Operation of the troops, as the combat use of the ZSU-23-4 «Shilka» substantiated that this complex is able to deal effectively not only with low-flying air targets (particularly in difficult noise conditions), but also with a ground opponent. Despite this «Shilka» has a low effective area of target, and low lethality of ammunition. Also, this complex did not provide timely fire aerial targets, especially when carrying out exploration in offline mode. As a result — the military claimed by industry to create the newest anti-aircraft self-propelled, which was the «Tunguska».
Low damaging effect of ammunition and a small effective kill zone decided to improve, increasing caliber automatic guns and 30-mm. Braked specifically on this embodiment, because future growth caliber projectiles did not provide the technical ability to maintain a high rate of fire. Complex «Tunguska» is designed to provide air defense troops of tank and motorized troops from bumps and tactical military aircraft, attack helicopters, UAVs, and for the destruction of land lightly armored targets and manpower.
Fighting ability of the complex can solve puzzles specific cover for troops and individual objects in the offensive and defensive combat during the march and at the location of on-site systems from attacks of enemy air attack with as small, small and medium-sized partly heights. The complex is able to perform combat tasks confident in all weather criteria. The complex defense «Tunguska-M» cut one fighting machine — 2C6, loading vehicle, automatic control and test station as funds for maintenance and repair.
As a self-propelled base for the new complex was chosen tracked chassis GM-352, unified with «Tor». This chassis has an adjustable ride height and provides the highest highway speed — 65 km / h Introduction of hydro-pneumatic suspension and hydromechanical box provides «Tunguska» good maneuverability, higher throughput and that is especially important, smoothness.
Anti-aircraft gun-missile system (IRC) «Tunguska» was 1st in the world, unique multi-purpose anti-aircraft complex dual purpose. He was created 8 years earlier zabugornogo multipurpose complex «Adats.» Compared to other short-range air defense complexes act (both foreign and Russian production), he largely responsible aspect of «cost-effectiveness».
The main tool is a complex missile 9M311. This bikalibernaya solid fuel two-stage rocket made of aerodynamic configuration «duck». The missile is equipped with fragmentation rod warhead and contact and proximity fuses. SAM has a very superior maneuverability (withstands overload to 18g), which allows to destroy maneuverability and speed goals. Guidance anti-aircraft missiles to the target — radio command. Rocket comes to the troops in a special transport and launch container (TPC) in the rigged state and does not ask any of the maintenance for 10 years. Ammunition missiles complemented by using transport-loading vehicle. TPK is lightweight — up to 55 kg, which allows you to charge Zour to CP manually.
In tower installation IRC «Tunguska-M» placed information optoelectronic and radar facilities, digital computer system, control panels combat crew members, means of communication. To protect the crew «Tunguska» equipped special means of protection against weapons of mass destruction and creation inside conventional installation criterion habitat.
Armament of the complex is represented with 2 guns Bitube 2A38M working in conjunction with the OMS. Double barrel guns automatic scheme allows shooting in a saturated mode with a rate of up to 5000 rounds / min. Food guns — tape. Cartridge tape guns equips 30-mm ammunition standardized using a special machine printed.
By the mid-1990s, IRC «Tunguska» was modernized, the new complex has received the designation «Tunguska-M.» Major changes was the introduction of the complex new radio and receiver to communicate with the battery commander’s Fri «ranks» and commanding Fri PPRU-1M. In addition to the machine was replaced by a gas turbine engine, the new engine was enlarged resource work (immediately 2 times — from 300 to 600 hours).
Subsequent modification of the complex received the designation «Tunguska-M1», and was put into service in 2003. In this modification processes were automated guided anti-aircraft missiles and exchanging information with the battery commander’s Fri «ranks.» In most rocket 9M311M laser proximity sensor radar targets gave way that the possibility of liquidation increment missiles ALCM. Instead tracer was mounted flash lamp. Destruction range SAM increased to 10 km. In general, the level of combat effectiveness IRC «Tunguska-M1» in the interference criteria increased 1.3-1.5 times in comparison with its predecessor.
The performance properties of IRC «Tunguska-M1»
The affected area goals SAM / guns, km:
in range of 2.5-10 / 0.2-4
height 0,015-3,5 / 0-3
Most Target speed — up to 500 m / s.
Complex reaction time — up to 10 seconds.
Ammunition, SAM / shells — 8/1904
Firing guns 2A38M — 5000 rds. / Min.
The initial velocity of the projectile — 960 m / s.
Weight SAM / container — 42/55 kg.
Warhead weight — 9 kg.
Vertical angle firing cannons -10 — +87 degrees
Weight in firing position IRC — 34 tons
Complex deployment time — up to 5 minutes.
Most highway speed — up to 65 km / h
SPAR «Dirk» 3M87 (export designation «Chestnut») — is a versatile all-weather ship’s air defense missile and artillery complex short-range actions, the main purpose of which is the self-defense of surface ships and auxiliary vessels from different strokes air targets small and maximally low altitudes. This complex by the presence of artillery and rocket weapons, united by a common fire control system has no global counterparts. The complex was created on the basis of land development «Tunguska-M.»
Feature of the complex is the use of 2 types of weapons, which provide alternate firing air targets with missiles, artillery fire and at a distance of 8000-1500 meters and 1500-500 meters from the vehicle, respectively. Overall the combat potential of the complex 2-4 times higher than ordinary anti-aircraft artillery system. With the emergence of promising new goals this difference will only grow.
The modular construction of the complex allows you to mount it on the ships of various displacement (from small missile boats to aircraft carriers), and terrestrial objects. In totality with the introduction of integrated management system ensures the highest SPAR combat survivability. SPAR «Dirk» can be used are equally successfully to destroy air, surface and ground targets. Applied to complex missile cannons different high precision that justified its location in a single small-sized tower installations, as the presence of modern MSA television-optical and radar guidance channels with the highest precision features.
Joint signal processing channels and target tracking missiles, also automatic selection of a rational mode of combat operation provide SPAR very highest noise immunity criteria opponent introduction of various kinds of radio interference. The complex has a fully automated combat operation that allows him to make fire from 6 goals per minute and provides the highest degree of ship impact protection of high-precision weapons (anti-ship missiles, controlled bombs, etc.), as low-flying small targets. On his own combat effectiveness SPAR «Dirk» in 1.5-2 times higher than foreign complex «Crotal-Nawal» and 2.5-4 times «keeper.»
The composition of SPAR «Dirk» includes combat and command modules, 30-mm rounds, rockets to the storage and reloading, onshore facilities maintenance, as training aids. SPAR command module, filled three-axis radar system and information processing, is used to detect various kinds of purposes, and their rassredotachivaniya with data output targeting combat modules.
Battle 3M87 module (contains two six-barreled 30mm anti-aircraft machine as SAM 9M311-1 in transport-launch containers MSA with television-optical and radar channels). Complex artillery systems provide the rate of up to 10 000 rounds per minute. One such module can immediately bombard 3-4 goals and protect the little ship from enemy air attacks at low density of air attack in the raid. On ships, huge displacement to reflect the highest shock intensity on each side can be installed and more than 2 modules SPAR «Dirk.» Their number, along with the displacement of a ship, defined as management abilities and can reach up to 6 pieces (at TARKR «Peter the Great» is used 6 SPAR «Dirk»). Combat module, on request, can be performed only in an artillery version.
The fire control system provides complex data acquisition targeting militant module production data for pointing guns at targets under fire, automatic target tracking. Radar channel complex works in the millimeter wave spectrum also has a narrow radiation pattern, which ensures a fairly higher accuracy (2-3 m) SAM guidance on low-flying anti-ship missiles with no restrictions on the height of their flight. When using the TV-channel optical correlation-contrast signal processing method and apparatus with automatic tracking guidance can be anti-aircraft missiles on a target with an accuracy of 1 meter at least some altitude goal.
The complex uses SAM 9M311. This solid-fuel two-stage rocket, which is designed to bikalibernoy scheme with detachable engine. The missile is designed to destroy helicopters, airplanes and cruise missiles in their optical visibility criteria in the spatial sector width of 350 meters (right and left) of the combat unit at a distance of 8-10 km. In flight, the missile control radio command guidance system is in automatic mode with automatic output of missiles on the line of sight or manual target tracking. Average speed Zour comes to 650 m / s, with all this anti-aircraft missile can maneuver with congestion to 18g.
Currently, 9M311 missile is the only Russian design, which is equipped with fragmentation rod warhead, noncontact (laser) and contact fuzes. Proximity fuse is cocked at a distance of 1 km. purpose and provides a reliable undermining warhead missiles in the lumen at a distance of 5 meters from the goal. While firing at surface or ground targets proximity fuze is disabled. To increase efficiency engage aerial targets rods (up to 600 mm and a diameter of 4-9 mm) from the top covered with a special «jacket», which contain submunitions ready made in the form of cubes (weighing 2-3 g. Each). At the moment of detonation of the warhead fragments Zour and rods appears some semblance of ring radius of 5 meters in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the rocket. At a distance of more than 5 meters of their action is ineffective.
Missile complex «Dirk» placed in TPK, which is unified with the SAM complex air defense troop «Tunguska-M.» Missiles are going in 2 blocks of 4-Zour in each. They are mounted on a rotating part of the crew module complex. Ammunition of each module consists of 8-Zour. With all this reloading and storage system provides storage for 32 more missiles in containers, store them in the cellar, and also the rise of missile loading PU.