Time of Troubles and the Cossacks. Part 2

False Dmitry I generously gave away mercy: vorachivalis from disgrace boyars, they passed on their estates, all the Romanovs have been rehabilitated, Filaret Romanov was appointed Metropolitan of Rostov. In the south of the country for 10 years to abolish the tax, generously presented the Don Cossacks, their chieftains Lzhedmitry allowed to discover, planted nearby. In general, his policy was focused on "integration" with Europe preparing for war with the Ottoman Empire (which was in the interests of the West), introduced the Polish ranks (swordsman epicalyx, podskarbiya), he was named king or Cesar. Made a "secret office", in which there were only Poles, organized overseas Guard, which was to ensure his personal safety, to withdraw from the case Russian royal guard.

In the end, the impostor himself facilitated the preparation of the coup, boyar families were not going to suffer over an "upstart." Binge generous gifts (six months from the royal treasury izderzhali 7,500,000 rubles, with a yearly budget of 1.5 million), debauchery were relevant features of his short reign. In April 1606 together with Yuri Mnishek and his daughter came to Moscow a significant number of Poles — about 2 million people (aristocratic nobles, lords, princes and their surroundings). They behaved in a businesslike way, rampaged, Muscovites bullied and killed several people, raped women. Huge annoyance caused failure impostor and his wife metropolitan (Russian) traditions.

In the end, the residents supported the conspirators — Basil Shuya, Vasily Golitsyn, Prince Kurakin more limited clergy — Kazan Metropolitan Hermogenes and Kolomna Bishop Joseph. SHUISKI directly stated that impostor was "put on the kingdom" with the sole purpose — to fall down from the throne of the Godunov, but now it's time to dump and himself. May 17, 1606 during the uprising impostor and hundreds of Poles were killed.

The king chose Basil Shuya (1606-1610). Deposed Patriarch Ignatius delivered Falsdmitry took his place Hermogenes (according to one version, he was descended from the Don Cossacks).

Continued Troubles

The situation in the country following the assassination of the first impostor is not stabilized. False Dmitry and his entourage managed to discredit itself exclusively in the capital, many in the province, he was a "good king", known for favors awards. There were rumors that SHUISKI illegally occupied the throne, he was not even elected the Zemsky Sobor.

Prince Shahovsky and Misha Molchanov (one of the killers of Fyodor Godunov) stole the royal seal and the name of "miraculously escaped" the prince began to call people to fight. In the middle of 1606 in the southern uprising Bolotnikova, which was called "the king's commander." Its center was Putyvl, whose commander was Prince Shahovsky. In 1607, in Starodub showed up and "prince" (False Dmitry II, also Tushino thief or Kaluga).

Cossacks intensively involved in the recent wave of Troubles. In their opinion, SHUISKI was not legitimate king. By the same idea with the impostors was very popular. Even during the False Dmitry I the Terek Cossacks pushed "Prince Peter" — in reality never existed son of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich (it was Ileyka Muromets, the true name of Ilya Ivanovich Korovin). "Tsarevich" he was chosen because he was the only one in Moscow and thence knew the orders. Cossacks decided to go up on the Volga and plunder merchant convoys, and "prince" was needed to give the appearance of legitimacy predatory campaign. 4000th nizhneterskih detachment of Cossacks went up on the Volga. Terek Governor Peter Golovin and Astrakhan governor Khvorostin could not stop them because of the unreliability of its own forces, part of the Astrakhan Garrison joined the "Prince Peter." In the end, troops of the Volga and Terek Cossacks "thieves" have joined the rebellion Bolotnikova.

But in the end the rebellion was suppressed Bolotnikova — a policy of terror against the nobility (serfs and farmers homestead burned, killed the landlords) alienated from the "governor" detachments of the nobility. Nobleman's cavalry defected to the side of Basil Shuya: December 2, 1606 Bolotnikova troops were defeated at Moscow, June 5, 1607 near Kashira was broken army "Prince Peter" (in this battle Poleg color army "Peter Fedorovich" — Don, Volga and Terek Cossack CM). During June-October 1607 Bolotnikova troops along with the remnants of forces Ileyki Muromsky kept the defense of Tula, the besieged troops of Tsar Vasily Shumsky. But October 10, 1607 were required to surrender — because of the dam on the river management, which built the royal troops, the city was partly flooded and cut off from the outside world. The governor promised "not to spill the blood" of the rebels, but spared only the nobility. "Tsarevich" hanged, drowned Bolotnikova and ordinary prisoners, including the Cossacks massacred hundred square meters, jammed with clubs and lowered into the water (kept the oath of the "Bloodless").

Tushino thief

But the bloody end to the rebellion Bolotnikova and "Prince Peter" did not suspend the Troubles. The Cossacks were even more angry, SHUISKI became their personal enemy. Dmitry II brought significant strength and began to act rapidly.

He is also no clear information, according to one version, it was the priest's son Matthew Veryovkin originally from Seversk, on the other — the son starodubskiy Archer, on the third and most unpopular — it's a Jew Bogdanka — teacher of Shklow. Poles, and strengthened his army detachments princes Vishnevetzkogo Adam, Alexander Lisowski, Roman Rozhen, did not care who put on the throne, when revealed just fabulous outlook on the plunder of Russia.

Ataman of the Don Cossacks Ivan Zarutsky, the party of war under the banner of revolt and the first Falsdmitry Bolotnikova "learned" False Dmitry and confirmed its status, receiving the rank of "nobleman." In the end, around the second impostor merged Polish adventurers, Cossacks, remnants of the Bolotnikova part of the southern Russian nobility. It was based on its own is Professor army. In the two-day battle of Bolhovu April 30 — May 1, 1608 the army defeated the forces of the pretender Shumsky (under the command of the king's brothers — Dmitri and Ivan). First False Dmitri II in June of force rushed to Moscow and camped in Tushino, because it and christened Tushino thief.

July 25 SHUISKI concluded with the ambassadors of the Polish King Sigismund III agreement. According to it, Poland withdrew all support the second impostor Poles, Marina Mnishek should not recognize Falsdmitry your spouse, do not call themselves Russian empress. But Rozhen and other Polish nobles refused to throw the case they initiated, on the contrary, the army continued to build on the impostor Poles. In autumn 1608 came with his men Jan Sapieha. Family Mnishek recaptured on the way to Poland: After lengthy negotiations, Yuri Mnishek agreed to recognize the impostor his son in law, but only received a receipt that Lzhedmitry receiving full power in the country, will give Yuri 30 thousand rubles. and Seversky Principality from 14 towns.

From now begins dual power in the country. Tushino, it has become one of the capitals of Russia, who obeyed a significant part of the Russian area of the country. There's a whole city was rebuilt with the "royal" palace. By the impostor took over some of the nobility, and some frequently changed his position, had my own "Boyar Duma" led by Misha Saltykov and Dmitry Trubetzkoy. Filaret Romanov made their patriarch. Although in reality, all power was the Poles, for their impostor figure was only a cover.

The situation worsened a number of serious forei
gn policy mistakes Basil Shuya:
He asked for help from the Crimean Khan, who "helped" — horde ravaged districts of Serpukhov, Kolomna, Ryazan and left, leading multi-million dollar full. The subjects were cursing Shumsky for having "brought nasty." Then ask him to help Sweden and the Swedes "helped" — imposed a contract in which our native land ceded Korela with the county, paying huge amounts of money for a mercenary army. But the Swedes have not sent their army, and hired soldier in Europe, they are after the first serious clashes rebelled and turned back. And Sweden was at war with Poland, Sigismund enjoyed the occasion and declared war against Moscow. In 1609, the Polish army laid siege to Smolensk, a feat only his defenders bailed out Russia from the invading Polish forces in other areas. RF threatened Polish occupation — at that time, Poland was the majestic power of Europe. Polish court ideologue Palchevskiy released a paper in which was justified by the idea that our homeland has become a "Polish New World", the Russian heretics should be turned to Catholicism and become the slaves of the Polish Empire, following the example of the Redskins in America.

Cossacks in this period largely waged war on the side of the Tushino thief and Poles. By Sigismund came to Smolensk 10000th squad Cossacks under the chieftains and Shirjay Nalivayko.

And the second impostor not met the expectations of the people: the Poles ransack the town, collecting "salary", killed, profane people desecrated the church. Borough began to fall away from the False Dmitry. Sigismund called Polish troops to Smolensk. Failed siege of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery — from 23 September 1608 to 12 January 1610. Moscow could not take. Pretender, horrified that would destroy it, escaped in December 1609 in Kaluga and encouraged to kill Poles declaring them apostate. Cossacks were also split, the smallest part went with Ataman Zarutsky to Smolensk, the arm of the Polish king (although he soon returned to hand Tushino thief after a quarrel with the Poles), the majority went to Kaluga.

SV Ivanov. "In the Time of Troubles."

The betrayal of the boyars. Feat Hermogenes

The defeat of the troops under Dmitry Shumsky Klushin from the Polish army June 24, 1610, Basil error on the throne led to the uprising newcomer in Moscow. 17 (27) July 1610 part of the nobility, gentry and the provincial capital of Vasily IV Ivanovic toppled from his throne and forcibly tonsured as a monk. In September 1610 the former king was given Polish hetman Zolkiewski who brought Basil and his brothers Dmitri and Ivan in October to Smolensk, and later on the area of Poland. And so he died in a Polish prison — in September 1612.

"The profession as a monk Basil Shuya" pattern B. Chorikova.

The capital was the control group of seven boyars, headed by Prince Fedor Ivanovich Mstislavskys, this period has been called "Seven Boyars" (1610-1613). One of the first decisions of the Boyar — it included Princes Ivan Vorotyinskiy, Andrew Troubetzkoy, Andrei Golitsyn, Boris Lykov-Obolensky, the boyars Ivan Romanov (the younger half-brother and uncle Patriarch Filaret of the coming of the first king of the Romanov Mikhail Fedorovich) and Fedor Sheremet — was decision not to elect a representative of the king of Russian birth. Each clan considered himself worthy of such honor, because they could not agree. In fact, the power of "Seven Boyars" did not extend beyond the boundaries of the capital. To the west of the town, in Khorosheva, rose Polish troops led by Zolkiewski, in the south-east, in Kolomenskoye — who returned from Kaluga impostor, which was the Polish squad Sapieha. False Dmitry II nobles feared the most, as he had in the capital of a huge number of followers and was more popular than they are.

In the end, it was decided to agree with the Poles and invite to the throne of the Polish Prince Wladyslaw, putting the condition of his conversion to Orthodoxy, the new government had to maintain the integrity of the faith, laws, traditions, and the territorial integrity of the country. Sigismund had a similar agreement with the Delegation of the Tushino. 17 (27) August 1610 signed a corresponding agreement between the nobles and the hetman Zolkiewski. Moscow kissed Prince Wladyslaw cross. But, fearing a second impostor, "Seven Boyars' went on, and on the night of September 21 in Moscow to let Polish troops. After that power in Moscow is almost defected to the commander of the Polish garrison Alexander Gosiewski.

Patriarch Hermogenes, which Boyar was a particular adversary and advocate the election of the government of the Russian Tsar family, was arrested. Then he started sending the country calls for fight against Polish invaders. Blessed both militia, called them to free Moscow from the Poles. Certificates, which are sent by the Patriarch of the Russian towns and villages of the country, people were excited for the release of capital from the invaders, led to an uprising in Moscow itself. Patriarch was positioned in the Miracle Monastery in custody. Poles couple of times sent to Hermogenes ambassadors to demand that he give an indication Russian militia to retreat from Moscow, threatening him with all this destruction. But this brave man replied firmly: "What are you threatening me? I'm afraid the 1st of God … if it'll stay here, I will bless those who stand against you all and die for the orthodox faith. " From the conclusion of the Patriarch sent a last appeal to the Russian people, blessing him for a holy war against the invaders. February 17, 1612, without waiting for the liberation of the capital, the old man died of starvation.

Pavel Chistyakov, "Patriarch Hermogenes in prison refuses to sign the letter of the Poles."

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