Ksenofiofory known giants of the world of unicellular and lovers of extreme ocean depths, set a new record for deep-sea: this time, they were found at the bottom of the Mariana Trench at a depth of ten and a half miles.
Scientists at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (USA) reached the bottom of the Mariana Trench and discovered the largest modern unicellular — ksenofiofor in size up to 10-20 centimeters. These amazing amoeba known since the XIX century — the truth, then they took a sponge. Over time, zoologists have agreed to consider them relevant to multi foraminifera.
Ksenofiofory wander on the sea floor, picking up organic matter settled. Some even buried a few inches deep. Eating, ksenofiofory secrete sticky secretion, which sticks to all sorts of things: tiny mineral particles, fragments of skeletons of other organisms, and so on. So on the surface of the cells formed something like a shell or exoskeleton.
Despite its abundance (up to 2,000 giant amoebas on 100 sq. m.) Ksenofiofory relatively poorly studied. However, in their passion for extreme depths, scientists have already had occasion to make sure. Previous record of deep-celled reached 7500 m: they were found on the bottom of the North Novogebridskogo trench in the Pacific Ocean. Now the depth is set to zhizneobitaniya 10,641 m
Researchers have been able to remove what is happening at the bottom of the Mariana Trench, with a special deep-chamber capable of supporting multi-ton water pressure. Camera encased in a heavy-duty glass bubble, while giving a pretty clear picture of what is happening around. Besides ksenofiofor, the researchers were able to see the ultra-deepwater jellyfish, so the idea of a lifeless gloomy depths of the oceans, most likely not the case. It is possible that even in such extreme conditions dwells far more creatures than we can imagine, even if we do not take into account the ever-present bacteria.
Ksenofiofory remarkable not only because it is the largest single-celled. They are able to accumulate a lot of lead, uranium and mercury, which speaks to their low sensitivity to toxic heavy metals. In addition, they, as you might have the ability to withstand high pressure and to live in conditions of low temperatures and lack of light. However, despite these remarkable qualities ksenofiofory — rather fragile organisms. Now, researchers are assessing how to put these amoebae in an aquarium with a constant high water pressure to be able to study them in more convenient laboratory, not many kilometers deep.