A group of researchers from the University of Washington found in ancient meteorites two tiny particles of silica. Experts suggested that the silica is "born" from the massive stellar layers are very rich in oxygen, which is usually located near the core of a supernova. This finding is truly a sensation in the scientific world.
According to some models of stellar evolution, the condensation of silicon may occur in the cold outer atmosphere of the star. According to another version, the silicon must be processed in the formation of magnesium and iron silicates. However, both versions are difficult to verify because we can not collect samples of the stellar atmosphere.
The only way — to investigate the incident to the Earth celestial bodies. The fact that asteroids and meteorites are able to capture isotopes of stellar material and store them for a long time. It should be borne in mind that different stars are able to produce a different ratio of isotopes. In the process of the formation of stellar systems of its celestial bodies are similar in isotopic composition: this also applies to the planets and asteroids in our solar system.
However, in some cases, meteorites can contain samples of isotopes stars that have arisen before the birth of the solar system. If such a celestial body falls into the hands of scientists, they are given a unique opportunity to investigate the composition and convective processes that go inside the distant stars. Up until the 60s of the last century in the scientific world believed that the solar system in the early days of its formation was dominated by such high temperatures that any "pre-solar" material found in it is now impossible.
However, in 1987, a team of scientists from the University of Chicago found in ancient meteorites tiny diamond inclusions. Subsequently diamond "seed" was found in more than a dozen space minerals. Their isotopic composition was so unusual that experts have decided: diamonds came to us with a very old stars.
But inclusions in meteorites, silicon dioxide (SiO2) was first discovered. Grain diameter of only 250 nanometers — a little larger than viruses. In this case, they are enriched in oxygen-18, which is usually present near the core of supernovae.
Called supernovae, very massive stars, trailing its evolution explosion. In this star dumps most of its mass into space at speeds of up to ten thousand kilometers per second, enriching the space with heavy chemical elements, and the remaining central portion collapses into a superdense neutron star or a black hole. At the time of the explosion, such objects are very bright flash, as the huge amount of energy is released. Therefore, the appearance of such stars in the sky is quite easy to calculate.
In essence, the supernovae are not a newly born stars — this is just "poslevzryvnaya" stage of existence of the "old" stars. Incidentally, it was associated with supernovae evolution of the universe. According to scientists, initially, immediately after birth, it consisted exclusively of light gases — hydrogen and helium. All other chemical elements were formed only in the process of burning stars. That is, most of the matter that makes up our universe is the product of supernova explosions!
Type of supernova is determined by the presence in the spectrum of its emission lines of hydrogen. If it is present, then the supernova belongs to the second type, if not — then the first type. Supernovae are of the first type are observed, as a rule, in elliptical galaxies, consisting mainly of low-mass red stars, while in spiral galaxies, which belongs to our own Milky Way, there are two types of objects, and type II supernovae are concentrated in the spiral arms of galaxies, where where active star formation processes and a lot of young, massive stars.
Supernova explosions may well give rise to the star systems. So it is possible that scientists discovered silica inclusions are just the remnants of the explosion that gave birth to our solar system.
It's truly amazing how such tiny particles of matter can "talk" about such large-scale events, such as the formation of star systems. However, it is a fact. And the discovery made by experts from Washington, will be of great importance for the further study of the evolution of the universe.