Force Special Operations Command of the U.S. Marine Corps (United States marine corps forces special operations command — MARSOC) is a component of the U.S. Special Operations Command (United States special operations command — SOCOM).
On the Development of Command was announced by the Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld's October 28, 2005. MARSOC formally launched its functions February 2, 2006 in a ceremony at Camp Lezhyun, North Carolina.
The possible role of the U.S. Marine Corps Special Operations Command in has been the subject of controversy since the creation of this level of management in 1986. While the command body thinks it would be better if the elite units of the Marine Corps force reconnaissance will remain in the command structure of the air-land forces motivated the Marine Corps. It was believed that the separation of the elite unit of marines from the case would harm the whole body.
After September 11, 2001 in connection with Donald Rumsfeld declared global war on terrorism, the situation has changed. This decision forced the command of the Marine Corps to take steps towards integration with the command of Special Operations. The creation of the Marine Corps Special Operations Command preceded a noticeable step in this direction — the creation of marine corps special operations command detachment one (Det 1). It was a pilot program that the purpose of which was to determine the ability to integrate parts of the Marine Corps Special Operations Command. This unit was a part of the first squadron of special war at sea. Detachment was commanded by Col. Robert J. Coates, who was the commander of the 1st company of the force reconnaissance. The detachment consisted of four sections:
— Intelligence section numbering 30 people;
— Operational-intelligence department numbering 29 people, which, in turn, consisted of a control (2 people), radio reconnaissance team (9 people), the analytical and intelligence team (6 people) and functional teams (12 people);
— Fire section numbering 7 people;
— Staff of the squad.
In total, there were 85 people subdivision.
Troop lasted from 19 June 2003 to 2006, when it was disbanded, and its successor was the command of the Marine Corps special operations.
Formation of the 1st squad was the beginning of the reorganization, aimed at creating a command NCSA. Initially, her goal was to balance the ability of special operations forces housing sea Infantry, also do a better balance between the operators and the Special Operations Command units to support the Marine Corps in solving the direct and indirect action. The reorganization has shown that special operations forces special operations can be carried out without the participation of the main forces of the body. It was aimed at strengthening the capabilities of combat support services to the Marine Corps Special Operations Command. As a result of reorganization was unified staff structure of the operating units of the Marine Corps Special Forces, who received the title of Marine Corps Special Operations Command (marine special operations team — MSOT).
The restructuring should improve the ability of commanders to fulfill its tasks.
The command created to lead the forces of the subordinate units of direct action, special reconnaissance conduct, actions for the defense of foreign countries, counter-terrorism operations, information operations, irregular (guerrilla) war.
The total number of personnel of the units in the command, is about 2,500. Command headed by Maj. Gen. Dennis Heylik, who is deputy commander of the first Marine Expeditionary Force. Command stationed at Camp Lezhyun.
The structure of command includes the following organizational units:
— A group of advisers to the Marine Corps Special Operations (the marine special operations advisor group — MSOAG). Place dislocation — Camp Lezhyun, number — about 400 people. Group created to train the personnel of foreign countries and to reduce the load on tasks assigned to the special purpose units of ground forces;
— Two special operations battalions of marines (marine special operations battalions — MSOBs). One of them is stationed at Camp Lezhyun, and the second — at Camp Pendleton, California. In the embodiment of their puzzle comes expeditionary special operations, solving puzzles direct action, special reconnaissance, and the defense of foreign countries. An extension of the range of problems solved battalions, among which may seem to information operations, the fight against terrorism and the organization and management of non-standard (guerrilla) war. The battalion consists of 4-5 mouths special operations Marines. Established category of company commander — Major. Special Operations Squadron as previously associated with expeditionary marine units on the bank, acting without the help of others, but not separate from them. The main part of the personnel of the battalion initially was recruited from units force reconnaissance marines. Company consists of several teams of special operations Marines. Each team has 14 members. Category nominal commander of the team — the captain;
— Special Operations Support Group Marine (the marine special operations support group — MSOSG). She is stationed at Camp Lezhyun. The group consists of management units, intelligence and logistical support. The task of the group, in accordance with the title, is the epitome of command support units during special operations. In the group of about 400 people;
— Marine Special Operations School (the marine special operations school — MSOS). She also placed at Camp Lezhyun. It puzzles comes to recruiting, selection and training, assessment, and staff development for the Marine Corps Special Operations Command.
Restructuring of 2-units of MSOAG
May 11, 2009 at Camp Marston Pavilion Lezhyun was full of people. The ceremony was dedicated to the principal concerns: Company "A" and "B" of the Military Advisory Command of the U.S. Marine Corps Special Operations (MSOAG) were renamed the 3rd and 4th battalions of the U.S. Marine Corps special operations.
This transformation increased the ability of Special Operations Command and allowed the lead to a single structure all four battalions that make up the command. Company "A" and "B" were responsible for the training and deployment of teams to assist foreign forces in their t
raining, and for assisting military advisers to support allies in the fight against the Yankees local extremists. Roth's "A" was formed in March 2006 and is designed for operations in Africa and Europe, while the company "B", formed in April 2007, was aimed at the areas of the Pacific and South America. In connection with the reorganization of the structure and the title changed, but the purpose remains the same units.
After the ceremony, Lt. Col. Christian Naysvorner handed over command of the 3rd Battalion, Lieutenant Colonel Matthew Trollinger. Naysvorner commanded a division in May 2005 by the military training of foreign groups, which was later renamed the MSOAG. A little later he led a company "A". As commander of the company "A", he developed standard operating procedures for the deployment of specific operational commands Marine Corps around the world to lead the global war on terrorism.
Base Marines at Camp Lezhyun
50 marines after a course of personal training got every right to be called operators Marine Special Operations Command.
Personal training course Marines are after step evaluation and selection. This course is designed to assist the Marines conducting special operations in the global war on terrorism.
MARSOC began developing programs from the course soon after February 24, 2006 U.S. Marine Corps joined U.S. Special Operations Command. Course started to be developed directly for the Secretary of Defense directive, which contained general tips Special Operations Command and the U.S. Marine Corps in November 2005 to develop a Special Operations Command Marine Corps as a structural component of the U.S. Special Operations Command.
Defence Minister then said, "I would have wished that the U.S. Special Operations Command were in all four branches of the armed forces, not only in 3 of them."
"The result of the course depends not only on the presence of special operations experience, and personal characteristics of the candidates, the strength of his temper and spirit SWAT" — said Joseph Marella, commander of the Marine Special Operations School.
The course began on 6 October 2008 and lasted for 7 months. During the course are developed with all necessary special operations capabilities and knowledge. Candidates are trained to carry out operations of direct exposure to fight in a particular contact with the enemy, to conduct special reconnaissance, assistance to allies, to make fire support, provide first aid to the wounded, to wage a guerrilla war, to survive in difficult natural conditions, should know the rules of behavior in captivity and escape from captivity, and to be able to use the instrument of the Army infantry and use strategy.
The course of personal training Marines special operations units consists of 140 hours of lessons in physical training, 634 hours of exciting activities, 1365 hours of field and practical sessions, during which students cross the 114 miles in the process of committing foot marches, and as part of a patrol.
As said Marelli, the Marines, who have undergone successful personal training, will be involved as trainers and will be engaged in the preparation of new special forces and improvement of the existing programs from training.
In accordance with the forthcoming training programs from working off the title of which translates literally as "Deployment for Training» (deployment for training — DFT), the men of the 2nd Marine Special Operations Battalion, tour the training center of fighting in the mountains, which is located in Bridgeport, California, for training programs from mountain training, patrolling in the mountains, practicing orienteering, the use of pack animals in mountainous criteria.
First days of classes are held in the classroom. Instructors Centre is conducting a personnel company of a huge number of theoretical studies. Students learn safety rules when operating in the mountains, medical training, weather and natural phenomena in the mountains, patrolling in the cooler times of the year, the selection, and routing traffic in the mountains, the daily rules of conduct in a mountain camp and order the evacuation of people in the mountains.
Camp staff conducts classes on communications and the use of communication facilities in the mountains and on the use of the vehicle to support small groups. On the third day training personnel of the company is divided into study groups, with all this management company is a private educational group. Commanders groups sit in a classroom with maps and navigation devices, and devices for routing traffic on the day of his own team. With all of this all the teams have to go through a certain number of routes of the length and difficulty. More complex routes to overcome the Marine Corps special operations teams. This is due to the need to increase the level of their training in guiding professor in the mountains.
Group out of the camp in the early afternoon and drive through an area surrounded on all sides by mountains. At times, they stop and for training purposes on the map to determine the point of standing on its own this time. Routes special operations teams are at a height exceeding 3,000 meters above sea level.
The next day the personnel of the company to exercise tremendous learning the rules of the use of pack animals in the mountains. Here cadets receive basic knowledge regarding the health of mules, the rules of care and safety in the appeal allowed, as the rules of training animals to place on their trucks Vyukov. "Mules, used by us in the training center, a much stronger and healthier than those found in Afghanistan. Our formula is actually quite adapted for the transport of goods languishing in difficult ground conditions, "- says Sergeant Chad Giles, instructor training center. The instructor puts learners different learning tasks of packing goods and preparing them for placement on the animal. With all this preparation for each type of cargo has its own packaging machinery and placing on the back of pack animal. Mules are stubborn, but they can actually climb mountains wherever it may take marine, lifting with all this is quite a big load. Students also learn how to care for animals at rest, and during the long march in the mountains.
At the end of the course personnel training company gets a comprehensive overview of how to overcome the steep slopes in the mountains, threatening the criteria and in cool weather. This should assist them in solving complex problems in Afghanistan.
To make better their practical ability, the soldiers of the 2nd Battalion of the Marine Corps Special Operations April 3 were aaplet parachute training in Nevada, which included parachute training program from the everyday and the program from skydiving.
First day employment in Nevada Marine Special Operations Team is dedicated to honing the skills of output in the rear of the enemy by dropping a parachute and delayed opening the parachute. The members of the team of military paratroopers before a jump with a parachute line up early in the morning along the strip start to prepare their own functional parachute systems to jump. Exercises contain as a completely ordinary skydiving and committing skydiving with weapons and equipment. The main difference in these jumps is the height of ejection or helicopter, the method of separation and time of opening the parachute. When making everyday parachute jumps disclosed forcibly and immediately after separation from the airplane or helicopter. When making jumps with the delayed disclosure of a skydiver after separation falls freely to a given height, and only later opens the parachute.
Acquired on these exercises and learning abilities are very important to the Marine Corps Special Forces for the successful fulfillment of the tasks of varying degrees of difficulty. To make a parachute jump specially selected landing area, to a large extent similar to those that exist in Afghanistan and where in the near future, may be used units MARSOC.
After committing skydiving in different weather criteria, with different heights, and at different times of day parachute training programm ends. The course gives the Marines and sailors stable company knowledge and abilities that are required in the performance of airborne operations, the awareness of the impact of terrain, weather and time of landing on the success of the operation.
In the middle course, the units of special operations company of the 2nd Battalion receive the necessary knowledge and skills in the implementation of the guidance aircraft in combat or to defeat the object. Any team makes many transitions, taking with them devices allowing to determine the direction and strength of the wind.
Field exercises Marines and sailors are based on what is really necessary to be able fighter in combat. The personnel of the teams must learn to act in a subdivision in the investigation, search and winding up of the object. On the way to the object of the men will have to overcome a lot of obstacles: rugged terrain, enemy ambushes and minefields. The exercise scenario developed by the command of the company, and armed civilian masters perform the role of the enemy. It is necessary that the Marines and sailors were able to fully immerse themselves in made "fighting" the situation.
Teachings allow teams to Marine Corps special operations experience in practice and to improve the standard actions for the successful overcoming of unexpected situations.
During field exercises, teams have the opportunity to work guidance to the target of various aircraft from the aircraft carrier group that the friction in Nevada. Such joint exercises are added realism and allow air controllers who are in the team, to work out an act to evacuate the team and actually make use of special equipment. They also help the personnel to work teams and see firsthand the effectiveness of air support. The terrain and natural conditions of the Nevada desert identical with Afghanistan.
When the course ends with field training, personnel team writes a report on its work. This allows teams to evaluate the quality of exercises and activities, and their actions in different situations. For men fundamentally consider their own and group representation before the course and after.
The personnel of the Special Operations Command Marine Corps makes preparation counterterrorism Dominican Republic. In March 2009, South American and Dominican anti-terror special forces took part in the joint exercise, which is conducted in the framework of educational programs from the Southern Command Special Operations «Fused response» («We are a united response"). The exercise — to make better interaction of these special units for special operations against terrorists and drug traffickers.
Before the start of the exercise, the U.S. Marines from Special Operations Command conducted in the Dominican Republic a few months, teaching various tactical techniques of their own wards, fulfilling a huge number of scenarios during a special operation. During the course perfected different methods of penetration of an object where the terrorists, including the landing of the helicopter directly to the roof structure.
South American instructors make on their wards very highest and most stringent requirements, constantly forcing them to bring to perfection the work off the gripping an object.
On exercises using different methods and tools for learning. For example, simulation of ammunition and ammunition, leaving a trail of ink on uniforms in contact. Instructors from the students achieve sustainable ability of anti-terrorist operations at the level of muscle memory, repeatedly repeating one and the same device and bringing it to perform automatic.
March 16, 2009 leaders of the Southern Command and the Regional Special Operations Command congratulated the participants on the successful exercise of its ending. But the study this is not over. As said one of the officers of the Dominican intelligence officer: "Threats to eat constantly. Not a lot of time in the day there are new. Because we like the best special forces in the country should be prepared to deal with these dangers posed by terrorists and drug traffickers. I am confident that this training will allow us to successfully cope with them. "