30 km south of Tomsk, on the northern edge of the village is located Kurlek Research Hospital "Cedar"- A unique place of its kind. Its area is more than 8 hectares, and most of it is busy sowing and planting dozens of species and hundreds of varieties of trees, among which occupies a special place, of course, the cedar.
The hospital was founded in 1986, in the Division of cedar forests of the Institute of Forest SB RAS, which was designed to solve the so-called "cedar problem." Before his team was to create a system of farming in the pine forests. Hence the task of the hospital — to promote the development of technology of cultivation of cedar and lead him breeding work.
— When I first arrived in Tomsk, I immediately caught my eye, next to the posters "Glory to the CPSU!" Here in the set could be seen and the inscription "Take care of cedar" — says Doctor of Biological Sciences, Head of Laboratory and Scientific dendroecology Hospital "Cedar" Sergei Goroshkevich. — It was in 1981, and then I immediately realized this was the place where I live and work. Tomsk is surrounded priposelkovymi stone pine forests. Attitude of the inhabitants of the city and surrounding area to the cedar — a specific, quivering. Historically, that Tomsk — Cedar capital of Russia. And our task is to multiply its glory in this capacity.
In the hospital assembled a unique collection of genetic cedar — thousands of plants from different places. On the example of cedar experts are studying the life of trees, their growth and reproduction, interaction with the environment.
— Everybody has heard of global warming. This in itself is not terrible: the climate is always changing. But the current warming is abnormally rapid pace, — says Sergey Goroshkevich. — The fear is that plants with a long life cycle (and cedar — this is a long-lived tree Siberian taiga) will be problems with the adaptation: they may not have time to react to changes in climate change genotypic their populations. Perhaps the cedar will help, for example by moving its seeds from the southern to the northern districts. For this we need to know the structure of the natural diversity of cedar in the climate "coordinate system".
According Goroshkevich, Tomsk hospital is the world's largest center for the breeding of cedar, which experts are engaged in breeding of fast-growing, productive, ornamental varieties. To do this, vaccinated and crossed different types and forms of cedar grown offspring being selected.
— Our cedar is 40 to close and distant relatives spread throughout the northern hemisphere, from Mexico to Japan. Our collection — 15 species. They are used for cross-species hybridization. We pay great attention to the selection of the nature of the forms of cedar, their research and breeding.
In addition to the scientific work with cedar on the adjacent territories with hospital specialists and a host of other cultivated plants — is the sphere of activity of "Siberian Academy of trees and shrubs" (or simply "Sadiq"). It is home to almost all kinds of woody plants — trees, shrubs and vines that can live in Siberia. The main types are not only the "wild-type", but many varieties.
— We see our task is to learn as Siberian dendroflora enrich it and make the most livable in Siberia by foreign woody plants, — says the head of the hospital. — We aim to introduce the culture of all potentially suitable for this species is actively engaged in breeding.
Currently, most of the planting of ornamental woody plants imported to Russia from Europe. But since its stability is poor, most of the Tomsk experts in commercially available plants produce in their own nurseries. To do this, stand out promising species and varieties, organized their test material were exchanged with botanical gardens and nurseries around the world.
Special attention in the "Sadiq" pay under the snow forms of woody plants — here are cultivated on the "southern" trees in the coppice form. Experience here and stunted varieties — most excellent live in Siberia, as winter under the snow. In Tomsk collection now about 1,000 varieties derived from only four major temperate conifer — pine, spruce, fir and larch.
Tomsk experts actively cultivated and shrubs. They are by nature meant for winter under the snow, so they range in Siberia, much wider than the range of trees. Of conifers — is juniper and cypress, from hardwood — wahoo, barberry, Weigela, deytsiya, viburnum, cotoneaster, puzyreplodnik, cinquefoil, svidina, lilac, spirea, stefanandra, mock orange, and many others. Each of these genera are represented in the collections of many kinds of Tomsk, many species — dozens of varieties. Organized their test, developed recommendations for use.
— "Beauty will save the world": said at the time Fyodor Dostoevsky through the mouth of one of his favorite characters — Prince Myshkin — says Stepan Goroshkevich. — Speaking of the human environment, the beauty — is, first and foremost, landscaping. This is what we are working.
Text, photo: Anna Afanasyev