After the conclusion of peace of Adrianople in 1829, Istanbul refused in favor of Russian Empire from the eastern shore of the Black Sea, and gave the Circassian lands located between the Kuban and the sea coast right up to the border with Abkhazia. In fact, the Turks had virtually no control over countless mountain tribes who inhabited the Black Sea coast. Caucasian tribes recognized the supreme authority of the sultan as the head of all Muslims, had as their spiritual head, but less so. Taxes from the Highlanders to the Turkish treasury has been received and the Caucasian tribes did not do and other municipal obligations. They spoke only when there is an opportunity to make a raid in the Turkish army. Turkish garrisons holding several fortresses coast The Black Sea, the Highlanders suffered at his by right common belief and taking into account the military power ports, but do not allow their interference in its internal affairs. So Makar, Our homeland had not inhabited, measured areas, and feral edge and could not take possession of the lands ceded by the other as a military force. First, the military acts were reconnaissance nature.
In 1830, a detachment of 10 companies of the 44th regiment of Chasseurs with 10 guns and accompanied by a small team of Cossack transferred by sea to Abkhazia. Russian fighters occupied abandoned Turkish fortress Bambora, Pitsundu and Gagra. The first two were placed in strengthening the borders of Abkhazia and were occupied without a struggle. During the landing of troops in Gagra Russian fighters had to come to grips with the combined forces of sadzyhov Ubykhs and shapsugs. After this mountain troops have repeatedly tried to kick the Russian garrison of the building. After the Mountaineers have suffered significant losses, they changed their strategy and began to harass our troops by frequent sabotage.
Subsequently, in 1831 the Russian detachment under General Berhmana, in the 2-infantry regiments, a total of up to 5 thousand fighter captured Gelendzhik. With all of this Russian put up fierce resistance and natuhaytsy Shapsugs. The imminent promotion along the Russian coast of the Black Sea due to the lack of sufficient troops and equipment to a halt. With no significant forces for the upcoming move along the coast and occupied oppression performances myurids led Gazi-Magomed (he appointed himself Imam of Dagestan and Chechnya and declared jihad Russian Empire) Separate Caucasus Corps commander Baron Grigory Rosen limited naval blockade of the Circassian coast. To solve the puzzles along the coast from 1830 was the continued cruise ships cooperated Black Sea Fleet. This measure did not produce the desired result, because the military sailing ships had to keep a constant distance from the shore and in the event of a storm to go to sea. A Turkish flat-bottomed vessels were always near the coast and in the case of a threat landed on-sparing or hiding in the mouths of numerous rivers.
In 1834, the capital was followed by an indication of accelerating the development of the coast between Gelendzhik and Gagra. Opponent of such imprudent decision was the commander of the Caucasian band and the chief of the Caucasian region Alexei Alexandrovich Velyaminov. But he had to submit to the royal will and moved in the spring of Kuban from Ol'ginsky with the task to establish constant communication with Sunzhensk Bay. All the summer there was construction of a new building Abinsk. In Abkhazia that summer 1834 was sent summary group of several battalions, who had to lay new roads and build capacity needed for benign messages in this area. Construction of roads in mountainous areas has been associated with weight problems and passed with great difficulty. Russian command is not pinned their hopes to advance further dry-Gagra. The area between Gagra and Gelendzhik remained all the same is not available. Immediately there was intelligence on the ground nepokorlivyh tribes. During the 1835's. lieutenant, in consequence of the captain of the General Staff of FF Tornau held two such operations. First performed by the village Anuhvy to Pyatigorsk, and the second — from strengthening through the Strong Trench Caucasian ridge to the mouth of the Sochi River and further to strengthen the Gagra. In 1836 Tornau made a third expedition along the coast with access to Gelendzhik. But now it is captured, and he stayed in Tornau Kabardinian captivity until 1838. Immediately carried out reconnaissance forces and the coast of the Black Sea Fleet. After receiving a number of basic information on the status of the Caucasian tribes, Gregory Rosen ordered the construction of the 2-fortification. At the mouth of the river. Vulan (on the site of modern-Osipovka Arhipo) in 1837 laid the strengthening of Mikhailovsky, and on Cape Adler in the estuary. Mzimta fortress of the Holy Spirit.
In December 1837, after an inspection tour of the Caucasus Sir Nicholas I declared the new commander of the Separate Caucasus Corps. They became Yevgeny Golovin. In the capital before the new commander was tasked by the speedy pacification of the North Caucasus. Caucasian discrepancy was unchanged "headache" of, by absorbing human life, money and material resources. From the Crimea was oriented two amphibious unit: one under the command of General Andrei Mikhailovich Simborskogo in Abkhazia and the other under the command of Lieutenant-General Nikolai Nikolaevich Raevskogo the Taman peninsula. Troop Simborskogo April 24 landed at the mouth of the river. Sochi and laid Navaginsky strengthening. The next day in the mouth p. Tuapse and parachuted Taman squad. Then began to build Velyaminovskaya strengthening. Then in the summer was laid Tenghinka appreciation (at the mouth of the river shapsugs), and in place of the former Turkish fortress Sudzhuk-Calais at the mouth of the river. Tsemes built the fortress of Novorossiysk. At the end of May 1838 all the fortifications on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, from the mouth of the Kuban to the borders of Samegrelo, including Abkhazia, united in one department under the title of the Black Sea coastline. The commander of the entire band was appointed Nicholas Raevskii.
In 1839, Russia built a number of fortifications: the mouth of the river. Subashi — Golovinskii fort at the mouth of the river. Psezuapse — Adler fort, and on the strip between Anapa and Novorossiysk — strengthening Raevskogo. True troops stationed on the Black stripes are chronically lacking: in garrisons were about three thousand people, and around the state was supposed to have 26 thousand fighter. The situation worsened lack of communication — the message was made almost entirely by sea, since the land routes were blocked by the mountaineers. There was a s
hortage of ammunition, food, medicine, ammunition. On the coast of rampant fever and malaria, which decimated the unaccustomed to the climate soldiers and officers. Highlanders look to build fortifications with great apprehension. The poor harvest in 1839 even tempers. Mountain princes and elders accused Russian famine, which deprived them of their traditional crafts and sources of income. At the council of elders decided to kill the Black Sea line.
February 19, 1840 Highlanders troops blocked the strengthening Lazareva, which by that time had not yet been completed and armed with artillery. Garrison was formed from the 4th Musketeers company Tenghinka Regiment and was less than hundreds of fighter. The Highlanders were able to capture the fort by surprise. They broke into the strengthening and killed almost all the garrison, capturing at least 16 people. This frisky success inspired the mountain tribes. March 13 was hijacked Velyaminovskaya strengthening. Then 12 thousand Caucasian militia was preparing to storm the Mikhailovsky fort, where there was a garrison of 500 fighter. Of early afternoon April 3, 1840 one of the lookouts saw the approach of the enemy, and the garrison was alerted. But the forces were clearly not equal, and by 10 am, killing virtually all the defenders, the Highlanders broke into the fortification. Private Regiment Tenghinka Arkhip Osipov blew a powder keg. The enemy got only ruins.
April 16, the Highlanders were able to capture Nikolaevskoe strengthening. June 8, was attacked ABINSKIY fortification built in 1834 on the road from the Kuban to the sea. Russian detachment of 845 men, with 12 guns fought off pressure 12 thousand attackers. First strike, which followed two in the morning, was recaptured. During the first attack was followed by the second. Now the enemy was able to break into the fortification, but the garrison commander Lt. Col. Black 1st line battalion Lieutenant Colonel Veselovskii with 40 reserve soldiers kicked them out a bayonet charge. After the third assault, mountaineers retreated, leaving only killed about 700 people. The trouble with the storming of the fortress Abinskaya, significant losses, the threat of punitive expeditions led to the collapse of the militia of the Caucasian tribes. Circassian leaders began to find peace.
By October 1840 on the Black Sea strip, order was restored, capacity built anew and become stronger than ever. Immediately decided to transfer part of the Kuban band on the river. Laba, lay several new fortresses. And the area between an old and a recent fortified lines populate stanitsas Caucasian Line Cossack troops.