, they just put on a stamp, "Re-registered."
"But it gave a certain outcome. In October, was issued on 97 thousand cards less than last month. But this figure also includes the dead as a result of the bombing and shelling, also evacuated across Lake Ladoga. With a total number of cards issued by the town in two , 4 million, the difference was not much. makarom So, the overall situation has not changed. " (Ibid. p.108).
In Leningrad every day were explosions and fires blazing, sirens wailed air of excitement. If you lose your card the district office had to issue new ones. But the "fashion" for lost cards began to grow like a snowball. "Trying to escape from the fire, lost," "Cards were left in the apartment, and the house is destroyed," "Stolen in turmoil," etc. — Assumptions that indicated in the statements of the citizens. "If in the October district office issued replace lost 4,800 new cards, in November — about 13,000. Petrograders In December enterprising" lost "for 24 thousand cards. Ultimately the government reacted too Soviet-style: reissue cards just rebuked. You can do this was only in the rarest of cases, and even then almost after a personal order Zhdanov. Besides, introduced the practice of attaching people to certain stores, and on the cards have additional stamps like "Prodmag number 31. '" (Zefirov MV Degtev DM "Everything for the front How in fact forged the victory", "AST Moscow", 2009, with 330).
Naturally, all these measures are somewhat reduced and complicated the illegal acquisition cards. But the more enterprising people for the autumn months time to make some food in store, which has permitted many of them not only survive the disastrous winter of the siege, and to speculate on the food market. So most affected just good citizens, fully entrust their fate to the state.
In the markets of the prices of products held the highest: Milk — 4 rubles. liter, meat — 26-28 rubles., eggs — 15 rubles., oil — 50 rubles., and for the funds it was not easy to get — long queues lined up. Often, the markets did not and vegetables, even potatoes and cabbage. Strict municipal authorities under the pressure of public opinion the collective farmers were ordered to establish a "fixed prices" on products. It seems that soon realized sacred shopper's dream. Milk from now on should have cost less than 2 rubles. 50 kopecks., Meat — 18 rubles. etc. But farmers have responded to this in his own way — just killed the products and fled from the souks. In the end, the markets were deserted, and trade in August 1941 continued only berries and mushrooms, for which prices are not set hard. Milk, eggs, butter and meat actually lost one hundred percent.
September 1 by government decree rationing was introduced rassredotachivaniya goods everywhere. However, while this was only bread, sugar and confectionery products. The rules and cards for other products came later. The entire population was divided into two categories. In the 1st working entered the military, petroleum, metallurgy, machine-building, chemical in
dustry, workers in power stations, railway and sea transport, etc. In the 2nd group — workers, engineers and technicians, employees of other branches of industry, and all others that are not included in the first category. He established the next day leave entitlement of bread and sugar:
But this ruling permits local authorities along with the card rassredotachivaniem sell bread without cards at inflated prices. Virtually card system coexisted alongside the commercial trade. As bread was a political product, they say actions illumine 1943 In the end of summer Luftwaffe air raids on the town of Volga, sending grain to the liberated areas from the Germans and the hideous harvest, the state in November, almost all had to go to the fall in the rate of issue of bread on the cards. On average — from 800 to 600 grams a day for the 1st category of people.
As a result, population began to show the general discontent. According to the NKVD, in December, there have been subsequent expressions of people like the expression of the mechanics of flight test aircraft plant station number 21 Kiryasov: "Comrade Stalin said that the war will end soon, so why bate rules mean the war will last a long time, people and so fast, but there is still bread otymayut, many people will swell up and breathe. " Or employee of the planning department of Ordnance Factory Vaganova number 558: "This is for you and win, give the town again, lowered the standards for bread, and soon, apparently, will not give, means not the case at the front of the sparkling." (Ibid. p. 341).
In the coming refused and price controls on products in the markets. It was a big win farmers over Russian power! Unreceived same for the near future profits farmers simply laid in prices, which increased by four to five times compared with pre-war. For example, a liter of milk in October 1941 was worth 10 rubles instead of the 2-RR in June. And for such an expensive product now would have to stand in line for 2-3 hours. In commercial stores while also standing in long lines. After analyzing the situation, the government decided soon, apparently, that people have a lot of cash. Since December 30, 1941 has been introduced so called "war tax" of 12% of salary.
"In front of it was winter, and yet because of the shortage of labor in agriculture to remove collected in 1941 did not have time. Loomed the prospect of starvation. Party authorities have decided to throw in the cleaning of all who can. So, the Gorky Regional Party Committee on September 26 gave the order" in order to attract labor service for harvesting crops all able-bodied rural population, including students of both sexes, as the population of cities and towns, but not to the detriment of the work of state institutions and enterprises. " The district committees of the party were to explain this decision population and ensure its access to the harvest. "(Ibid. p. 334).
At the end of 1941 cards have been introduced to fish, cereals, meat and pasta. Meat, the national average, it was believed only 1.2 kg per person per month. Then, in 1942, in almost all towns have introduced rationing to buy a population of kerosene and salt. Often the lack of goods in the shops not only clarifies the criteria of war, and the fact that they are, for various reasons did not reach the shelves, and "miraculously" found themselves on the markets at fantastic prices. Price of a loaf first came to 200-250, and later to 400 rubles! With all of this wage of a skilled worker in a munitions factory was 800 rubles per month. A bit more — a bet of 1,080 rubles — had a doctor. But then there were very small salaries. Thus, technicals and cloakroom received only 100-130 rubles. At the same time, the cost, for example, kilograms of carrots at the market in May 1942, have gained almost 80 rubles!
Police officers often carried out operational activities for withdrawal of speculative bread, set the way it is received by the markets. Sometimes even had to keep surveillance of bread vans. The lack of bread and other food, of course, sought to explain not only its actual absence. Theft of grain occurred in rural areas. "In some collective administration and other workers managed to plunder 50% of the crop. At the same characteristics yields artificially understated. Indicates less yield per hectare, the more the wheat had been stolen … In November 1943, the farm was exposed to them. 2-Year Plan . Virtually riprap in the "granary of the motherland" only 250-260 quintals of grain, management reports in vcherkivalo 400 quintals. Base "Zagotzerno" discharged bogus advance receipt for the acceptance of grain … Ordinary farmers, puhshie from hunger, dragged much less as much as they could. But it is their most often and caught. example, one resident of the town Łyskava worked in stock of grain, shoveling wheat. Tired look hungry eyes on this abundance, it is sewn to the skirt two hidden pockets and took out their several pinches of grain. Ill-fated lady was caught and received three years in prison, despite the fact that in her care were three young kids. " (Ibid. p. 336-337).
Despite all the measures taken to avoid starvation failed. He, of course, not everywhere had tragic features of the siege of Leningrad, but still felt in large cities and in the countryside. First, people do not get enough bread, which was compounded by the lack of other goods. The continued lack of food forced the city dwellers "in combination" to become farmers. All lawns and flower beds around the houses in the spring of 1942 were planted with potatoes and cabbage. Who has not had time to grab land in the town, officially received or held himself plantation in the suburbs. It was also possible to rent the land from the neighboring town of collective farms. Some citizens were employed in seasonal work on farms for bread. In general, surviving as best they could. All this, of course, had an impact on people's health …
Inflation during the war, have gained a large scale. This is evidenced by the rise in prices for food staples. In January 1942 pounds of potatoes in the markets of sourness in the average cost of 1 ruble. 60 kopecks., In a year — is 12, and in January 1943 — 40 rubles.! Price freshest kilograms of cabbage grown from 3 rubles. 70k. in January 1941 to 20 rubles in January 1942, and a year has increased by half. Onions grown from 3 rubles. 50 kopecks. up respectively — 14 and 78 rubles. A dozen eggs in January 1941 the average price was 16 rubles., In January 1942 — 52 rubles., And in January 1943 — is 190 rubles.! But the record was a rise in the animal and vegetable oil, milk and meat (rub. / Kg.)
So Makarov, more highest food prices occurred in the late 1942 — early 1943, then for some products there has been a fall, but in comparison with the beginning of the war the rise in prices still remained the highest. Most striking increase in the price of butter and milk, which added for a specified period by 14 times! In general, there have been mentioned only for essentials, and the lack there were many others. For example, the champagne has risen in price by 1943 to an average of 160 rubles per liter. But the most expensive product, ahead of all the "competition", of course, was vodka. The price of one bottle on the market by the middle of the war reached the astronomical sum of 1,000 rubles! In other words, even the monthly wage of a skilled worker was not enough to buy it. But once established this cost, means and was in demand.
In the flaws were not just food — constantly missed and manufactured goods. Dr. Dobrotvor describes fascinating case, seen them 3 June 1942 in the center of the bitter side, "Fer
al picture about a department store. They now give a woolen cloth. This menagerie speculators of all kinds. Bought one segment on the suit for 900 rubles., And here is sold for 3500 rub. Around the store hassle. 50 police officers, but not for the order, but in order to get the same stuff. orgy of speculation and cronyism. Scary conscientious person. " ("Oblivion is not to be. Pages of Nizhny Novgorod History 1941-1945", Nizhny Novgorod, 1995, p. 528).
More hungry in the USSR began 1944-1946 years. This later feature films and literature victorious spring '45 will represent the life-affirming and happy time. Here are excerpts from the students' letters Rabotkinskogo Agricultural College, the content of which was clear even at the highest level. Namely, information reached the deputy chairman of the Russian government, AI Mikoyan Hungry students wrote:
"11/04/45, the … From 1 numbers in college were not given bread ever, all of the students fell ill, some began to swell. Classes are over, but the holidays do not give.'s Very faint.
09/04/45, the … More weakened. For number 9, but we have not given bread ever, do not know when it will be. And besides, we have no potatoes, no money, come, "kaput."
10/4/45 in … 13 days live without bread. In our group, two girls were swollen. Drove in college there, the water too, in this connection, breakfast is at lunch — one sveklina and dinner — a dinner, supper quite happen. In college at the moment such a mess, such excitement, students in full riot.
11/04/45, the bread … did not give an ounce on April 1. Students can not even walk, and lie on the bed, barely alive. At the moment we are not trained and did not work, sit in your own room. When will give bread, it is not clear. "(MV Zefirov Degtev DM" Everything for the front How in fact forged the victory "," AST Moscow ", 2009, with 342).