■ FRENCH PEPPERBOKS stiletto XIX century from the collection of the Museum of Tula. The scheme pepperboksa allowed to "surround" the trunks every round or multifaceted handset.
Man has always dreamed of killing 2-birds with one stone. And better not 2-and immediately 20. Because small hand gun overgrown tree trunks, like a hedgehog — needles. There are guns like "duck foot" double-barreled, multi-barreled machine guns. In the end, the evolution has come to a multiply-charged single-barreled weapons, but it was forgotten by another branch of generation which were not very functional, but very beautiful. Their name — pepperboksy.
If practically translate the word "pepperboks" with the British language, you get "box and pepper" or "pepper pot". This word was applied at first to even what multiply-guns — even to the usual single-barreled revolvers. But stick it specifically for historical monsters resembling or large gun, or a small machine gun.
Pepperboks — it's multicore gun barrel with a rotating unit. Drum as such he does not, but polrevolvera strengthened on a hinge. Charge pepperboksy usually by the barrel — as the ancient flintlock pistols, but then came the design closer to the revolver with a folding mechanism and access to the breech. Pepperboksy appeared in England and the United States in about 1780-1800 years and quite rapidly spread around the world. Virtually any weapons company can brag at least one model of the "pepperboks." However, many private traders, trying to outdo rivals more serious, doing such designs that fit to call them mutants, freaks, or in some other way pozaboristee.
According to the classical scheme pepperboks had 6 small trunks, screwed into the spinning unit. General were bare shelf and flint lock. Naturally, at first without the help of other unit was not turned trunks, twisted his hand (with gloves on, as just "waste" trunk had a very uncomfortable skin temperature]. Moreover, each just have to pour on the shelf of gunpowder that was driving pepperboksa functionality in comparison with ordinary twin-barrel guns virtually none.
■ MNOGOSTVOLKI on European reference and made in Russia — in the main personal wizard. In the Tula arms museum contains about 20 similar "guns."
No features in these guns is not: pepperboksy were not for the Russian arms to tradition, the rarest standards — copies of European and American models.
Flint lock severely limited the ability of pepperboksov. But the appearance of a cap bolt has given a new impetus to this trend. First protorevolver (sometimes referred to as pepperboksy and so] with the cap bolt had the advantage of continuous shooting.
Traditional gun, familiar from westerns, appeared in the first half of the XIX century. As you know, the famous Samuel Colt did not invent it, and perfected by adding an automatic rotating the drum after each shot. The invention, together with the put on stream revolvers (since 1836) pepperboksy doomed to destruction, not even allowing them to truly be born.
■ Recognized SOVREMENNYYtravmatichesky gun PB 4-1 ML "Wasp" can also be attributed to pepperboksam. However, the rotating parts from tiny Air Rifle there, but as many as four trunks. "Wasp" refers to the "fire-tubeless" family of guns — it is allowed to turnover on a civilian area of Russia. In the "Wasp" is used cartridge 18×45 with a rubber bullet diameter of 15.3 mm, and the capsule is initialized not strike the firing pin, and electronic shock. The effect of hitting a bullet from the "Wasp" can be compared with the impact of heavyweight boxer.
But, as mentioned earlier, many companies want to come up with something new and structurally improve the traditional "Colt" which, to be honest, at that time was actually perfect. So there bundelrevolvery-pepperboksy "second generation."
First capsule pepperboks was immediately patented the first Colt pistol — in 1836. It was the creator of the Massachusetts businessman and gunsmith Ethan Allen. At those stages was not yet clear what the concept will capture the market and lots of rotating shafts or one barrel with a rotating drum. Allen believed in pepperboksy and at first almost no wrong. Pepperboks Allen is released in 1837 and had success. However, do not run wild on the famous West, who at the time were just beginning to develop, and in the eastern part of the country. Ganfayterov with bundelrevolverami Allen could be met just as often as conventional armed with guns Colt. Played a big role stern heavy, awkward kind of weapon: countless holes trunks frighten even harder, if one "miserable" gun.
Pistols Allen as modern revolvers, had capsule lock with double action. Pressing the shutter produces and platoon, and turn the unit trunks and shot. There have been several modifications pepperboksa Allen — with gauges from 31 to P6 first and a different number of trunks (up to 6).
At about the same time as Allen was patented in Europe other pepperboks — Belgian Marriette. The Europeans were not as conservative as Americans. Company Marriette pepperboksy made with shafts of 4 to 24 (!). Several copies of the latest monster survived to our times — from time to time they pop up on various online auction and go for £ 15-20 thousand apiece. How to hold in one hand and a 24-gun receiver, hard to imagine: even the ordinary automatic pistol visibly pulled to the ground.
By the way, that the gun charge, made under the patent Marietta, had to back off separately each trunk and lay it in the cartridge from the breech. Allenovskie pepperboksy were easier to use: can be removed once the entire block trunks.
In addition to the degree of intimidation of the enemy, the Europeans have paid attention to design. And Marriette, and other European pepperboksy were decorated with spectacular designs, sometimes gilded, and descent was made in the form of a ring, not the hook. In fact, such Marriette bundelrevolvery let all and sundry, and preserved in the collections of a large numb
er of samples, similar to the model of Marietta, but bad unrecognizable.
English gunsmiths preferred system of Allen. It is understandable — almost Britons have borrowed something Belgian. Allen did not have time to hunt down the copyists of its development.
All bundelrevolvery, as to be expected, are of the highest rate of fire for its time [of course, if the long-term recharge], but with all this because of the low accuracy of the battle tight trigger and disgusting balance and suited for firing only at small distances. They were used as a weapon of self-defense, while Colt revolvers and other gunsmiths tremendous lots purchased, for example, the army.
In addition to Allen and Marietta is worth mentioning a few of the leading manufacturers pepperboksov the first half of the XIX century — a British firm Cooper and Turner, as Americans Blunt and Sime.
By 1870, from pepperboksov abandoned virtually all of the office. Even a fan of his own invention Allen ran to create revolvers traditional design. Rare gunsmiths appealed to the circuit pepperboksa except to merit the most compact instruments: accommodation stems directly in the drum allowed to reduce the length of the gun is actually blown. Yes, and such cases were rare.
Now traditional gun seems to us logical and understandable. As a general pepperboksy could make him konkurentnst? Popularity bundelrevolverov-pepper shaker was justified in including a nice power. 6, or even more trunks, looking at the enemy — it looks ominous. And does not matter that shoots out of them only one. After all, the psychic nuance in popularity this or other types of guns plays a big role.
■ Pepperboks not sure was a gun. For example, in the Tula Museum holds primer short-barreled shotgun, made on the same principle.
In general, gunsmiths could not pepperboksah on the brakes and revolvers. Everyone wanted to stand out and make something new and even more deadly. So at different times there were guns that could not be attributed to any of the categories in general.
For example, in 1860 the South American producer Jones released a stunning beauty of the 10-gun barrel 36-gauge. The trunks are not placed in a circle, and with 2 columns of 5 pieces. With the 2-sides placed two "dog." Each new press of the shutter "soschelkivalo" dog to the next trunk. So Makarov, pistol palil alternately in the Z-shaped sequence: first the right trunk — 1st left — the second right-second left — etc. Not so long ago, a copy of the pepperboksa Jones was sold at auction for $ 9,000.
In the same 1860 in France produced 30-round twin-barrel gun 22 gauge. Gun barrel was handed a two-tier and two cartridges at once in the upper and lower trunks of the shot carried out both barrels at once.
The French company Lefoshe the middle of the XIX century has produced several pepperboksov such as "harmonica". 6 or 10 trunks "harmonic" are placed in one horizontal row, and each row shot barrel moves relative to the hammer like a typewriter carriage. The main drawback of such weapons was incorrect: the shooting of sidetracks Straseni was difficult to keep the gun in a horizontal position.
There were tall "harmonics" — for example, the office Auslands. In such a pistol barrel unit 4 moved vertically.
In Cairo, the museum Abdeen Palace, kept all revolvers gun. The unique design on the basis of the usual "Colt" is armed with eight (!) Drums. As one six-cylinder consumes, the shooter turns the handle of a special huge ring, replacing new drum — and the shooting continues.
Museum staff are inclined to believe that this is a local makeshift modifications brought from the United States, "Colt."
In addition, pepperboksy used extensively as a "hidden" tool -such as a cane or even a bicycle handlebars outlast us, and in France in 1880 and used this design)! The fact that the scheme pepperboksa allowed to "surround" the trunks of every round or polyhedral tube, for example the base blade and hide tool in any appropriate case.
In these days of pepperboksy — is part of the story (though now commercially made multi-barreled rocket launcher, made by the same principle.) They can meet in the movies, and in most cases does not in Westerns, and genre stylizations in the spirit of steampunk and post-apocalypse. It's just beautiful in appearance to explain this tool. But be honest: if I am in the black alley send mariettovsky pepperboks XIX century, I would hardly admire its beautiful exterior design and a ring-shaped descent. Since the instrument is always a tool, like it or looked.
■ Bundesrevolver Marryat
Country: Belgium Length: 184 mm Barrel length H: 71 mm Weight: 0.7 kg Caliber: 9.6 mm Rifling: No Capacity: 6 rounds H Initial velocity: 152 m / s
Multicore turret gun with primer ignition designs Jules Marietta. In 1839 (at the time point in 1837, when indeed been made the first measurement standards, but the patent is dated 1839] Belgian Jean Mariette patents so called bundelrevolver. This gun was a block of trunks, each of which in the end was screwed brandtrubka for capsule. Each trunk has four rectangular recesses in the muzzle, in order that it could be easily removed with a special key. Trunks privercheny to the spindle motionless on the breech, access to which is provided by the center left in the barrel block openings. tension descent made in the form of a ring, the unit cranked barrel, putting the capsule under the hammer mechanism. Immediately lower the hammer cocked, and with the impending descent stretching the ring, he broke with cocking and thrashed the primer, with the result that followed the shot.
■ PEPPERBOKS FRENCH STYLE "HORIZONTAL HARMONIC"
10 trunks "harmonic" are placed in one horizontal row, and each row shot barrel moves relative to the hammer like a typewriter carriage. To get into any of such instruments was very difficult as it is to keep him on the straight. In addition, a similar gun could only be small caliber (0.22, for example}, and perhaps that was suitable for self-defense at close distances.
■ GUN CONSTRUCTION JONES. USA, I860 YEAR Caliber — 0.36. Each 'column' trunks had his dog, which "soschelkivalas" one notch down after each shot. Gun shot alternately in the Z-shaped sequence: first right barrel — the first left — second right — the second left — etc. In the past year, a copy of the pepperboksa Jones
was sold at auction for $ 9,000.