Strategic supersonic bomber M-50 (USSR)

1950s. There is a re-air defense forces world leaders with new air defense system and adoption of supersonic fighter aircraft capable of climbing to an altitude of 20 km. So, suddenly become outdated Russian strategic bombers Tu-95, M-4/6. Urgently required supersonic bombers capable of overcoming the resistance of new SAM air defense and air force enemy fighters.

Experimental Design Bureau under the V.Myasischeva, according to the decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of 1954, which provided for a split-distant bombers, consisting of percussion and medium bomber with four turbojets, begins to develop a supersonic strategic intercontinental bomber, under the title M-50. It was intended for sporting substitution of jet bombers armed with M-6 (3M).

According to the acquired task, the new strategic bomber required:
— develop the highest speed more than 1.5 M;
— have a cruising speed of 1500 ± 100 km / h;
— rise to a height of more than 14 km;
— deliver the bomb load at a distance of 13 thousand kilometers.

By 1955 he was ready to sketch design "carrier +bomber. " But in the middle of 1955 changed the job — now the developers needed to make the standard intercontinental bomber, flying at supersonic speeds. The new aircraft received four turbojet bypass engine NK-6 or HP-9. In 1956, the designers are given the task to install the aircraft turbojet engines M16 — 17. The designers at this time heavily involved finding the best aerodynamics of the aircraft. It was enumerated four 10-ka different models. In the end, models made on a "duck", were considered the best. The creation of an aerodynamic structure of designers out about a year. Engines positioned properly followed — two engines suspended on pylons under the wings, two engines mounted on the wing of the limit switch.

Because the supersonic bomber — a brand new, has not yet been made by aircraft from designers sought impracticable — to provide a speed of 1.5 M and the range of more than 10 000 km, and it is at the highest fuel consumption turbofan engines.

To start reducing crew, M-50 gets only the navigator and pilot. They have a string of (tandem connection). Control of the aircraft and the equipment is very automated, ensuring that a reduced ability to control the aircraft crew well. Backup management — hydromechanical. Switching to manual mode is likely in any part of the flight.

Management of engines — a 3-by-wire-fold redundancy. To provide automatic control was given the task of Russian developers accelerated the miniaturization of electronics on the existing hardware components (otherwise dignity automation boiled down to "no" weight traits electronics). With a decrease in weight is due the use of generators offer AC 3-phase current.

On board the M-50 mounted equipment flight and navigation system. It includes: radio communication "Planet", the radio VHF fighter RSIU-3M and emergency radio station "Cedar-C." In addition, the on-board equipment includes a device for negotiations SPU-6, altimeter RV-5/25, the station is a challenge-response, the station's radiation alert "Sirena-2", etc.

Flight properties are on the rise
— range of speeds — 270-2000 km / h;
— altitude up to 16 km;
— maximum take-off weight of 250 tons (170 of which fuel);
— possibility of in-flight refueling (two refueling en route maximum range).
— aircraft was all-moving tail feathers.

To ensure the transition to a non-hazardous supersonic provided a floating center of mass, which is used to adjust the span of fuel in the right direction. Avtosistema management board "ABSU-50" — a traditional implementation. For training pilots piloting the new aircraft made a special analog simulator.

But with the mass center did not work out all the "smooth." To reduce the increasing instability is almost twice the horizontal tail. Mounted all-moving fin has promoted designers to reduce its overall size, weight and aerodynamic drag, which contributed to resistance airplane during takeoff / landing, especially in crosswinds. But airframe still remained fairly weighty and not invested in these characteristics. Lock and certain structural components was carried out in the Soviet Union for the first time, as an example — one of the pieces weighing 4 tons was created from a blank vesivshey more than 40 tons.

To reduce weight, fuel tanks were pressurized compartment of the wing and fuselage. In order to accelerate the take-off front landing gear wheels turning carts raised her front part of the aircraft. To reduce the landing run used a ski brake. The design of the aircraft is extensively used machinery and installations of jet bombers M-4/6 (3M). Intercontinental supersonic bomber designed as a strategic means to deliver bombs on enemy terrain, but in 1958 it was suggested to set it ballistic missiles of planning "45B". By late spring 1956, designers have built a breadboard model and presented the commission of the customer. In the month of the commission came to a disappointing conclusion:
— the achievement of this range at cruising speed without refueling aircraft designers is not ensured;
— the greatest distance (two refueling) is provided, but the aircraft is refueled at low speeds and altitudes, which is unacceptable (probable liquidation or intercept enemy aircraft);
— length of the runway during take-off (3 kilometers) without additional accelerators is not maintained;
— requirements for self-defense aircraft are not a hundred percent satisfied;
— Conclusion: The preliminary design and layout may not be approved.

Constructors, after a series of meetings with spices from certain Institute, refer to the customer, represented by Chief of the Air Force, with a request to review some of the technical project requirements:
— of mandatory extra boosters on the plane;
— a small number of weapons for the defense of the airplane;
— lower range without refueling.

To illumine the 1956 model airplane say, but the engines to be installed on board the aircraft has yet to be ready. At the most experienced set the standard turbojet engines VD-7. Sweep engines and systems on earth began in 1959, after mock M-50A was sent to the base DB for finishing.

In 1958, the bureau running V.Myasischeva release from conducting official tests on the aircraft M-50. Two built aircraft with engines mounted M16 — 17 and VD-7 scamper test aircraft modification M-50 — an improved M-52.

The designers have proposed several development projects aircraft M-50:
— refueling tanker for refueling of high-speed aircraft in the air at tremendous speeds and altitudes;
— M-50LL — flying laboratory for research propulsion;
— M-51 — Unmanned plane-carrier of nuclear weapons.

In 1959, the start of the test layout. 27/10/1959, the M-50A for the first time rising into the sky. TRD installed the HP-7. To achieve the desired thrust underwing engines have afterburners. Layout not able to overcome the speed 1M (0.99 M). Total layout made two 10-ka departures, then in 1960 the work on the M-50 terminated in favor of the M-52 — improved version of the M-50.

In 1961 he decided to show the M-50 military parade in Tushino. The aircraft has soared 4 times for training purposes, then, the last time took off into the sky at the parade in Tushino. After the aircraft was transferred to the Air Force Museum (Monino), where he is to this day.

Modifications:
— M-50A — layout. The only flying all made from aircraft. Board number 023, after the parade was given room 12;
— M-50 — basic version of the strategic bomber:
— M-52 — an improved version of the M-50. Some aircraft have built, but at the sky, he was not up;
— M-53 — aircraft project. Features — placement of all engines in underwing pods;
— M-54 — aircraft project. Features — low wing sweep on the trailing edge;
— M-56 — the upcoming version of the M-50. Tekhproekt started in 1959. Features — 6 engines are located in 2 batches. Fixing the horizontal stabilizer and the failure of the fuel pump to align the center of mass. The estimated maximum speed of up to 3.2 M;
— M-55 — the civilian version of the M-56. There were sub-options of M-55 A / B / C. Differences — the number of installed engines and passenger seats;
— M-70 — changed in favor of the Navy. Features — for takeoff / landing used gidrolyzha, swept-wing type.

The main characteristics of the flying M-50A:
— wing — 27.3 meters;
— length — 58.4 m;
— height — 8.3 m;
— Weight empty / fuel / max — 78.8/66/118 thousand pounds;
— used engines — two Turbojet VD-7M and two turbojet VD-7B;
— Speed — 0.99 M;
— range — 3.1 thousand kilometers (without refueling);
— ceiling height — 5 km;
— crew — pilot and navigator;
— the required load — 5000 kg bombs.

Sources disk imaging:
http://www.dogswar.ru/oryjeinaia-ekzotika/aviaciia/4439-strategicheskii-bomb.html
http://www.airwar.ru/enc/bomber/m50.html
http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/% D0% 9C-50

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