The collision in orbit

In late February of last year, many media have said the collision orbit of South American and Russian satellites. The Yankees are not lucky, as their companion was acting, and that is our — no.

ORT information about this event was presented followed by: satellites moving to a meeting friend other and collided at a speed of 8 km per second. It was the first case of collision of satellites in orbit. All three of these statements, to put it mildly, is not entirely accurate.

The collision in orbit

Let's start with the beautiful screen images when two satellites in orbit rushing towards friend other. Since the beginning of the era of gallakticheskoy gallakticheskie all satellites and ships, and our South American and always run only in the direction of rotation of the Earth, so use it a linear speed of rotation at the equator, reaching 0.5 km / s. What it does, you can behold the ordinary for example: our elderly but reliable imperial "Seven" when its run at the equator in the direction of rotation Zeemli can put into orbit a payload of about 5 tons, against the revolution — the least one and a half tons. And what does it do? Is that for the sake of some exotic goal, imagine that I lack imagination.

The only difference is that our northern Plesetsk launching satellites that move under a huge angle to the equatorial plane, and the South American at Cape Canaveral — at least significantly. In general, these angles are determined by purely practical reasons. So that collision, probably just came out on intersecting courses.

But back to the version voiced by the media, the satellites are moving toward each other and collided at a speed of 8 km / s. Something not so good for our journalists not only from the Russian speech, and with the math. In this embodiment, speed oncoming collision will be 16 km / s, and with such a significant impact of the mass of both satellites simply evaporate.

And in the end, this case is not the first and not the only one. In the 90 years of the last century were placed a few cases observed by astrologers such collisions. August 2, 1983 meteor patrol in the Novgorod region followed collision 2-objects, presumably, artificial satellites, which move perpendicular to each other. After crossing their paths explosion. One of the objects, without changing the speed and direction of movement, followed by further orbit, the other changed course 45 degrees to the north and left behind the horizon.

July 27, 1992 a group of the Youth Science and Astronomy Club "Procyon" astropoligone was at the Mining Institute in Pskov region. There they were provided for educational applets meteor shower observation Kassiopeid. And they watched the movement of satellites. Some of them are headed for 1.23 Moscow time the area below the constellation of the Dolphin, and suddenly a rush for 2 seconds with a bright flash. Such that the light of the stars faded, and the land lay shadows. To the surprise of observers, after the outbreak of the satellite's own existence is not finished, but only slowly disappeared into the earth's shadow cone. After 100 minutes was seen by another satellite, flying on the same orbit — it can only be in this case, if the two satellites launched on the same rocket (I'd add that it was most likely the same satellite, had time for that period of time to turn around the Earth. VP)

When he reached the outbreak area, the satellite at high speed crashed into a cluster of particles remaining after the outbreak, "lit up" by changing its own radiance by 5-6 magnitudes. (This post was taken September 21, 1992 in the newspaper "Rush Hour"). We can also mention the more reports of early American and Indian astrologers observed a similar phenomenon.

There is another category of accidents in orbit that could not be visually monitor both because of the cloudy cover under the epicenter of the action and the lack of visual observations of the data portion of the sky (remember that 2/3 of the Earth's surface are the seas and oceans) .

Looking through the official reports from the day or the start of the first artificial satellite of the Earth, about one and a half managed to calculate the 10-s state of emergency in orbit when running normally and properly functioning machine suddenly stopped at one point pa6otu. At the same time they were in the middle of the satellites with multiple transmission channels are independent disk imaging and beyond nutrition. Naturally, there is a question only of a non-military satellite mission, the military does not love to advertise their woes. A sudden cessation funktsiionirovaniya satellite in most cases shows a hell of a collision with an unknown body. At the same time every year without annoying the possibility of such collisions increases. On today revolve around the Earth thousands of current and non-performing satellites and their fragments, not including a small gallakticheskogo debris. And at least some satellites destinations that do not require them to maintain the inside air pressure, are highly vulnerable to at least some external mechanical impacts as reset the protective cone, protecting the active portion of their start-up.

I wish to recall the story of a South American lunar modules. Astronauts returned to Earth later joked that they were made of foil food, and they were afraid to pierce their skin with ill-advised move elbow. And not counting the impact on intersecting orbits gallakticheskim debris, an even greater danger exists in a collision with a small meteoroids, whose speed intrusion into the earth's atmosphere can exceed 40 km / s. That of the smallest pebble breaks at least some satellite through like armor-piercing projectile. Unsafe even micron-sized particles — so called micrometeorites. Already on the first descent gallakticheskih devices installed plates of different materials — To evaluate the impact on their micrometeorites and long stay in orbit these test plates were corroded as if microcraters.

An even greater threat gallakticheskie devices are bound to the outer planets, in particular to Mars. Next to him, in the space between Mars and Jupiter is the asteroid belt, including both the planet like asteroids such as Ceres, Juno and Vesta, and the smaller fragments billion. With their mutual collision those who lose their orbital speed, or to run across closer to the sun orbit, first Martian, or fall to the Sun. In this regard, the Martian orbit more unsafe for ground vehicles, which is confirmed by countless variations of termination of their operation when the Mars or its moons. Unfortunately, all there protivometeoritnye screens and protective field has so far only in the pages of mind-blowing novels.

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