If the forecasts of solar activity are correct, then in the coming decades Europe expect snow and cold winters, not global warming. In an interview with the Financial Times, said of the British Meteorological Office Met Office Professor Brian Golding.
The latest research shows that solar activity affects the Earth's climate is much stronger than previously thought. "We believe that about half of the differences in weather conditions between years is a change in the form of solar activity," — said Golding.
The previous two winters that Europe remembers unusually frosty and snowy weather, at least partly due to low solar activity. Now activity increased slightly, as the cycle of solar activity is approaching the maximum phase. But it is expected that within a few years the sun sink into a "deep sleep."
Very low activity was observed from 1645 to 1715 ("Maunder Minimum" coincides with the coldest phase of global cooling, the so-called Little Ice Age), and from 1790 to 1820 ("Dalton Minimum"). During periods of low solar activity had more powerful and frequent volcanic eruptions, in particular, in 1815, there was an eruption of the volcano Tambora, and the next year in Europe and North America was remembered as the "year without a summer, then snowing, even in summer.
In 1709, Europe suffered the most severe frosts, of which the written evidence. In particular, the Daugava was frozen to the bottom, and in the spring of 1709 Riga experienced the strongest in the history of flooding.