In the middle and at the end of the twentieth century created more individual standards guns. An exception in this respect we can say is the South American lightweight howitzer M777 Mill, which is done with 2005 and entered into service the Marine Corps and the United States Army. Designed and made this weapon was the company BAE Systems. It was designed to change the outdated M198. Brand new system has significantly best features, with all the weight of her half M198. Thus, the length of its firing position is a little more than 10 meters, and weight — 4.2 tons. This makes the M777 more mobile. Mill can be transported by air, namely with the plane V-22 "Osprey." With the M198 to do it was unreal. In the new system used the same ammunition as before, but it is armed with the latest fire control system DFCS, coupled with the receiver gallakticheskoy radio navigation system NAVSTAR. In addition, the M777 has a system disk imaging display, which allows you to send text instruments of communication. In the end, the system is able to open fire in 3-4 Minutka after the order was given to performing tasks. Brand new system could lead artillery fire guided missiles caliber 155 mm, with all this by adjusting the flight data KRNS NAVSTAR. In addition, there is a modification of the M777A2 howitzer, which has a more perfect software. It provides an opportunity to lead the new fire projectiles M982 Excalibur. Range projectile is with all this 40 km away, and hit accuracy is reduced to 10 meters. Previously, we recall, range left only 30 km away. The shells are Excalibur GPS-guidance and bottom gasifier which promotes an increase in the firing range. When shooting at a distance of about 40 km deviation from the target of less than 7 meters. When shooting at the shortest distances, the figure is between 3 and 6 meters.
The tools are available for the M777 limit. For example, Canada has caught 12 of these systems and deployed unit in Afghanistan in 2006. Howitzer has established itself as an effective system of fire support.
If we talk about mobility, it is better to provide a self-propelled artillery, which do not require additional trucks for transportation, but along with that, they can not be transported by air. These settings must be noted, also have gained the top of their own development. In addition, in most of the western armies in their no longer needed, so as the wars in the traditional comprehension of the word they are no longer carried out and, apparently, is not going to hold.
That's why instead of towed guns more steel to create new standards of self-propelled units. Americans, by the way, generally abandoned them, sometimes upgrading the M109. The howitzer was adopted by the South American troops in 1961.
A basic version of the tool is made of armor based on the duralumin alloy that provides protection against shrapnel and small tools. Feed and sides of the hull mounted vertically. At the stern mounted tower closed. Power pack is placed in front of the group. Battle stations — aft. The main armament M109 — it's a long barrel howitzer, kitted ejector and a muzzle brake. Shooting from the howitzers conducted separate shots (one set included 36 shots). The firing range reaches 14.5 km. First upgrade, which received the title of M109A1, differed from the baseline scope only a longish barrel and firing range was a little more than 18 km. In the middle of the 70s of the twentieth century was another major modernization howitzers. New model has received the title of M109A2. The main objective was to improve the improvement of ballistic characteristics. So Makarov, was lengthened barrel and increased charge. Firing range of new tools was already 22 kilometers. In addition, the ammunition also included active-reactive ammunition.
New upgrades were carried out very quickly, resulting in a gun M109A3 (distinguished by a new method of fastening tools), M109A4 (have had a better system of protection against weapons of mass destruction), M109A5 (in fact no different from their own predecessors) and, in the end, M109A6 "Paladin" (the first gun entered service in 1992). The new gun is the newest automatic fire control system, the newest tower with long-barreled gun, a massive hotel and improved suspension.
In Germany Obsolete M109 howitzer was to change the tank self-propelled artillery installation PzH-2000. The difference between these instruments is reduced to Bole highest mobility modern setting. PzH-2000 is capable of doing the same amount of tasks such as M109 three combined. Range of shooting it achieves 30 km, in the case of special shells — 40 km. In the ammunition comes 60 rounds. New tool has an automatic charging, providing the speed of firing 10 rounds per minute. Repair and maintenance services howitzer is largely facilitated by combining a single power unit multi-fuel diesel engine MT11-881 and hydro box. In addition, PzH-2000 has an automatic sprinkler system, topographical navigation systems, and advanced fire control system, making it possible to do set tasks quickly and accurately. Yet, for service in the 90 years of this instrument was not accepted, because Germany has produced little more than 300 units of howitzers, of which 185 are in service with the Bundeswehr, 57 in the Netherlands, 24 — 70 in Greece and the Italians.
Very popular among the military use and wheeled self-propelled artillery. Thus, during the war, in fact the only Cool prototype of such kind of weapons were South African G-6.
For the first time howitzer appeared in 1981, but in mass creation she came only in 1988, immediately after the test batch was used in the process of fighting in Angola. The howitzer has a strong base of 6×6 wheeled chassis. The diesel engine output of 525 horsepower was placed behind the driver-mechanic. The tower was placed at the back. Mounted on a tower 155-millimeter gun. In a combat situation shells and caps are served through a hatch at the rear of the tower. Horizontal guidance is limited to an angle of 40 degrees.
Note also that the G-6, "Reno" — is part of a complete artillery system, which includes a large selection of ERFB ammunition, which, if necessary, re-equipped with a gas generator for ERFB-BB ammunition. Firing range achieves 30 and 39 km, respectively. As part of the system there is also a weather station and an automatic fire control system, speed sensors ammunition.
With regard to new developments Bole self-propelled guns on a wheeled base, then there should be noted Swedish "Archer" and the French "Caesar."
ACS FH77 BW L52 «Archer" (or "Archer") — is the instrument, the idea of creation is consistent with the plan for the reform of NATO troops. This set is designed on the basis of a towed howitzer FH77. The gun itself is fixed to the wheel platform in the container, one end of which is to equip special counterweight to offset the impact force when fired. Armored cab to protect against small tools and debris. In addition, on its roof can be strengthened 7.2 mm caliber machine gun. For this tool, you can use a significant amount of artillery shells, even foreign production. So, that is, you can use the South American Excalibur. Firing range achieves about 40 km (European shells) and 60 km (for the South American). The speed of the movement "Archer" is 70 km per hour. In addition, it can be transported by air, using a "European Hercules" A 400M.
The system of "Caesar" is also mounted on a wheeled chassis truck, which holds great maneuverability. The cabin is protected by armored plates. This tool has a number of advantages — ease of tinning, low cost of production, stealth and mobility.
Despite the fact that they themselves France and Sweden have bought these guns errant volume (total number is about 150 units), yet the "Caesar" in 2006, entered service with the Thai armed forces and the army of Saudi Arabia.
As for the Russian Federation, the armed its army are self-propelled guns 2S3 'Acacia' and ACS 2C1 "Carnation".
Self-propelled gun "Acacia" entered service still Russian troops in 1971. Work on its creation began even earlier — in 1967. Engaged in the development of OKB-9 project manager was the first deputy chief of the Bureau Golubev. First experienced the standards were prepared in the next year, but during the tests revealed significant shortcomings, namely, excessive fumes in the crew compartment at the time of the shooting. The first large batch of howitzers was released in 1973 (70 units).
ACS 2S3 "Acacia" is created for the oppression and destruction of artillery equipment, nuclear attack and the living resources of the enemy, destruction of self-propelled guns and tanks, the destruction of field defensive barriers and structures. The composition of plant design comes tracked chassis, spinning tower and artillery unit 2A33 (it consists of a howitzer D-22 152 mm caliber, making it possible to fire a point-blank range, and on the cable line of motion). Manual lifting mechanism allows the barrel to provide elevation to 60 degrees. In ammunition shells include separate-case charging: blast and shrapnel shells of PF-540, PF-25 and PF-54OZHS, cumulative projectiles BP-540, ostrogolovye thick-headed and armor-piercing projectiles Br-Br-540 and 540B.
Development of the installation 2C1 "Carnation" was launched in 1967. Artillery unit provides "Uralmash" chassis — the Kharkov Tractor Plant. For service weapon was taken in 1971, and a year later started and batch creation.
Separation of management and power pack department situated at the front of the chassis. In the back and middle parts are fighting compartment. 122mm howitzer is in full revolving armored turret. The trunk equip two-chamber muzzle brake and ejector. In order to facilitate the charging of guns used electromechanical mechanism chambering. Note also that the howitzer is floating, but with all this wave height must not exceed 15 cm, and the flow velocity — 0.5 meters per second.
In addition, our native land produces (albeit in small quantities) are relatively new artillery 2S19 "MSTA." They were taken into service in 1989. Most of these units were intended for export. At the current time it is in service with Ukraine and Belarus.
This tool can lead fire on the observed and hidden objects direct and indirect fire, may be used in the criteria of the highlands. Chassis is similar to the T-80. Anti-aircraft machine gun installation, the management of which is remote from the tower, designed to protect helicopters and light armored vehicles. In the huge tower built howitzer 2A64 152 mm caliber, in what is an automatic feed system and storage of ammunition. Rate of 8 rounds per minute. Most firing range achieves 24 kilometers (using standard shells) and 29 km (using shells with jet thrust). Specifically for this instrument was designed cassette shell, in which 42 is fragmentation and armor-piercing grenades. In addition, the used and cassette shell which scatters small transmitters interfering with the enemy's communications. A distinctive feature of the 2C19 — is the availability of equipment for scuba tank management that allows to overcome the depth of 5 meters.
In China, there are new 35-ton self-propelled artillery PLZ 05, which have a lot in common with the Russian "Musto." First reference tool was created in 2003, although the design work began in the mid 90's. This setting is based on the crawler. Engine-transmission compartment is at the front. Tower of enormous proportions. The main armament — 155-mm howitzer barrel with a le
ngth of 45 calibres. Used automatic charging, allowing increment firing properties of the system. In the fire control system is a laser rangefinder, panoramic sight, ballistic computer, dual-channel scope, filled thermal imager, a radar sensor measuring the speed of the projectile.
On the tower is also installed anti-aircraft machine gun W85 12.7 mm. In addition, we use the smoke grenade launchers.
In addition to China, the development and creation of new self-propelled units engaged in other Asian countries. So, namely, in the Land of the Rising Sun has been put into service installation Type 99, in the amount of 70 units. ACS Type 99 refers to a weary self-propelled howitzers, which has a range of 30 km. Used for firing projectiles caliber of 155 mm. The elevation is 85 degrees. In addition, the tower machine gun 12.7 mm caliber. The machine can move with maximum speed of 50 km per hour.
In South Korea, created a powerful installation of K9. For the state army was purchased 500 units. Approximately the same number was supplied Turkey.
So Makar, if we talk about the upcoming development of conventional artillery, then most likely it will be through the introduction of the fire control system of unmanned aerial vehicles. But in this case, if the transition to such a system is complete, the settings rise drastically.
But there is a big possibility that specifically in the West will not happen. As of today, by the way, all the samples to make such missiles until terminated in failure.
If we talk about the rocket artillery, between Cool war in the states that are part of the alliance, they were treated very skeptical because of the low accuracy, range and speed projectiles.
In the Russian Union in 1960, work began on the creation of divisional multiple rocket launcher BM-21 "Grad", which on its own was essentially a continuation of "Katyusha". A huge role in shaping the kind of complete set played by the development of jet unguided missiles 9M22, the main feature of which was a folding planes of the stabilizer. This gave the opportunity to make a multilateral setting, and a small sized tube.
Adopted Russian troops "Grad" was adopted in 1963. The entire system consists of the installation, unguided rocket projectiles 122mm, transport loading vehicle 9T254 and fire control systems. Fire can be operated as one gulp, and single shots. Full volley continues for 20 seconds. Going into the firing position takes about 3.5 second.
Batch creation of systems was conducted in Perm. Prior to 1995, fighting machine BM-21s were delivered in more than 50 countries around the world in the amount of about 2 thousand units. At present, "Grad" is in service with the armies of 30 countries.
This complex was used in almost all the local armed conflicts, namely the conflict between the Soviet Union and China in 1969 near the island of Sino-Soviet, and later — in Angola, Afghanistan and Lebanon.
Apart from this system, Russian Union were designed and manufactured as RZSO "Tornado" and "Hurricane." System "Smerch" have adopted in 1987. The firing range is seeking the order of 90 km. Duration volley leaves 38 seconds. Shooting is a gulp, and single shells. Rockets 300 mm caliber, which are used for the shooting, solid-equipped engine, flight control and adjust the line of motion.
A reactive system "Hurricane" appeared in 1975. It is made on a wheeled chassis, the artillery unit has sixteen tubular rails, the mechanisms of sight and guidance that are installed on the swivel base, a balancing mechanism and hydraulic and electrical equipment. For firing projectiles use 9M27F, 9M27K, 9M27S, 9M59, 9M27K3, 9M27K2 and 9M51. Firing range achieves only 35 km.
Americans appreciate all the advantages of rocket artillery only in the 1980s. Then there was created a powerful system multiple rocket launcher MLRS.
This unit is designed for combat missions at least some weather and at any time of the day. You can use it to hit and destroy the weapons and capabilities of rocket artillery, areas accumulation of funds and air defense forces, trucks and lightly armored vehicles. Firing range achieves 70 km. First systems were put into service in 1982.
Note that this setting has remained the only military bloc, with all this, many European countries have begun to turn away from its use due to the fact that signed the convention to ban cluster bombs.
In addition, the United States has developed another system — HIMARS. Its creation was justified by the need to equip the troops highly mobile settings, which can be transported by air to the place though. Beginning of work on the installation refers to the beginning of the 1990s. Experienced model was introduced in 1994, and since 2005, the system began to come into service. HIMARS tests were carried out in the course of "Operation Iraqi Freedom", and then it was deployed in Afghanistan.
According to the views of many professionals obvious is the fact that the prospects for the development of rocket artillery is very huge. Systems of this kind in the near future will be able to change not only the tube artillery, b
ut also some aviation. Their implementation is more profitable in the sense that in the case of the introduction on land targets there is no risk of losing expensive fighter, along with the crew and of fuel to spend money is not necessary. All that is needed — it's ammunition, which, by the way, is much cheaper aircraft. Low accuracy can make of shells, which are produced in a single salvo. All the more so that the shells are evenly correctable.
This, combined with an increase in the firing range and the introduction of besplilotnikov makes the system more versatile and comfortable to use.
At present, the first position in terms of development of rocket artillery is China. Then in the 70's and 80's it was created a huge number of samples multiple launch rocket systems, both on the basis of samples borrowed from the Soviet Union, as well as their own.
Specifically, China has created the most powerful and long-range multiple rocket launcher WS-2 having the firing range of 200 km. Moreover, modifications of the system — WS-2D — Key further range — about 350-400 km. For all this they have hypersonic speed. It is clear that no South American or an old Russian systems are not able to reflect the impact of such tools.
You can read much more about the receiver, and rocket artillery, and do not tell about all the swatches, so as there is a huge amount of their majestic. But in any case, some conclusions from the above are imposed: cannon artillery morally obsolete because of its creation and development of the world equally cease. But at the same artillery guns can be used for a long time, and is the setting that has been made several 10-s years ago, is capable of hitting the target is not worse than the modern standard. Because one can with certainty state that such tools for a long time will remain in the armies of the world.
As for the multiple rocket launchers, their role in the near future to a large extent will grow.