How do airplanes. Part 1 (57 photos)


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Author: sergeydolya

Read the second part of "How do airplanes. Part 2 (47 pics)."

Read and watch, "KnAAPO. Superjet. Or another photo essay on SSJ-100 (45 photos)"
— Supplementing the photo report Marat Gizatulina.

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Attention! This photo, prkomentiroval grOOmi (Thanks for the tip Don'Y). What would not produce "extra entities", I took it upon myself and joined the author's version (text and photos) with comments grOOmi (GSS employee [?]). And something to avoid confusion, Comments grOOmi allocated like this color.

Peter Tsk.
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At the words "domestic production" in my head pops up picture of a dilapidated shop with a leaking roof and rusty ladders, crooked leaving the ceiling. What was my surprise when I found myself in Komsomolsk-on-Amur in the workshop, which produces aircraft Sukhoi Superdzhet100 — absolutely clean shop, which nadraivayut 4 times a day polisher, warning signs at each hatch, neatly dressed staff:


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This photo — final assembly Knafo CJSC Sukhoi Civil Aircraft. That is, not KnAAPO, although other photo — only KnAAPO. The photo shows all the six assembly seats (platforms)

The plant employs about 12,000 people, and the production is divided into two areas. The first workpiece is made of aluminum fuselage, and the second wings attached thereto is set in all avionics aircraft and engines.

[2] Today I will show you how a piece of aluminum turns into a plane:


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The photo compartment assembled F-2 in which the installation is made of sex. In the background — the assembly line bays.

[3] At the very beginning I want to express my deep gratitude to PR services Dry and KLA for the opportunity to get to this production. It is forbidden to shoot, but we made an exception:


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Actually communicating KnAAPO. Everything is as it should be, grilles, badges and security with guns.

Modern aircraft are created "in the figure." From Moscow to Komsomolsk-on-Amur on the network transmit electronic models of aircraft parts and assemblies. Plant engineers write programs for CNC machine tools and adapt designs to production. That is, they get out of Moscow's electronic models, and further develop their own tooling, tools and processes for the manufacture of these components.

[4] By the way, the plane Sukhoi Superjet is the first Russian aircraft, fully established on the basis of digital technology, which has reduced the time of the preparation of its production to 2 years:


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In the photo department of the Digital Simulation and Control program (Dima hello!). My former boss. At this place before they planted me to build all sorts of twisted during the passage of the delegations. The monitor of one fuselage panels. Most likely right F-2.

[5] It begins with a machining workshop, which drive up the hefty aluminum billet and turn them into the details of the future aircraft:


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Blanks for details. All brand labeled material. 1933 — one of the most capricious of aluminum alloys in the processing of milling machines.

[6] In the shop there are huge fully enclosed CNC:


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DMF-360 machine and workpiece for details. Table length 3600 mm 3-axis. Good stanochek …

[7] In all such machines for the production of Superjet was purchased more than 30 pieces:


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Machine Company Endura Fooke, used for cutting stringers. High.

[8] All the chips from the machine automatically goes on struzhkoprovodu in containers and leaves for recycling:


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[9] The blank is clamped on the turntable and processed by the program without human intervention:


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Horizontal Machining Center MAG-3. A great machine, it can cut the time frames milling segments.

[10] The machine operator is standing outside and watching the process on the monitor. Hence it happens all the control:


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The machine operator Forest-Line Vstar watching the process of milling parts.

[11] Manually install a workpiece:


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The machine operator DMU-80 Monoblock wind up with a milling device for the amusement of the gaming
public. Visible item during processing.

[12] One day Michelangelo was asked how he creates his sculptures. He replied, "Very simply, I take a stone and cut off all unnecessary." Like the great Italian creator, machines Dry sharp cutters cut off all the excess metal:


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Machine DMF-360A. Visible item during processing. If you do not change the vision, it is the 6th installation. Maybe part in my programs handle.

[13] milling machines can be very complex shape and large size parts, thanks to programs written by engineers KnAAPO:


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Milled stringer on the very Endura Fooke. Seen jigs machine harvesting as a profile, spindle mounted in Shrinkfit cutter.

[14] Anything that looks like stamping, actually was "vystrugano" from a large piece of aluminum milling machines:


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Ready wing skin near the machine Forest-Line Vstar.

[15] In the fuselage of the aircraft over 40,000 rivets and another 15,000 in the wing. Drilling holes and installing rivets in the wing and fuselage panels made by riveting machine with the laser:


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Laser cutting machine Bysronic Bystar. Manufacture of other small items. "Drilling holes and installing rivets in the wing and fuselage panels made by riveting machine laser"- Missing! There misunderstanding apparently came at us with Sergei.

[16] The laser also cut out the small details:


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[17, 18] On the plane almost no straight parts. To give the desired curvature using a set of shapes stitched in a special press:


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"Blanks" for forming the skins. The cross in the background pulling-CNC.


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Another area for forming. The left is longitudinally pulling-CNC.

[19, 20, 21] item is set in the press, pressed straps and the program put the effort necessary for its formation:


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Actually the machine tool and the workpiece in the process of formation. After forming the item is placed on the special device POGO table and mill the outer contour of the skin in size, that is, without teh.pripuska and drilled hole assembly.


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[22, 23], the wing skin is brought to the desired shape on a separate press in a manual mode:


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Forming the bottom left of the center wing skin.

[24, 25] Made wing skin are controlled by a special bench with a set of templates. Deviation 14-meter wing skins should be no more than + / — 1 mm:


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The control device for the control of deviations of the wing skins.


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[26, 27] Once the desired items acquired form of primer coated for protection against corrosion:


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Sections of the slat assembly area.

[28] For each fuselage panel has its own equipment, called a "pallet":


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New pallets for riveting of fuselage panels.

[29] The fixed panel in pallets fall on automatic riveting machines. Each plane about 55,000 rivets:


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All four riveting machin
e. On the ground — a panel of F-3 lateral left.

[30] The entire process is fully automated and controlled by a few people:


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Workplace machine operators — just space.

[31] The marking fixture installation process is done manually:


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Chegoj mark out. Positioning riveting machine is made for technological assembly fasteners are installed in the hole. Yes, the assembly of fuselage panels — Aki assembly design tools are placed on a stringer, top trim and rivets on the assembly holes are collected. Holes of 3.1 mm 2.7 mm rivet.

[32] Automatic still can not fully replace the human and some places have to mark up for riveting work:


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Doklepochnye work. The gaming machine of all the rivets fail.

[33] After joining the fuselage mounted in rack vnestapelnyh works, where it is made final assembly:


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[34] At the number shows that the assembly is the 20th aircraft:


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[35] Openings bolting treated specially, to avoid backlash:


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[36] The tighter the joint, the more resource parts:


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[37, 38] Stapel wing spar assembly:


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[39] Headphones — an indispensable element for the safety of work at hand riveting:


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[40] formers who completes the passenger compartment and separates it from the tail section, where the auxiliary power unit (APU)


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Pressure bulkhead. Completes the F-4. Behind it is an area of responsibility NAPO — sections of F-5 and F-6.

[41] of center — the central part of the wing. He is joined in the wings, and it is located inside the gas tank:


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"Gas Tank" — it's so …

[42] The shop, which collect the wings:


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Assembly line of the wing,

[43] In the stocks are installing the wing spars and ribs:


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Stocks wing assembly. One can see the first and second spar and ribs.

[44] RatedPLL 95021 indicates that this is a detachable part of the wing for the aircraft with serial number 021 number. Total Dry already produced 11 aircraft:


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Stand pre-docking.

[45] The bottom surface of the left wing hatches for access inside the wing and its maintenance during operation of the aircraft:


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Stapel assembly left SUNGLASSES, visible root rib.

[46] All of them are closed with removable covers like:


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Cover for processing holes in the bottom of the wing.

[47] The internal cavity of the wing, as well as the center section is used as a fuel tank:


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[48] In this shop collected fuselage sections are then joined together:


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Assembly line bays. Foreground assembled half compartment F-4 and the lower right-hand side panel.

[49] Stacked fuselage panels before passing into the workshop
production of fuselage sections:


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[50] In each shop on the wall more information about what it is collected:


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[51] Here are collected the next plane to the floor rails access:


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[52] And set it in the fuselage:


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[53] After the installation process is covered its floor:


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[54] Beneath it is a luggage compartment:


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[55] The fuselage sections are joined automatically on the stand:


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[56] There is no stand on any other Russian plant, including military:


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Stand docking bays fuselage. Are seen stacked compartments F-2, F-3, F-4 from NAPO has not received F-1 and F-5.

By the way the number of rivets. 40,000 for the fuselage very conservative figure. More than 40,000 rivets contain 4 side panel right, left F-2 and F-4, ie the total number of rivets in the fuselage over 80,000

In the next post, please read the story of the second workshop of Sukhoi aircraft which finally collected and sent to heaven. But the sky will be a girl, and of course, jets. Stay Tuned!


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