Specifically, this should be the approach to safety in the Russian Federation aerospace
Establishment in 2011 of a new genus of the Armed Forces Russian Federation — ASD troops meant closing the issue of liability for the creation of a system of aerospace defense of. But structural configurations of the implemented version of the RF Armed Forces is not allowed to fully ensure the unity of the responsibility for the construction of ASD throughout areas of the country, to organize the unified management of troops (forces), solve puzzles EKR, strategic, operational and tactical command and control levels, eliminate duplication in the work of military control.
The current military-political situation in the world once again demonstrates zeal Western countries to pursue their own goals by the military. For their contribution to the progress embark different capabilities: from actions prepared terrorist groups to massive air strikes and cruise missiles. Naturally, the Russian Federation can not be associated with Iraq, Libya or Syria — is the only global power, which owns commensurate with the U.S. nuclear potential and able to kill them. But the scenario of military conflicts in recent years, trends of development of means of warfare must be considered in the process of military development.
The most important of these trends should include the development of high-quality air and space attack (SVKN) allowing unscathed achieve their military objectives. In order to increase combat abilities aerospace opponent in Russian Federation the ASD system, which means the totality of organizational and technical levels of interrelated forces and means to tackle puzzles reflection aerospace attack the enemy on one plan and the plan under a unified command, in a single command and control circuit.
Works are in the direction of improvement of IWT as ASD, and institution-building forces and determine the rational structure of the Armed Forces. Thus, one of the important steps the military-political control of the country in the field of aerospace defense was the formation in 2011 of a new genus of the Armed Forces Russian Federation — Troops EKR. This solved one of the main tasks of promoting the construction of EKO — form a strategic military authority — Forces Command EKR responsible for establishing the aerospace defense system based on the integration of air defense systems and RKO.
Coupled with the fact implemented version structural configurations Russian Federation Armed Forces is not allowed to fully ensure the unity of the responsibility for the construction of ASD throughout areas of the country, to organize the unified management of troops (forces), solve puzzles EKR, strategic, operational and tactical command and control levels, eliminate duplication of effort military control bodies.
Incompleteness of decisions causes huge number of publications on this topic, which deals with two other approaches to institution-building RF Armed Forces troops (forces), solving puzzles EKR.
First approach is to develop a new kind of Armed Forces — Air Space Forces (VKS). Second — in the forthcoming development of the armed forces, troops ASD and development of the Armed Forces — Troops EKR.
Proponents of the first approach believe that the construction and development of the system on an existing ASD (made in the Air Force) base will allow less time and with real costs to make the system EKR country. For all this to be borne videoconferencing as shock and defensive tasks.
It is worth noting that interspecific temper military action at the strategic level is not in doubt. Strategic operations are planned and conducted under the control of the chief of the General Staff or the front commander. But it does not mean the need to unite all those involved in the operations of troops (forces) in a single unified view of the Armed Forces. Guided by this approach, we can prove the necessity of uniting SRF distant aviation, marine component of the strategic nuclear forces, including troops to the same ASD, in one type of acting in a unified management system. Or on the basis of joint action to defeat enemy targets include the Air Force missile and artillery.
In addition, it must be emphasized that the formation of videoconferencing will lead to excessive enlargement of the Armed Forces assigned to Commander videoconferencing extensive list of ambiguous tasks of building and implementing aviation and aerospace defense troops of cosmic forces and means. This is unlikely to provide a purposeful will allow efficient construction of aerospace defense system of the Russian Federation and its application, will claim more than one revision of earlier decisions.
In our view, the main issue for decision in selecting the option structure of troops is to provide the best criterion for the construction of aerospace defense system solutions and challenges facing the troops.
These puzzles include:
First — a role in nuclear deterrence by timely warning «decapitated» and «disarming» of nuclear strikes and protection of strategic management and the strategic nuclear forces of their objects;
2nd — Russian border guards Advertising Federation airspace, air space control and suppression of violations of its use. Control of cosmic space;
3rd — aerospace defense troops and facilities in the local (regional) wars.
All three groups of problems are solved defensive component of the Armed Forces — the troops (forces) EKR.
From the perspective of system construction EKR best conditions will be made under the leadership of the main forces of the Russian Federation and means EKR one official and the laying on him individually liable for the company ASD throughout the country areas. Experience of successful construction of Air Defense Forces showed that between 70 and 80 years of the last century were made anti-aircraft missile weapons systems and radar troops, fighter aircraft, missile and space defense, in other words, was built by a real base of aerospace defense of the country.
Important factors, in the midst of other who contributed to the successful development of air defense and RKO during this period were the organizational unity of the Air Defense Forces and the RKO and the individual responsibility of the 1st officer — Chief of the Air Defense Forces for the creation of systems and air defense missions and RKO. In the following years, the positive role of this factor has not been considered in the process of reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. During the past fifteen years after the elimination of the Air Defense Forces and Air Defense Forces and transmission RKO in different species (kinds of troops) RF Armed practical work on the creation of the country’s aerospace defense was frozen interdepartmental contradictions that have emerged in the solution of problems of ASD. She resumed only with the formation of Troop EKR.
ASD system is a complex logistical system, including the following interrelated among themselves subsystems: reconnaissance and warning of aerospace attack, destruction and oppression SVKN, comprehensive support and management. Experience of work on the creation of such complex systems indicates that the database of all research and activities undertaken for development EKR country should be put systemic approach of inclusive development and application under unified control of all forces and means of solving puzzles EKR.
Creating a system EKR RF is a complex task requiring a focused selection of real and substantial financial resources, to optimize their use for the creation of its constituent subsystems. Effective in its decision criteria when actually need to restore the system, and that it EKR forthcoming development, can only be under the control of the 1st official specifically subordinate Chief of General Staff.
Consideration of the problem of selecting a good structure in terms of ensuring effective implementation of tasks also shows a preference for the second approach.
In solving problems of strategic deterrence all terrain reconnaissance Russian Federation started to warn of «decapitated» and «disarming» ballistic and aerodynamic means, must be in a single control loop, operate under a unified command and provide information in a single tract notice. In this case, a single loop control and unified command needed to meet the requirements for the reliability of disk imaging and time bringing it. After deciding the response actions conducted RF SNF, for effective implementation of which created a special control system.
In solving the problem of the protection of state borders Russian Federation airspace, air space control and suppress violations of its use, control of cosmic space second approach is also better, because the solution to this problem does not imply verbovaniya strike forces and carried out only defensive means.
But in the current time task organization of protection of state borders in the airspace of the Russian Federation and control procedures for its use are practically distributed between the commander of the ASD and commanders of military districts, which contradicts the principle of unity of responsibility for tasks and EKR promoting its efficient solution.
Subordination of all troops and forces of aerospace defense commander of the EBA, in other words the creation of an organizational structure similar air defense forces, provide the sole responsibility for the decision of this task.
During the local (regional) war fighting acts conducted interspecific groups, planned and carried out the act to protect its own troops and objects and destroy enemy troops and installations. Applied to aerospace shock acts conducted air force, navy and missile forces and artillery of the Ground Forces and defense — of troops (forces) EKR.
Such disposition action dictates the need for the Air Force troops (forces) EKR. Faster opposite — it indicates the need for development of troops (forces) in a single form of ASD, with responsibility for solving problems of aerospace defense forces and the commander of the objects in the ASD. At the same time, in our opinion, should be capable of decentralizing the management of troops (forces) EKR to transfer them to the decision of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in the operational control of the commander of the military neighborhood.
Force Commander ASD in this case should provide a solution to the complex problems in the rest of East Kazakhstan territory of Russia. In addition, the commander of the important task in the organization EKO EKO troops and facilities in theater, taking into account the real correlation of forces in the strategic directions is a strategic regrouping of forces and means in the area of ASD military conflict.
One of the arguments put forward in the justification of the necessity of creation videoconferencing is that air coming into service functionality aircraft systems operational and tactical aircraft that could affect both by air and by land and sea targets.
These aircraft systems is a versatile aircraft platform to transform them into a fighter-interceptor, bomber aircraft or naval aviation, capable of striking surface targets. But this requires a suitable way to prepare flight crews (pilots not universal) have a corresponding specific weapons (missiles «air-air», «air-land», etc.).
Really the whole resource of these complexes should be divided in advance under the above tasks and established a suitable kits flight and weapons. From these positions need to share data to solve complex problems of shock (in the structure of the Air Force) and defensive tasks (structure Troops ASD).
The argument in favor of the first approach provides military construction experience of developed foreign countries.
But the real experience of defense arises solely as a result of generalization actual combat for the protection of another country or from air attack. Such experience, few countries possess. During the second World War, Germany, England, the Soviet Union gained significant experience in dealing with problems of air defense. These States applies Our homeland. Egypt, Syria, Israel, Vietnam, and several other states have gained practical experience in the defense of local wars and armed conflicts. Analysis of real practical experience in organizing defense says that within a country should create a single air defense, led by one officer responsible to control the country’s defense objects of economic and military potential.
In almost all countries, there is no independent branch of the armed forces, air defense tasks only decisive. Development of defense performed, usually within Army and Air Force. This is explained by only one factor — insignificant compared with the Russian Federation territory, which is necessary to cover from enemy aircraft.
Well, the experience of the U.S. defense is not an example for us to follow. For them the threat of air attack is scanty. Despite this, the system made EKR North American continent «Norad» continues to develop rapidly as an independent organizational and technical system.
One of the arguments in favor of the creation of videoconferencing is to maintain the current system time to the true form of the introduction of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation. In our opinion, fundamentally conservation system implementation forms the sun, and their forthcoming development for effective implementation of troops (forces), including the crucial tasks of EKR.
For the practical implementation of the second approach to the creation and application of aerospace defense system of the Russian Federation, in our opinion, purposefully undertake further arrangements.
1. Rhode Armed Forces of Russian Federation — ASD convert Troops of the Armed Forces — Army EKR.
2. Convert the Air Force and Air Defence Command operational EKR, knocking out their composition airbases. Enter command formed in the Troops EKR.
3. Convert Air Defense Command-defense under the operational command of the ASD.
4. Brigade EKR (VOP) to reshape the body (division) with ASD transfer their constituent parts forces fighter aircraft.
5. Make a single management system fighter aircraft, solve puzzles EKR, due to the transfer of the respective Fri guidance in the corps (divisions) EKR.
In general, the analysis indicates the need to build on the basis of a new type of ASD Forces Armed Forces — Troops EKR. This will allow to make a single management system EKR that meets modern requirements to ensure the unity of responsibility for the construction and development of the Russian aerospace defense, use of troops (forces) in the face of EKO EKO Forces Commander.
Deputy Chief SIC defense 4th CRI Russian Defense Ministry for Science, Ph.D., Senior Researcher
deputy head of the SIC defense 4th CRI Russian Defense Ministry, Candidate of Military Sciences
Leading Researcher SIC defense 4th CRI Russian Defense Ministry, Doctor of Military Sciences, Senior Researcher