In the conditions of modern politics, as consisting in reducing the allocations to the Ministry of Defence, and in reducing the number of personnel, ensuring the highest efficiency is one of the burning problems of the forthcoming development of military equipment and weapons. For this reason, reform of the Russian Army should be tightly woven with the creation of highly effective weapons. As the fight against tanks is one of the main objectives of virtually all the armed forces, it is necessary to improve the upcoming anti-tank weapons (TCP). The introduction of new designs on tanks defense asks boepripasnikami taking adequate measures to establish a highly efficient anti-tank weapons.
In recent years, the armies zabugornyh pays great attention to increasing survivability armored vehicles. Modern and promising tanks equipped with reactive armor (ERA), which is effective against both cumulative and armor-piercing projectiles (BPS). Together with the installation on tanks DZ, DZ installed on APCs, armored personnel carriers, self-propelled guns (close ammunition) for different engineering fortifications.
Dynamic protection is a unit of spaced-bottlenecking of iron and non-metallic materials, including sheet of plastic explosive charges (PVV), which in the end use of energy of the explosive increase in the level of resistance provides protection in action armor-piercing shells and hollow weapons. The increase in resistance of the protection provided by the dynamic action-bottlenecking (methane explosion sheet of charges RWA) for penetrating the drummer. In the Lebanese events with DZ was greatly enhanced the overall persistence of old times armor tanks ("Centurion", "Sheridan", M-48A3, M-60) from the cumulative Russian RPG grenades, extensively used in the conflict. It must be emphasized that the current design of reactive armor designed in the criteria "anchor" to the existing tanks. This binding is not permitted to reach high values performance characteristics as DMZ, and the entire defense as a whole. However, the highest performance armor protection can be achieved by developing the latest generation of the tank.
The introduction of advanced technologies, solid modeling techniques to support good design can create tanks armored vehicles with the highest level of comprehensive protection, which DZ was to play a decisive role. Now the creators of tanks, having the opportunity (through the use of plastic explosive) wide maneuver mass dimensions of the assembly comprehensive protection possess certain advantages over boepripasnikami that are "tied" restrictions on the caliber and weight of the ammunition.
Recall that DZ — A protective device (which comes in the charge PVV), acting on ensnared in tank BPS or cumulative jet (COP) to dramatically lower their armor-piercing action. Maximum efficiency of dynamic protection in lowering the armor-piercing ammunition capabilities achieved by the side effects of methane explosion iron plates on the cumulative jet and armor-piercing shells.
Active research and development have allowed the design to make DZ possessing varying efficiency. So, if the first was created by hanging armor to fight the cumulative ammunition, soon appeared an integrated dynamic protection, designed to address both the cumulative ammunition, and with armor-piercing shells. In our country, worked first integrated RS-60's. But installing DZ on Russian tanks in its not the best option was implemented in 1985. Such a belated appearance DZ negative impact on the timely development of Russian anti-tank weapons capable of overcoming the DMZ. Coupled with the fact, that immediately perform dynamic testing of protection that can fight the BTS and the tandem shaped-charge ammunition, our developers have hinged DZ capable of beating only with old cumulative ammunition.
Together with the fact there are negative examples of how the dynamic protection equipment such as overhead tanks in military criteria. So in the photo represents a variant of "amateur" DZ placing containers on the tower T-72. Third row of containers does not increase the overall efficiency of the dynamic protection, and increasing the area from which the explosion will be demolished adjacent containers DMZ. The tank will be "bare" for the next exposure. In addition, during the three-layer arrangement of containers DZ growing dynamic loads on the internal equipment and crew, and increases the efficiency of their affection without breaking your tank.
Dynamic protection built in. equipped Russian tanks T-72B, T-80UD and zabugornye M1A2 (USA), "Leopard 2" (Germany), "Leclerc" (France), the tank "90" (Japan), also developed a version of its installation on the upper front body parts of the T-80 (China). It is understood that the effectiveness of the protection depends on the length of the dynamic parts. On zabugornyh tanks block length is 500 mm ERA, allowing great influence not only on the close-coupled ammunition (With a shaped charge), and on the tandem warhead. On our own tanks block lengths for the sake of unification is 250 mm, which determined its low efficiency. From a comparison of block sizes DMZ, for example, on the upper front part of South American tank corps with DZ on the Russian tank shows that the tank is located on zabugornom 2 series, and the Russian — 4 rows of containers DMZ. This alone shows the comparison of the greater length of the blocks on the DMZ zabugornyh tanks.
At the current time, there are options for development DZ tandem with 2 separated layers of plastic explosive (first layer RWA neutralizes the effect of the first charge tandem warhead, the second — reduces the depth of penetration of the cumulative jet of the main charge of 50 … 70%) also created a computerized DMZ, which will be more complex and efficient than the existing structures and be able to neutralize the armor-piercing effect as armor-piercing projectiles, and the cumulative ammunition caliber of 120 mm or more. This "intelligent" design is a computerized option DZ, detecting, deflecting or destroying the BTS and the COP with the introduction of small blocks DMZ. In this structure, used sensors connected to a computer that controls the entire system. When the attacking munition will be a system of sensors, the computer will determine the characteristics of the projectile and the number of blocks DMZ, which should neutralize ordnance. This scheme allows a more economical use of industrial explosives ERA and least significant impact on the external and internal units of armored vehicles. The implication is that the system can be installed on a promising modifications Ml tanks and infantry fighting vehicles, "Bradley". The system considered safer than the existing DMZ, as is only triggered by a signal computer. Together with the fact promising TCP must use computerized electronic saturation DZ by Creation incorrect noise and produce remote undermining its blocks.
Equipment tanks ERA intensified work in the advanced countries to improve the anti-tank weapons. By the time the true made ammunition able to "overcome" DMZ, but in general, many of the questions difficult to defeat bronetseley DZ remain unresolved. There is an abundance of structures developed and made by PTS, established to combat bronetselyami equipped with RS. In the conditions of bounded real abilities and increase the efficiency of TCP need a full evidence-based approach to the choice of directions of development of this type of weapon. Along with that, the results of research show that, along with the method of overcoming the dynamic protection with the initiation of PWV is possible to overcome its parts without triggering PVV. Since the roof, bottom and sides of the tank are insignificant thickness, the creation of anti-tank weapons, acting on these pieces (even if FOE), will allow significantly improve the effectiveness of anti-tank weapons. New tactics of shooting, even the "old" ammo can give a good result. And, in the end, non-traditional methods of defeats the purpose of opening up new areas effective against tanks. It is impossible not to note the need to translate the course for an extension of the current cycle of some PTAs due to modernization. One of the proposals in this direction could be the substitution of cumulative pre-charge (PD) tandem warheads (BC) high-explosive anti-tank flattens precharge-directed actions.
With the emergence of dynamic protection anti-tank weapons developers have proposed new layout circuits missiles, including a tandem warhead. Under the plan creators tandem warhead, the first in the course of the missile cumulative charge or pre-charge (PD) provides the initiation of the explosive in a dynamic defense, and the second — the main charge (VA) operates through a period of time sufficient for the care of fragments of dynamic protection with the trajectory of the cumulative jet, ie, the impact on the "naked" bronetseli body.
First reaction boepripasnikov the emergence of dynamic protection is to upgrade the standard means, ie, the revision was carried out single-warhead warhead missile systems to the level of the tandem. Thus, the anti-tank TOW-2 by means of pre-charge placed in the brain stem, has been brought to the level of TOW-2A tandemnoi warhead. With the modernization of Russian and zabugornyh designs used anti-tank layout scheme (Fig. 1), in which the pre-charge (5) mounted in the main compartment, located in front of the sustainer engine (6) to the channel (7) for the passage of a cumulative jet of the main charge (8). With such sustainer engine design protects the main charge of explosive impact precharge. However, this scheme has the layout with 2 significant shortcomings. First of them is that, due to lack of available volumes when placing the head compartment precharge it is small with a small amount of explosives. Because the jet stream itself has a low armor penetration of the pre-charge and low-initiating ability, that is, only the head sections of the jets provide the initiation of explosives in the dynamic elements of the defense. Precharge position relative to the container DZ, where are the normal functioning is shown in Figure 1a. After contact with the pre-charge in the extreme zone (Fig. 1b), close the container head sections of the cumulative jet PZ "spent" to break through the top and side walls, side walls and the distant container. The rest of the cumulative jet does not have sufficient capacity for initiating excitation explosion in cell (3,4) adjacent the container, which then enters the jet stream oz. These criteria, with the assistance from the elements DZ jet stream is the main charge would lose much of their own armor-piercing action. A similar situation occurs with the assistance of a cumulative jet precharge with a thick upper wall of the container dynamic protection. There is also the remaining energy of the cumulative jet is not enough to initiate detonation of explosives in the elements of the DMZ. It is seen that in Figure 1 presents options for interaction with tandem warhead anti-tank container ERA, having a length of 250 mm, which mounted on Russian tanks. The second shortcoming of the said anti-tank assembly scheme can be attributed follow. After contact with anti-tank (Fig. 2a) in the left end zone DZ container (500 mm) propulsion system (6) and the main charge (8) are in the dangerous zone in which the products of methane explosion highest part of the container (2), called a meta-screen . Beat projectile screen (Figure 2b), in anti-tank, resulting in deformation of the hull propulsion system (6), resulting in collapse occurs channel (7) and the destruction of the main charge, which is a prerequisite for a meaningful reduction armor-piercing actions of the main charge. Even more vulnerable to destruction of the main charge anti-tank design type Hellfire (Fig. 3), in which is placed immediately behind the main precharge charge. In this case, the screen shot projectile (4) generally leads to the destruction KO.
For this reason, made anti-tank with tandem warhead, fuze invested in this non-contact devices that allow for the undermining of the pre-charge a few meters away from the reactive armor (anti-tank AC-3G), also be used to fire back precharge (ATGM HOT 2T). Layout solutions used in these missile systems, have allowed much to increment the time delay between the precharge and the undermining of the main charge, provided that the entry of the main charge in the free zone of methane explosion fragments reactive armor. The layout of the shoot off with a precharge is presented in Figure 4. Powder charge (3) weighing a few grams of 10-s allows you to smooth the separation (Fig. 4b) head cover (1) to precharge (2) from the main rocket body (5). This design allows the best time delay between the PP and the undermining of OZ (4c), which provides care to the line of motion of the cumulative jet of the main charge projectile shield (7) and podlet main charge to the naked armor of the tank. The layout of the ATGM HOT 2T is preferable, it allows in the case of the configuration characteristics of the RS relatively easy to upgrade warhead design means adjusting the distance (which is shooting the pre-charge) and a time delay of the main charge. Immediately fires back with anti-tank precharge in the presence of a tank than DZ active protection (A3) will allow to solve the problem of simultaneous 2-overcome these defenses. Recall that the principle of active protection of the act is that, by means that are installed on the tank, is flying up to him ammo, which is affected (for example, by means of fragmentation stream) to its destruction or decrease efficiency. By providing pre-charge protection against shrapnel flow, we can expect that he, having carried detonate plastic explosive reactive armor, will allow to bring the main charge to the "naked" armor without affecting the flow of fragmentation, as an active defense no time to "recharge."
In addition to the method of overcoming the DMZ to the excitation of detonation there is a method to overcome without having to bring the detonation of plastic explosives in a dynamic defense. Unfortunately, the development of this method of tandem ammunition attention was paid to the missing. This method is justified "low" sensitivity PVV, gear parts used in the DMZ. The low sensitivity of explosives in the elements DZ justified by the requirements of the unexcited by detonation at a fragmentation effect, with lumbago small-caliber bullet or shell.
Zabugornom Russian and spices found that under dynamic loading pieces of reactive armor equipped with regular plastic explosive substances may occur following processes:
— The explosion of industrial explosives;
— "Puncture" in which there is a zone free of PWV, with an area equal to the area of the impactor;
— The formation of a zone free of RWA, the size of the sectional area of a superior drummer;
— Water hammer, at which a release of almost all of the housing element PVV DMZ;
— Aeroudar is characteristic of the presence of variants in the element of DZ unfilled PVV, which hit the CN leads to the opening of the element without an explosion, a situation occurs due to the technological marriage.
To apply the method to overcome the dynamic protection without detonation RWA can be applied flattens precharge blast and directed action. Tandem ammunition to flatten the PP blast and directed acts can be "overcome" virtually all established design dynamic protection.
Armor-piercing shells were considered to this day one of the most effective anti-tank weapons. BPS is the defining indicator of armor. The thickness of the armor plate, punching BTS determined mass and velocity of the projectile, and its cross section (ie, is depending on the diameter).
The increase in armor penetration can be achieved by increasing the mass, velocity and a decrease in the diameter of the projectile.
This is achieved by introducing as a structural material of depleted uranium — a by-product of the nuclear industry. Prior nedavneshnego time as a construction material for the production of cores BTS tungsten was used which belongs to the rarest metals as experts believe zabugornye three quarters of the global supplies of which are concentrated in China. After a huge number of tests with a variety of heavy metals and their alloys, with researchers concluded that the more successful substitute for tungsten alloys in armor-piercing projectiles cores is depleted uranium. To improve the physical and mechanical properties of depleted uranium is used in the BTS as alloys with small additions of alloying components: titanium, molybdenum and others. For superior armor penetration BPS depleted uranium have at the present time length of 500 mm and a diameter 20 … 30 mm. This increase in the length of the projectile and the reduction of the diameter to a large extent contributes to deformation and with his assistance with the screen and RS.
Huge tanks and vulnerable areas of the roof and the bottom has always lured the attention of developers of anti-tank weapons. By the time the true made anti-tank, the design of which allows an attack on tanks at a dive in the final section of the line movement (PARS 3LR, Javelin) or during migration (TOW 2B, BILL). Immediately some progress in the development of anti-tank grenade launcher SRAW (firing range — 17 … 500 m) above the attacking armored target. In addition, the time taken for true self-guided, corrected (requiring outdoor lighting purposes) anti-tank artillery shells 152 mm "Krasnopol" and 155-mm «Copperhead», also started to attack bronetseli top.
Particularly active in the past 15 years developing precision-guided munitions: homing (NSC) and homing (SPB). The main objective of precision-guided munitions is to combat armored vehicles. Delivery of these munitions to the goal can be performed: with guns (artillery cluster shells and mines), aviation (air cassettes) and the introduction of multiple rocket launching systems. Self-guided munitions (TGSM, Ephram, Strix, Merlin) equipped guidance system specifically for the purpose. Homing ammunition (Sadarm, Skeet, Bonus, Habicht) to search and target acquisition during the descent from the simultaneous rotation, further, when an objective is aiming and shooting self-assembled warhead striking element (percussion core). Because of the small thickness of the fragments of protecting roof tanks on it can not be installed DMZ with a huge amount of industrial explosives. Because the effectiveness of the NSS with monobloc HEAT warhead (armor — 500 … 600 mm) does not cause vibrations because the residual portion of the cumulative jet will be fully sufficient for effective zabronevogo act. Together with those in BC (on the principle of shock cores) homing weapon is a very important flaw. There is a
physical law, in which the iron striker in the collision with the screen at a speed of 2 km / s and more than there are massive shock-wave processes that lead to the fragmentation of the impactor. For this reason, the dynamic protection, is a system of screens with a layer of plastic explosive, can be an effective defense against weapons with warheads on the principle of the impact of the nucleus. It is seen that protivodnischevye mines with the introduction of the principle of shock cores are harsh means of dealing with the tanks. A more promising method of installation protivodnischevyh mines is remote mining. Positive results in the firing of tanks filled with hanging ERA with the help of standard anti-tank warhead with a monoblock (ie netandemnymi) can reach 2-launching missiles with a small time interval. With all this action of the first missile lead to the demolition of the housing with DZ tank, and the second rocket will carry the interaction with the "naked" armor. The second tactic may not be shooting in the head-pieces of the tank's protection from DZ, moving to the launcher (gun), and side pieces bronetseli, to move to the next launcher, ie are firing at the tank, at the upcoming "neighbor." On-board protection tank shell has a thickness of 50 … 60 mm. Because no DMZ does not help bronetsel from defeat at the corners of the approach of ammunition close to the normal to the side surface of the hull.
The attentive reader will recall a total collapse in the armored units of the Chechen events using Russian grenade launchers. "The most — the" T-72 and T-80 were burning like matchsticks. Together with the fact that fact requested special consideration. In street fighting fire from grenade was conducted from a distance in some 10 of meters into the side of the tank (in the zone of the location of the fuel tanks and ammunition). These criteria aboard a width of 50 mm, even in the presence of suspended DZ could not protect them from the effects of grenades with armor penetration of 400 … 750 mm. Of course, getting the cumulative jet into the shell or shell tank ammunition inflicted a heavy defeat.
Special mention should be the brakes on the causes of burning fuel tanks T-72 and T-80, which are thin-walled structures, and after hitting a cumulative jet eventually destroyed hammer with saturated splashing fuel with burn marks. With all this burning is not very flammable, and its vapors. In zabugornyh tanks "Abrams", "Leopard 2" internal fuel tanks are located in special reserved volumes hit a cumulative stream that do not cause their destruction and formation of fuel vapors. It is understood that the fuel combustion of 1 kg 3 kg of oxygen is required, which contains approximately 13 m3 of air. Because thanks to the robust construction of fuel tanks zabugornyh tanks that provide low contact of fuel with oxygen, when there is no penetration of combustion, which allows you to include tanks in the general scheme of protection.
A detailed study and more than the deepest hell bronetseley vulnerability allows you to create a promising ammunition, based on non-standard methods of destruction. One of these methods is to engage the barrel tank gun with fragmentation warhead fitted with a proximity fuse. Detonation such CU barrel zone leads to the formation or holes, or — to a bulge on the inner surface of the barrel. The highest possibility of getting multiple shrapnel pieces in the barrel provided them with a special laying on the surface of the warhead. For these reasons, bronetsel will be deprived of its own main battle features — firepower.
Analysis of the composition schemes tanks and their combat use showed that the tank can be hit without breaking armor. With all this it is necessary that a munition by the explosive energy or kinetic energy carried out a massive surge effects on the body bronetseli. This effect disables the internal units of the tank.
At the current time, the developers of dynamic protection available reserves (tandem and the computerized versions) to significantly increase the efficiency of its impact on armor-piercing shells and tandem cumulative ammunition. Immediately it can be noted that the current cycle made Russian tandem ammunition ended because the ammunition is no longer able to cope with, for example, tandem dynamic protection. At the same time, our developers Title not pay much attention to the creation of anti-tank weapons, operating from the roof. Abroad to the true time at different stages of development, there were about 20 samples of these munitions, which began to come into service. The main directions in the development of precision-guided munitions are:
— Provision of small masses and dimensions of self-guided and self-homing precision-guided munitions;
— Increase the power of BC through the introduction of facings of heavy metals;
— The development of all-weather and noise-immune sensors goals and homing working in IR and MM-wave bands, including combined, to increase the probability of target detection, widespread use of modern element base;
— Development of good algorithms for searching purposes, excluding its omission and incorrect operation;
— Development of the optimal dispersion of parts for the merits of the most efficient destruction bronetseley;
— Wide block-modular unification, which allows to achieve the universalization of the introduction of precision-guided munitions on different media.
Considered a classic and alternative methods of destruction of the tank with DZ indicate the need to develop research-based features of the concept of vulnerability bronetseley creation of a number of high-performance TCP meet the new methods of warfare in different theaters.
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