And it is a collective, impersonal nature of science, that its feature that the procedures of knowledge, down the centuries, are above any individual opinions, even the most highly visible, are a guarantee of the reality of objective knowledge, and reliability of the guarantee can be nothing.
This does not mean the absolute infallibility of science, but it means something much more important: the science is wrong, but in his subsequent motion cancels own erroneous assertions. Put another way, science as a whole is a system with a strong tendency to samokorrektirovke. And blame science in dull, malicious, demagogic or dictated by any other extraneous considerations to deny the facts, which are its blood and the air — is to misunderstand its fundamental functional principles.
Whatever the explanation sounds intriguing UFO with ghostly and fireballs, these rare events is clearly not "close" all the relevant statistics of observations. What else can explain the natural phenomenon is rapidly moving into the stratosphere shimmering discs and ellipsoids? Well of course the glow of the ionospheric layer of the Earth's magnetosphere mirtajn.com! This amazing process is being scrutinized more than two centuries and in our hemisphere is well known as flashes of the aurora borealis. In fact, rooted called "Northern Lights" is not quite correct. Over the South Pole can also watch the fantastic play of light ionospheric. Therefore, you should use the term "Northern Lights." Auroras in the Northern Hemisphere generally moving west at a speed of about one mile per second.
Brightest lights are divided into four classes, which differ from each other by ten times. The first class includes faint glow that resembles the brightness with the Milky Way. Radiance is the fourth class in brightness can be compared with the full moon.
Despite the illusion of the object of research, the attention of many scientists for decades focused on the distant sky-high vysyam. The fact that the environment contains auroral electrically charged particles — ions and electrons. This gives them a striking light properties. If the surface layer of dry air is a quality insulator, in the ionosphere, it is — a good conductor.
Biosphere person is on land, in the border region of the surface water of the ocean and the ocean floor air. On all sides it is surrounded by fertile air-water environment that supports life. Atmospheric density drops sharply with distance from the Earth's surface. In its upper layers thin air unbreathable, but it blocks harmful radiation from the sun and from outer space.
The upper atmosphere (stratosphere) Earth serves as an air shield to reflect the many meteorites. These meteoroids, even small size, due to their high speed, have great destructive power. Faced with the gas particles of the atmosphere, they heat up and evaporate, leaving a characteristic traces in the sky "falling stars."
The upper atmosphere (stratosphere) Earth serves as an air shield to reflect the many meteorites. These meteoroids even small due to high speed have great destructive power. Faced with the gas particles of the atmosphere, they heat up and evaporate, leaving a characteristic traces in the sky "falling stars."
Above fifty miles above the Earth's surface that is mirtajn.com tier air envelope, called the ionosphere. The ionosphere extends to altitudes of several hundred kilometers, a smooth transition into the mantle of the plasmasphere. Air quality is significantly changing its composition, increasing the relative concentration of light gases, the medium becomes a billion times more tenuous. Air near the ground is mainly composed of diatomic molecules of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide, and at high altitudes — the ionosphere — the molecules of these gases under the influence of the hard radiation of the sun fall on the individual atoms. At altitudes of thousands of kilometers basic elements exosphere (outer atmosphere) are hydrogen and helium.
Wednesday ionosphere is always in rapid motion, to grow into a perfect storm, though invisible to the earth's surface.
Once researchers have even observed oblakoobraznye mysterious aurora rushing at over three thousand miles an hour.
Since the density at the boundary of the exosphere gases is negligible, the molecules and atoms are free to accelerate to escape velocity. At that speed, any body overcomes gravity and goes into space. The same thing happens with the gas particles of hydrogen and helium. But, despite the leakage of light gases from the Earth's atmosphere, its composition does not change, because there is a continuous process of filling due to gases of the crust and the evaporation of the oceans. Also part of the same atoms and molecules comes from the interplanetary medium in the flow around the Earth's exosphere.
Prominent radiophysicist FI Chestnov in the popular book, "In the depths of the ionosphere", wrote:
High sky. Clear air. At first glance it seems that at high altitudes there is peace and tranquility. But if we had found a magical ability to see the molecules and atoms, we were struck by a spectacle of a world that is truly never know the rest. Frequent explosions and catastrophes. Some particles are destroyed, others are born. And the blame for the continuing transformation is the sun. Scientists have spent a lot of effort to reveal the main features of the ionosphere and mirtajn.com draw it "portrait". Each step in this direction require new experiments, clever hypotheses and complex calculations. Like ancient warriors, scientists persistently besieged clouds. But instead of military weapons they used physical devices, and the rules of the military art have replaced the strict logic of mathematics. Portrait of the ionosphere, which appears before our eyes — not a frozen picture. It changes all the time, and not only because the ionosphere is very variable, but mainly because more and more rich and reliable are our expertise.
The study of the properties and processes in the upper air layers in the ionosphere — one of the most important problems of modern science. Thus, in recent years, took shape and rapidly growing new area of scientific knowledge dealing with these issues — Aeronomy. Sure, she has a great future. It is quite possible that the rapid development of the physics of the ionosphere at the time prompted the famous science fiction writer Frederick Brown to create an original short story "Volnoviki." It tells the story of a new "field" form of life, manifesting itself in the form of electromagnetic waves, the radio band. Here is how the author describes them in the name of one of the main characters — Professor Helmettsa:
— Because space aliens — is, in fact, these radio waves. Their only peculiarity is that they do not have the source. They represent the waveform of wildlife dependent on the fluctuations of the field, as our life on earth depends on the motion, the vibration of matter.
— What is their value? The same or all different?
— They all have different values. Moreover, they can be measured in two ways. First, from crest to crest, which gives the so-called wavelength. The receiver catches the wave of a certain length of a single-point range. As for the newcomers, for them the radio dial does not exist. They are equally available any wavelength. This means that either they are by their very nature can appear on any wave, or they can change the wavelength arbitrarily at will. Second, one can speak of a wavelength determined by its total length. Assume that the station is transmitting a second, then the appropriate signal has a length equal to one light second, which is about 187,000 miles. If the transmission lasts half an hour, the length of the signal is equal to half an hour of light, and so on and so forth
As for the newcomers, their length varies from one individual to another in the range of several thousand miles — in this case we are talking about the length of a few tens of light-seconds — about half a million miles, then the length of the light wave is a few seconds. The longest recorded signal — excerpt from the radio — lasted eight seconds.
— Why did Professor, do you think that these airwaves — living beings? Why not just a radio?
— Because radio waves just as you say, are subject to certain physical laws, like any inanimate matter. Stone can not, like a rabbit, run up the hill, it rolls down. Raise him to the mountain can only be applied to force it. Aliens — a special form of life, because they will be able to, because they can mirtajn.com arbitrarily change direction, but mainly because they are at all times, hold together. The radio has never passed two merged signals. They follow each other, but do not overlap, as is the case with radio signals transmitted on the same wavelength. So, as you can see, we are dealing not "just with radio waves …"
Final products built in tragicomic way — it turns out space volnoviki (the name of the alien of the ionosphere) are powered by artificial and atmospheric electricity. This quickly leads to the disappearance of household and industrial electricity, missing zippers, well, humanity returns to the age of steam!
But is it really so easy to be overcome space electromagnetic waves thick ionosphere? In the surface layer — the troposphere — the air is a mixture of neutral molecules of different gases (mostly nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide). Consequently, if we are surrounded by dry air, it can be considered as a good insulator.
Not so in the depths of the ionosphere. There's air environment is fully capable of conducting an electric current, as instead of neutral atoms and molecules it contains electrons and ions. Let us remember, mirtajn.com that ions — is positively or negatively charged particles, formed from neutral atoms and molecules under the influence of any external factors. Because of the presence of ions and called this part of the ocean air Earth ionosphere.
Scientists have discovered that molecules of air throughout the stratosphere are always complex movement. His flow and trapped ions and electrons. They are continuously involved in opposing processes of ionization and neutralization — recombination, going at different speeds at different altitudes.
This is how it is in his excellent book Fedor civilians:
Imagine the crowd, in which each person in a hurry in the necessary direction. People will face each other at every step. But here's the crowd thinned, became freer, now clash — a rare case. Roughly the same, we will see in the world of molecules.
Here we go down below and get into the denser layers. Air particles are thicker, so collisions are more frequent and the recombination is faster. Climb higher, rarefied layers: collisions are less frequent, and the reunification of the ions and electrons in the neutral molecule is very slow.
What happens if the action of ionizing radiation in the upper atmosphere will stop?
Obviously, the electrons back "return to their seats," ionized particles eventually become neutral, free charges will gradually disappear, and the air loses conductivity. If ionizing radiation is applied continuously and with a constant force, the emergence of new free electrons to balance the loss — the saturation of the air free charges will not change.
There are just so wonderful in its beauty aurora (auroras borealis in Latin). If you watch them from the surface of the Earth, it is better to do it at night and in good weather, when you do not interfere with Sun and clouds. These difficulties can easily be avoided if watch the aurora from space, where the same is not the distorting effect of the lower dense atmosphere. Observations from manned spacecraft and orbital stations gave extensive material about the spatial arrangement of lights, they change over time, and many features of this phenomenon. Moreover, the spacecraft is allowed to perform measurements inside the aurora. Equally convenient to study auroras in the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere, and even on the day side of the Earth.
Interestingly, the energetic protons, intruding into the upper atmosphere and causing proton aurora, move part of its path as neutral hydrogen atoms. In this case, they are not effective magnetic field of the Earth. Such protons, with large (proton) speed can penetrate into areas that are inaccessible to charged particles. Flash aurora is usually seen in a day or two after solar flares — the two phenomena are closely related to each other.
Auroras are not only the "property" of the Earth. On the contrary, they are clearly observed in the plasmasphere and other planets — gas giants Jupiter and Saturn, as well as some of their satellites, surrounded by its own atmosphere.
Jovian aurora is of the same nature as the earth: the fast electrons drifting in the magnetosphere of the planet along the field lines between the poles, the poles get enough sleep in the upper layers of the atmosphere and cause mirtajn.com glow gas. Auroras on Jupiter intensively in the ultraviolet, since the main spectral lines of hydrogen, which is dominated by Jupiter's atmosphere, lie precisely in this part of the spectrum.
Comprehensive monitoring of Jupiter aurora on board automatic interplanetary station "Cassini", flying past Jupiter on the way to Saturn, have allowed scientists to develop numerical models of the aurora, including the effects of the interaction with the solar wind.
Studies in recent decades, especially performed by satellites and missiles, have significantly enriched our knowledge of the polar auroras. Revealed some of their secrets, and in addition, has a long facts about space surrounding our planet, the state of the interplanetary medium and solar radiation, including streams of charged particles. Nevertheless, not all with the aurora clear.
Today, we still can not help but describe this phenomenon quantitatively, but even to predict in advance, many of its properties. Problem aurora was too complex and multifaceted. For example, not yet clear connection between the aurora with the weather. Northerners are well aware that auroras are more common in the frosty night. Explanation of this yet.
Today, however, the researchers came mighty polar Scorchlings assistants — geophysical rockets, satellites, equipped with the most modern equipment. Instruments mounted on satellites, have already given a lot of valuable information about the highest layers of the Earth's atmosphere — their chemical composition, structure, density, and much more. All this allowed to clarify something in the views of the nature of the aurora, something to review, on something completely abandoned.
Thus, the latest data obtained by modern research leads to the assumption of some scientists that the aurora is a consequence of the interaction of ultraviolet radiation from the sun with a very thin air at high altitudes which is in the atomic state. Ionization of air — the transformation of neutral atoms into charged ions. Exist in the upper atmosphere, the ionosphere, an area well-conducting electricity, already well proven.
The most convincing argument in favor of what we mean any physical phenomenon, is its re-creation in the laboratory. This was accomplished for the aurora — an experiment called "Arax", was held at the time jointly by Russian and French researchers.
As laboratories were selected as two magnetically point on the Earth's surface (ie, two points on the same magnetic field line). They were — for the Southern Hemisphere — the French island of Kerguelen in the Indian Ocean and the North — Sogra village in the Arkhangelsk region. From the island of Kerguelen geophysical rocket launched with a small particle accelerator, which is at a certain height creates a flow of electrons. When moving along the magnetic field lines of the Earth, these electrons have penetrated to the northern hemisphere and caused an artificial aurora over keep warm. Unfortunately, the clouds are not allowed to see it from the ground, but it clearly radars registered.
Experiments of this type not only allow us to understand the causes and mechanism of the aurora. They provide a unique opportunity to study the structure of the magnetic field of the Earth, its processes in the ionosphere and the effects of these processes on the weather near the Earth's surface. It is particularly convenient to perform such experiments are not the electrons, and with barium ions. Caught in the ionosphere, they are excited by sunlight and emits light crimson.
At the same time there are unexpected correlations awaiting its future researchers, in a rather unusual process. In the past, the appearance of the aurora associated with the tragic events in nature and society, with the prediction of the various misfortunes. Is it only the fear of confusing natural phenomena behind these superstitions? Now it is well known that solar rhythms with different periods (27 days, 11 years, etc.) affect a variety of aspects of life on Earth. Solar and geomagnetic storms (and associated aurora) can cause the growth of various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases in humans. With the solar cycle related to climate change in the world, the emergence of droughts and floods, earthquakes, etc. All this makes one more time to think seriously over the old superstitions — and perhaps they have a grain of truth?
Polar lights signal the location and time of exposure to space terrestrial processes. Invasion of charged particles, which causes them to affect many aspects of our lives. Ozone changes and the electric potential of the ionosphere, the heating of the ionospheric plasma waves excited in the atmosphere. All this affects the weather. Because of the additional ionization in the ionosphere start flowing significant electric currents, magnetic fields, which distort the Earth's magnetic field, which directly affects the health of many people. Thus, through the aurora and the associated impact on the processes of the cosmos around us nature and its inhabitants.
In the essay "Celestial Objects" A. Clark wrote:
There is no doubt that nature is able to create a "spacecraft", satisfying the most demanding requirements — when she really wants it.
In proof of this, I quote the number "Observatory" — the magazine published by the leading astronomy organization in the world, the Royal Astronomical Society — released in May 1916. Date — 1916 — is important to understand the nuances of the writing, but the event, which will be discussed, there has been more than three decades in the night of November 17, 1882.
Author — the famous British astronomer Walter Maunder, who was then working at the Greenwich Observatory. He was asked to describe the most wonderful sight that he had seen in many years of observations of the sky, and he remembered how on that November night in 1882 was on the roof of the observatory, looking at the night in London when "a huge circular disc greenish suddenly appeared low over horizon in the east-north-east, and he sprang up and moved across the sky mirtajn.com as smoothly and evenly as the sun, moon, stars and planets, but a thousand times faster. Its round shape was apparently due to the effect of perspective, because as you move it lengthened, and when he crossed the meridian and was slightly above the moon, its shape was similar to a very elongated ellipse, and various observers described it as a cigar-shaped, like a torpedo happen … it's a third of a century later, each, no doubt, would have found the same image — the object would have been exactly like a dirigible.
Let me remind you that the Maunder wrote this in 1916, when the airship took place in the news even more honorable than the current space ships.
Hundreds of observers throughout the UK and Europe have observed this object, which allowed us to obtain reasonably accurate estimates of its height, size and speed. He was flying at an altitude of 133 miles above the Earth, moving at a speed of 10 miles per second — and was at least 50 miles long.
Here, the great British science fiction as if making a spectacular break and finally asks, "What was it?" In 1882 no one knew the answer to that question. Clues to these phenomena was obtained only in the forties of the last century Soviet meteorologists who repeatedly observed such objects during ionospheric storms in the Arctic sky, accompanied by a strong northern lights. In his essay, Clark repeats the explanation obtained by Soviet scientists:
Nature with its cathode ray tube length 93 million miles can create balanced, clearly defined objects in uniform motion in the sky. In my opinion, this show was more impressive than a spaceship, but the facts leave no room for debate. Observations with the spectroscope confirmed that it was only the aurora, and as his flight over Europe, the object began to slowly disintegrate into pieces. In outer CRT lost focus.
What about UFOs and aliens? Clark thinks about it further.
It may be objected — hardly a rare, perhaps unique event may explain a number of UFO sightings, many of which are made in the afternoon, when the faint glow of the aurora completely unnoticed. Still, I suspect that there is a kind of remote communication, and this suspicion is based on a new science that there are only a few years old and has arisen in connection with rocket and nuclear research.
This science is called — deep breath — magnetohydrodynamics. You will surely hear more about it in the future, for it, along with nuclear power — one of the keys to development mirtajn.com space. But now it is of interest to us only because it deals with the motion of the ionized gas in a magnetic field — that is, the phenomena of the same nature as that which struck Mr. Maunder and a few thousand people in 1882.
Today we call these objects "plasmoids". (Charming word! So seen heading in the magazine: "I was harassed plasmoids from Pluto.") Are known for a long time — as one of the most mysterious phenomena of nature, ball lightning, in which no one would have never believed it, do not be a lot of evidence about her. During thunderstorms, sometimes seen glowing balls that roll on the ground or slowly floating through the air. Sometimes they explode with great force — as well as the bursting of the theory, which offered to explain them. But now we know how to get thumbnails — plasmoids-crumb — in the lab, and there are terrible rumors that the military is trying to use them as weapons.
Because you can not deny all the opportunities will always be a slim chance that some UFOs — is alien ships from other worlds, even though the evidence against it is so extensive that for their detailed presentation would require a much longer article. If this verdict disappoint you, I can offer in return is quite adequate, in my opinion, the payment.
If you look at the sky, then you will eventually see a spaceship.
But it will be one of our own.
Category: UFOs and aliens