Pages of history: It was called the second Suvorov

Pages of History: It was called the second SuvorovName Peter Stepanovich Kotlyarevskogo 1st of the outstanding heroes of the Caucasian wars, now unjustly forgotten by most children. Meanwhile, the contemporaries vain dubbed it "Gen.-Meteor "and called the second Suvorov.
And personally I think its great-grandfather of Russian special forces.

Kotlyarevskiy Peter was the son of the priest of the village Olkhovatka Kharkov province. Initially, and following in the footsteps of his father, he studied at the Kharkov religious school.

The case has changed his fate in winter 1792 they visited the house in Olhovatka, hiding in a snowstorm on the way, Colonel I.Lazarev. Lazarus, who passes just battalion of the newly created Metropolitan Grenadier Regiment, and riding for a new purpose, it has attracted a witty son of a village priest, who visited his father at this time. Wanting to give something back to the owner for the welcome, Ivan offered to take the boy for himself in the army, to equip himself. Stepan Yakovlevich took the word of the officer that he would plead for the child, as his offspring.

A year later, with a small, in March 1793, came from the Lazarev sergeant Kuban Jaeger Corps and took the boy Peter in Mozdok. Lazarev commanded the 4th Battalion of Chasseurs Kuban housing. Peter Kotlyarevskiy was enrolled in the battalion furerom Lazarev March 19, 1793. A year later, at age 12, he received the rank of sergeant. In 15 years Kotlyarevskiy involved in the Persian campaign (1796) and Russian troops storming of Derbent.
In 1799, he was promoted to lieutenant and appointed adjutant to Lazarus, who was already major-general and chief of the 17th regiment of Chasseurs, accompanied him in transit through the Caucasus Mountains in Georgia. Shortly before the mission to Georgia Ivan Petrovich Lazarev had lost his wife and little daughter. Only close friend Peter Kotlyarevskiy remained close. Gamekeeper forced marshempereydya 36 days through the Great Caucasian Ridge, November 26, 1799 came to Tiflis. The meeting was followed by the troops arrived extraordinary solemnity. The Georgian government Jora XII together with countless princes and his entourage met personally I.P.Lazareva bread and salt outside the city gates.

In 1800 Kotlyarevskiy took part in repulsing the 20000th unit Lezghins the approaches to Tiflis, received the rank of captain. After the catastrophic death Lazarev chief in the Caucasus Prince Tsitsianov Kotlyarevsky offered to be his aide, but he decided to change the staff work on drill and headed for his own: his team was under the company of his native 17th Chasseurs.

During the assault, Ganji, of strongest fortress of the Baku Khanate, Captain Kotlyarevskiy goes ahead Sway company. In this battle, he received his first wound, the bullet hit him in the leg at a time when he climbed to the outer fortification fortress. During the assault Kotlyarevskiy Ganji was promoted to Major and the Order of St. Anne 3rd degree.

Since the beginning of Russian-Iranian war of 1804 — 1813 years. Kotlyarevskogo name resounded throughout the Caucasus.

In 1805, he with his own company in the detachment of Colonel Karyagin protected from the invasion of the Persians Karabakh, took part in the battle on the river Askarani. A small Russian detachment, numbering 400 men and 2 guns, was cut off in his own camp. Granted yourself Karyagin 4 days bravely defended himself against the order of ten thousand Persians, the huge loss of betrayal worse: more than 50 people, headed by Lysenko porutchikom deserted, hunger and thirst are very weakened squad also lost many killed and wounded. In this desperate situation, Major Kotlyarevskiy offers audacious plan: NIGHT MODE secretly or go straight ahead through the Persian forces and capture a fortified castle Shah Bulakh under the control of the Persians, and stay there until the last extremity.

The plan was very risky. Nightly military operations listed Art How to tip the military, even in our days are, let alone read about those years. But the plan was crowned with complete success: such impudence of Russian Persians simply waited. Breaking through the Persian orders, the Russian battalion went to the fortress. Squad rally kicked the garrison, consisting of 150 of the Persians, and took up defensive positions. Russian position was better. The Persians were not hoping to take the castle by force, defected to osade.Spustya 7 days Karyagin was clear evidence that the fortress of moving the main force of the Persians. Aware of the dangers of staying in Shah BULAKH, Karyagin decided to get into the mountains to the fortress Muhratu. At first, there were secretly ferried the wounded, and later came to the fore and the whole party together with guns. The Persians saw the departure of the Shah Bulakh Russian squad only when he was about 20 miles from the walls. When a path is blocked ditch squad, rangers Kotlyarevskogo marching ahead, went down into it, and of their own bodies and guns laid on his shoulders, organized the crossing, which is crossed by their comrades and guns. Nearby Muhrata squad was overtaken by the Persian detachment of about 1,500 people, but the attack was simply mirrored. Sheltered in the Muhrate, Russian eight days withstood the attack multi-million Persian troops until they arrived in time governor of Georgia, Prince Tsitsianov.

By its actions, with a few squad Karyagin kept all the Persian army before the time, until Tsitsianov managed to pack so many troops that he could not move.

In 1807, 25-year-old Kotlyarevskiy promoted to colonel. Next year, he participated in the campaign in the Nakhchivan khanate, the defeat of the Persians in the village and in the mastery of Karabab Nakhichevan.

In 1809 he was entrusted with the safety of all of Karabakh. At the beginning of dowry under his battalion has 2 staff officer, 9 senior officers, 20 non-commissioned officers, 8 drummers, 380 rangers (of 419 man) And 20 of the Cossacks.

When in 1810, the troops of Abbas Mirza, the son of the Shah of Persia, invaded this land, Kotlyarevskiy with chasseur battalion marched out to meet them. With only about 400 bayonets, without guns, he decided to take possession of assault very stronghold Migri.

The Persians were one hundred percent convinced in his own defense. In Migri scored only two roads and the two have been strengthened by the Persians. The fortress itself apart from the walls, and 2,000 people had a garrison and strengthen estestevennye as otvesnyeh rocks that were considered not passable. Storm itself ukreprayonchik the forehead of clean water was a suicide.

But it did not stop Kotlyarevskogo. Leaving the carts, NIGHT MODE (generally night operations of the business card leader) on mountain slopes, he and his men walked fortress and attacked her from behind. By making false attack from the 1st Front, he stormed from the other, and took it by storm.

Result of the fight: 2000 Persian garrison of embossed fundamental strategic fortified Fri In the unit Kotlyarevskogo Rogovtsov lieutenant was killed and six rangers, 29 people were injured, including myself Kotlyarevskiy who sustained an injury to his left hand.

Abbas Mirza was hurt: he practically under the nose of the huntsman was overcome fundamental strategic center on the Araks River. Ahmed Khan gave the order to take the village Migri ago. 5 thousand Persians besieged fortress. Ahmed Khan was preparing for the assault, but the British advisers (so far without these "sworn friends") dissuaded him to do so. Frontal
assault of fortified positions was madness. In addition, Russian actually got to spend all batteries.
And not daring to assault, Ahmed Khan ordered the army to move back to the Araks.

On his failure Colonel Kotlyarevskogo such disposition is not arranged. (As it is this: the enemy is not broken leaves? Disorder!) He set off in pursuit and overtook the enemy at the crossing, yes, yes still NIGHT MODE again attacked and defeated the Persians decisively. Kotlyarevskogo squad was so small that the order was given: to take no prisoners. All the loot and weapon Kotlyarevskiy ordered to throw into the water. The outbreak of panic in the Persian army completed the rout. During this operation Kotlyarevskiy received the Order of St. ZHoru 4th degree, a gold sword with the inscription "For Bravery" and was appointed chief of the Georgian Grenadier Regiment.

About the secret of their own victories Peter S. reads as follows: "ponders cold and hot act."

RF then had to fight acts on two fronts. Apart from Persia, claimed the eastern Caucasus, was a strong opponent of Turkey, whose interests were confined to western Georgia and the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus.

In 1811 Kotlyarevsky was entrusted to suspend the coming of the Persians and Turks from Akhaltsikhe, why he decided to seize the fortress of Akhalkalaki. Taking with him his own regiment of two battalions and a hundred Cossacks Kotlyarevskiy three-day or exceeded the mountains covered with snow and the deepest NIGHT MODE stormed Akhalkalaki.

The Turks, and if waiting for the enemy — it is only from the south, where the slopes are more gentle and certainly not NIGHT MODE. Kotlyarevskiy hit from the north. The night assault was successful. Turkish garrison was taken by surprise and almost completely destroyed, regardless of the rendered desperate resistance. The castle was taken 16 guns, 40 pounds of gunpowder, two banners, a lot of guns. On the morning of 20 December 1811 squad Kotlyarevskogo took possession of the fortress, having lost 30 men killed.

While the general Kotlyarevskiy fought against the Turks in Akhalkalaki to the Persian frontier fared least well. In January 1812, the Persians came rushing on Garabagh khanate in the Sultan of Bad Kerch Trinity surrounded battalion regiment, who, having lost his superiors and remained under the command of Captain Olovyanishnikova, folded gun. All of the Caucasian army was outraged by the delivery Olovyanishnikova and Chief decided to send in Qarabagh Kotlyarevskogo, instructing him to "restore the confidence of the inhabitants of Russian arms to blot out the memory of their shameful thing Olovyanishnikova." Beach Persians Kotlyarevskiy, began by saying that all cleared Qarabagh of robber bands and marched against Abbas Mirza. The very news of the arrival Kotlyarevskogo sent to Karabakh Persians fled. The army of Abbas Mirza, looted everything that was possible, began a hasty retreat for the Aras. With them they carried away and part of the peaceful inhabitants. Kotlyarevskiy tried to repel the Persians civilians and their property. Run zagadanoe completely failed — during the retreat of the Persians destroyed the bridge over the Aras, and strong rains prevented from crossing a ford in the squad. But Kotlyarevsky managed to defeat two small Persian detachment, to take the village of Kir-Koch, considered impregnable, to return to their places of 400 peaceful inhabitants and 15 head of cattle. Although the expedition was Kotlyarevskiy unhappy — the new chief of the Marquis Paulucci (very satisfied with the fruits) gave him the Order of St. Anne 1st degree and the "award winning" The yearly monetary benefit in 1200 rubles.

Came the stern, 1812 Almost all the forces of the country were sent to the war against Napoleon, and in the Caucasus, the Russian troops in the weakened structure continued to fight against the Persians.

Commander Paulucci was recalled to St. Petersburg, and in his place was appointed lieutenant-general Rtishchev. Joining the management of the edge in a very difficult and dangerous time, Rtishchev failed to restore order, but instead began to pursue a policy that has been aggravated the situation. Rtishchev conceived to keep the Highlanders in obedience means of gifts and money. For that here and ogreb. Collected in Mozdok for peace talks Chechen elders were showered with gifts, but the same night, vorachivayas home, attacked beyond the Terek to train himself Rtischeva and ransacked his eyes almost general.

The war with Napoleon led Petersburg to find a peaceful resolution to the conflict in the Caucasus. From Rtischeva sought to stop the offensive act and start negotiations.

The Persians also quite brazen. By focusing on the borders of 30,000 army, trained by British instructors and at the instigation of the same British, they invaded the Talysh and take Lankaran khanate. Kotlyarevskiy anticipating a similar scenario, suggested not to waste time on negotiations and storm the Persians, for "- he wrote — than Abbas Mirza has time to take hold of Talysh Khanate, it will do us such harm that would be impossible to correct."

Rtishchev try every effort to avoid a bloody conflict, the Persians offered a truce and to speed up the negotiations himself arrived at the border. But in proportion as Rtishchev was made compliant, Persians become haughty, demanding, and in the end, claimed the transfer of Russian border to the Terek. The case could end in bad, but Kotlyarevskiy using temporary departure Rtischeva to Tbilisi and to summon him for permission before acting on your own risk, defected to the offensive. October 19, 1812 with his 2000th detachment he ran Aras.

Before the coming of General Kotlyarevskiy turned to the soldiers and officers of a speech: "Brothers! We must go beyond the Araks and beat the Persians. They are on the 1st 10 — but the brave of you is 10, and the more enemies, the more glorious victory. Come on brothers and divide. "

Having made a forced march of 70 kilommetrovy he attacked the main force of the Persians had 15 times the numerical an advantage. Thus began the battle of eminent Aslaundze.

Aslanduz or Aslanduzsky ford across the Aras, where the squad Kotlyarevskogo absolutely destroyed the Persian army, located at the confluence of the Araks river Daravut-tea. October 19, 1812 at the head, with 6 guns Kotlyarevskiy crossed the Araks 15 miles above the Persian camp.

In total, according to the records, was in the squad: 17th regiment of Chasseurs 2 staff officer, 11 senior officers, 24 noncommissioned officers, musicians, 9, 306 series (total 352 people), Georgian Grenadier Regiment — 1,058 people, Sevastopol Infantry Regiment — 215 people, 20 th Artillery Brigade — 85 man, Don Cossack regiment Krasnov third — 283 Cossack Don Cossack Regiment Popova 16th — 228 Cossacks. In total, the expedition took the role of 2221 people.

Pages of History: It was called the second SuvorovAnother major force on October 10 Abbas Mirza was tied to Aslanduzu. Under his command were 30,000 people, with 12 guns. All the actions of the Persians ruled the British instructors. The Persians were planning to break through and detachment Kotlyarevskogo Karabakh go to the aid of the rebel Kakheti. To divert Russian troops of Abbas Mirza ordered Erivanskiy Khan to produce a series of attacks on border posts and the squad Pir-Kuli Khan in 4000 to move people around in the Sheki khanate of Karabakh. Acts of Erivan Khan and Pir-Kuli Khan tribute to no avail.

Happy October 19, 1812 Kotlyarevskiy stormed the fortified positions Persian army on the right bank of the Araks. No one in the c
amp of the enemy unaware of the approach of the Russians. All were engaged in the mundane affairs: who rested, who is involved in tactical training. Abbas Mirza debated with British officers. Litsezrev cavalry on the horizon (for masking Kotlyarevskiy let the horse in front of the militia Karabakh inhabitants), Abbas Mirza said, sitting next to the Briton, "Look, here's a Khan is coming to visit me." The officer looked through a telescope and said, "No, it's not Khan and Kotlyarevskiy." Abbas Mirza was confused, but gamely saw: "Russian themselves climb on my knife."

On the hill was only Persian cavalry, infantry positioned across the bottom, on the left bank Daravut-tea. Assessing the feeble position towards the opponent, Kotlyarevskiy first own bump sent to the cavalry and knocked her to the height of the command. Here in the highest temperature was transferred Russian artillery immediately began shelling the enemy's infantry. Abbas Mirza did not dare to storm the pitch and moved his army to the Araks, in order to limit the movement of the Russians. But Peter S. guessed maneuver the enemy and hit the flank of the Persians. The Persians, seeing her an advantage in men and artillery, did not expect such a turn of events. Came confused, and then escape across the river Daravut-tea, to built at Ford Aslanduzskogo strengthening.

Russian troops went to the enemy's artillery and baggage.

Kotlyarevskiy did not want to stop there. Of days he gave his troops to rest. In the evening to the general Kotlyarevsky brought Russian prisoners who did escape from the camp of the Persians. They said the collection of Abbas Mirza own separate groups: in the morning he was getting ready to respond to new attacks. And Kotlyarevskiy decided to storm the Persians NIGHT MODE. The last captive non-commissioned officer was willing to spend squad by enemy guns. Kotlyarevskiy replied: "At the gun, brother to the gun!" And he gave a disposition to fight. At night the Persians were again attacked. Seven mouth Georgian Grenadier Regiment crossed the river Daraurt, went to the enemy from the mountain rangers battalion under the command of Dyachkova moved around to the Araks, so hit the back of the allowance went down the river Daraurtu. Cossack detachments had to cut off the retreat of the Persians.

In that order Grenadiers and the huntsman, in the deepest silence, came quite close to the enemy's position and clicks "hurray" quickly rushed with bayonets. After a stubborn resistance and short duration Persians were put to flight. After spending a night assault, Russian troops completed the total destruction of the Persian army. Prisoners were taken of all 537 people killed by the Persians lost about 9000. In the battle lost even the British who were the Iranian army: the artillery commander Major Leith and Major Christie. Almost all of the artillery captured Russian soldiers. Trophies were 11 out of 12 guns, made in Britain.

Russian troop loss was 28 killed and 99 wounded.

The report of the capture of Aslanduza began: "God gave cheers and bayonet and then the victory of the most gracious sovereign." In the report of the heads of enemy casualties have Kotlyarevskiy 1200. When asked stunned subordinates why so many do not, because the corpses significantly more, he smiled and said, "In vain to write, we still do not believe it." The guns of the British steel honorable trophy of the operation. Abbas Mirza escaped from captivity to be ashamed of with 20 riders. For Aslanduz Kotlyarevskiy received the Order of St. ZHoru third degree and the rank of lieutenant general.

Who was to knock out Lankaran entrenched there seven thousandth squad and take possession of the Persians Talishinskaya Khanate.

December 17, 1812 began the last glorious campaign of Peter Stepanovich. On the road he took to strengthen Arkeval and 27, went to Lankaran, surrounded by marshes and protected by strong fortifications.

Kotlyarevskiy, experiencing a shortage of artillery and shells, have once again decided to resort to a night assault. Understanding the complexity of tasks, he wrote in these days of "I, as a Russian, you just beat or die." The other day the assault was ordered troops, which said: "Deviations will not. We must either take the fortress, or all die … Do not listen to rebound, it will not."

Lankaran Fortress is a view of the river on the wrong quadrangle Lankaran width of 80 fathoms. Most of its side length of 130 yards, was placed to the south-west. Contact her to the north-east side of 80 fathoms. In the corners — in the bastions — were erected batteries, the strongest of them fired at the approaches to the castle on the north and west sides.

On the night of December 31, 1812 assault began. In the fifth hour of the morning the troops silently left the camp, but still not reaching the designated Fri, had already met with artillery fire from the enemy. Not responding to the shots, the soldiers went down into the ditch and, putting stairs rapidly climbed the walls. Boil a terrible battle. The front ranks of the attackers could not resist and were dropped, many of the officers, and among them Lieutenant Colonel Ushakov, killed, and the number of the Persians on the walls, meanwhile, is rapidly increasing. Then Kotlyarevsky had to lead the troops by example: he plunged into the moat, stood over the body of Ushakov and encouraged people more energetic words. At this time the bullet hit his right leg. Place your hand on his knee, he calmly turned his head and pointing to the soldiers on the ladders took them away. Inspired by the soldiers rushed to attack again. Walking up the stairs to the wall of the fortress, the general was wounded with two bullets hit him in the head and he fell down. But the triumphant hurray! has sounded over the fortress. Mutilated, the general was found in the middle of a pile of bodies storming and defending.

When the fighters who have found their own commander in the middle of a pile of dead bodies were his lament, he at one point opened survivor eye and said, "I was lost, but all I hear and have thought of on your victory." With severe and painful injuries "General meteor" survived.

Victory Kotlyarevskogo broke the Persians, who went on to conclude suitable for RF Gulistan world, upon which Garabagh, Ganzhinski, Sheki, Shirvan, Derbent, Cuban, and part of the Baku khanate Talishinskaya the fortress Lenkoran recognized at the time belonged to the endless Russian Federation, and Persia renounced all claims Dagestan and Georgia.

The very same general who was awarded the Order of St. ZHoru 2nd degree (in the history of this merit was of 131 people), suffering from acquired wounds, went home to Ukraine. The amount bestowed by Alexander I, Kotlyarevskiy bought for myself estate near Bachmuth first, and then about Feodosia, where was treated for injuries.

The legend says that at one point he went to St. Petersburg, and a reception at the Winter Palace ruler, took him aside, confidentially asked, "Tell me, General, who has promoted for you to make such a successful military career?" "Your Majesty, — said hero — my patrons — it's the men, whom I had the honor to command, and only to them I own career." In response, Alexander complained that Kotlyarevskiy secretive than reveal the name of the patron saint of their own than deeply offended hero.

Pushkin in his own "Prisoner of the Caucasus" intended Kotlyarovskomu following lines:
I will praise thee, hero,
Oh, Kotlyarevskiy, the scourge of the Caucasus!
Wherever you raced the Storm —
Your way, like a dark plague,
Coffin, insignificant tribes …
You then left the sword of vengeance,
You do not cheer the war;
Missing the world is sick of honor,
You eat what is idle peace
And the silence of domestic Dolov.

In honor of the accession to the thro
ne in 1826, Emperor Nicholas I granted Petr Stepanovich rank of General of Infantry and offered to lead the Caucasian army. Namely, the governor said: "I flatter myself with the hope that the time to heal your wounds, and the rest from their labor incurred for the glory of Russian weapons, and that the 1st name of your rather be, that animate the troops lead by you. Not frighten the enemy once you defeat and again to dare to break the peace that you have opened the first exploits of your way. I wish that your review was consistent with my expectation. I remain for you to goodwill, and Nicholas. " But Kotlyarevskiy refused. An old wounds are not haunted.

For many years he lived in seclusion, tormented by his wounds. Having become sullen and uncommunicative, Kotlyarevskiy showed unwavering kindness and generosity towards others. Getting a decent retirement, he helped the poor, especially among their own former soldiers, who were, like him, the disabled, they receive a pension from him personally. Knowing that his name is often forgets in comparison with Russian heroes of the war of 1812, Kotlyarevskiy read: "The blood of the Russian shed in Asia, on the banks of the Araks and the Caspian Sea, is more precious than a shed in Europe, on the banks of the Seine River and Moscow, and the bullet Gauls and Persians cause repetitive torment. "He died in 1852

In the Georgian Grenadier Regiment, which bore the name of General Kotlyarevskogo on a daily roll call sergeant major of the First Company of the First Battalion called "General of Infantry Peter S. Kotlyarevskiy." Right wing soldier replied: "He died in 1851 of the heroic death of the 40 acquired by the wounds in the battles for the Tsar and Fatherland!"

During the life of Kotlyarevskogo commander in the Caucasus, Prince MS Vorontsov gave him a monument in Ganja, which he attacked in his youth.

In the famous Kazan Cathedral, where is the tomb of Mikhail Kutuzov, was placed 107 banners and standards produced in battles against Napoleon's army. In the middle of this amount of trophies Russian war of 1812, there were two flag, captured by a detachment of Lenkoran P.S.Kotlyarevskogo, in recognition of his military exploits and generalship of genius.

October 30, 1913 at a meeting of the Society of Zealots stories dedicated to the memory of General Pyotr Stepanovich Kotlyarevskogo I.Kovalevsky doctor said: "When the sun shines, it is not visible brightness of stars." Thunder fights Russian war in the fields of RF surpassed the amazing feats of Russian troops in the Caucasus. The doctor finished his speech thus: "We are Russian, it is necessary to study the exploits not far from the Romans or the Greeks, and from themselves. Kotlyarevskiy belongs to the heroes of the Russian government, which — an endless fame and an unforgettable memory. "

REFERENCES
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