The aliens know how to keep secrets

28.03.2005

28.03.2005


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Vadim scooter

…Near a stall which sells beer, a fight broke out: the two fought heavily intoxicated men. The conflict with the subsequent massacre was a dispute on a current topic — are we alone in the universe. Instead showdown in a classic case "Do you respect me?" Men by weighing each other slaps, interspersed with insults, shouting hysterically: "Aliens exist! Got a monkey?" "And what will prove?", "What is there to prove — we have brothers in mind, "" Where are they? Show me even one humanoid, damn it! "" You're the humanoid "," From humanoid hear you, "" Fuck you … "" Yes, he went to … " etc. All ended the arrival of police, "goat": bullies vividly pushed into a car and taken away to be.

Until now, the question of whether there is intelligent life on other planets, no one can answer, although the arguments "for" and "against" is a great deal. We try to consider a few of them — the most popular.

The assumption that we are not alone in the universe, having long ago. Another ancient Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius in his poem "On the Nature of Things" wrote: "… I can admit it is inevitable that in the universe there are more and more land, and the tribes of people and also a different beast." Much later, after Copernicus destroyed the idea that the Earth was the center of the universe, belief in the existence of the mind on other planets expressed and thinkers of the Renaissance, such as Giordano Bruno: "There are countless suns, like countless planets like planets that orbit their suns as our seven planets around our Sun. On those worlds are also living sentient beings. " These theories are further developed the philosophers of modern times, such as Voltaire and Kant. In the XIX century. were widely spread opinion about the existence of intelligent beings on the moon and Mars. In the late 20-ies of the last century, our compatriot has Tsiolkovsky wrote about space expansion of other civilizations and direct contact between them. It seemed then that the assumption of the presence of extraterrestrial intelligence is quite acceptable.

But in the middle of the XX century, the famous Italian physicist Enrico Fermi asked a question, which later became known as the "Fermi paradox". The essence of it is that the diameter of our galaxy is about 100 million light years away, and if there exists at least one civilization capable of traveling at a speed of 1/1000 the speed of light, for 100 million years, this civilization should be spread throughout the our solar system. And is surprising why we still do not see the manifestations of this expansion. If the world there are many stars much older than our sun, and if life is common, it must have evolved on planets orbiting these stars, billions of years earlier than on Earth. Why, then, are "brothers on reason" not to have visited our planet? After all, no conclusive evidence that the Earth has ever visited the envoys of other worlds, no. As for the so-called UFO — again, clearly no one has proved that the "flying saucer" is a manifestation of extraterrestrial civilizations. With the "Fermi paradox" and start a real scientific debate about extraterrestrial life forms.

Explain the "Fermi Paradox" many try. Those who think that we are alone in the universe, they say that life on earth and mankind — a unique and extremely rare. Great popularity of the advocates of this theory for several years enjoyed the book of American Scientists Peter Ward and Donald Brownlee, "Our single Earth." The authors claim that the development of higher life depends on many conditions, and they are almost incompatible with each other. First, the Earth lies in the narrow band of the galaxy, where the only life could have arisen. If it was closer to the center of the galaxy, where the density of stars is very high, in the vicinity of the Earth would have occurred regularly supernova explosions and on its surface would be hit by the deadly radiation fluxes. Second, the Earth is located at an optimum distance from the Sun, and its orbit is nearly circular, and the period of rotation is not too large. All this affects the average temperature: it must range from 0 to 100 degrees, otherwise all organisms die. Third, the mass of the Earth can hold air cover, but not so large that the atmosphere was dominated by carbon dioxide. Fourth, Jupiter and its satellites "protect" the Earth: they attract racing Us asteroids and comets. If it were not for this "gravity shield" to Earth on a regular basis would fall "cosmic bomb," eliminating any beginnings of life. And therefore, conclude U.S. researchers, "only in the heavenly spots such as the Earth, can truly flourish life." Americans support academic and LB Okun, who is sure that "the fact of our existence that we can not live in one of the best of all possible worlds." However, Ward and Brownlee not everyone agrees. German astrophysicist Frank Siegfried has recently made a model calculation, which showed that in our galaxy about 50 million planets that resemble Earth. So, if even a hundredth of them has the biosphere, life is now developing a 500 thousand planets, the Milky Way. And other scientists say that "community ways of star and planetary systems, the practical coincidence of the observed chemical composition of stars in our and other galaxies suggest the existence of a large number of Earth-like planets in the universe and the possibility of life and civilizations on them." But intelligent life can take the most bizarre forms. And it is not the fact that the alien will remind any person. And because they do not come with us on a direct contact.

And yet, say proponents of the Fermi except us, no one in the universe, or even extraterrestrials somehow had an effect. For example, a radio. Indeed, with the Earth for more than 40 years in space radio signals that are traveling at the speed of light, has reached 1,500 stars within 50 light years. World-renowned project SETI (Search for extraterrestial intelligence — "Search for extraterrestrial intelligence") monitors the signals coming from space, hoping to catch a reasonable message. However, it is not (yet we assume so). And why not? At this point those who believe in the existence of a "fellow human beings", there are several hypotheses. First, it can be explained by the fact that the technological supercivilizations do not arise. Why — that's another matter. Second, it is possible that the cause of "radio silence" is a big gap in the level of understanding of the world and of the knowledge of the laws of nature. Thirdly, it is quite possible that that held, for example, the Soviet astrophysicist VF Schwartzman. He believes that the signals are in fact already registered with us, "but the" power "of cultural traditions in which they are interpreted as insufficient to realize their artificial nature." And it is quite possible that some of the more signals because we get. Here, even the examples do not need to go far. In September 2004, in the pages of the authoritative magazine New Scientist was reported that scientists at the University of Berkeley, managed to fix the radio, which has an artificial origin. Signal, called SHGb02 +14 a, was found Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico. He was caught at a frequency of 1420 megahertz — that at this frequency emits and absorbs the energy of the neutral atomic hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe. Back in the 60s of last century, the founding fathers of SETI suggested that extraterrestrials, should they wish to contact us, it will take advantage of this rate. This signal came from a point located somewhere between the constellations Pisces and Aries. Was it the message or not? Who knows … And already this year, observers managed to capture the unusual signal emitted from the very center of our galaxy.

Finally, I have heard, as opponents of the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations as the last argument "against" brought the Bible to say: in Scripture of any other planets is not mentioned. However, for example, the Orthodox Church to the question "Is there life on other planets," rightly pointing out that the case of the Church — is the salvation of man, and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence — business scholars, notes that "in the divine revelation there is no indication that there is life on other planets, but they do not even converse. "

Still, until the question of the existence of "fellow human beings" remains open. For 2008, the European Space Agency and NASA have planned launch of a space telescope, "Eddington", whose task will be to find planets that resemble Earth, and in 2011 and 2015. launches scheduled vehicles "Terrestrial Planet Finder" and "Darwin". They will carry out a spectral analysis of the atmospheres of planets lying within 20-30 light-years from us. It is possible that in 10 years we will be closer to the answer — are we alone in the universe.

24.03.2005

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