There is no sadder story in the world …
Difficulties with the Russian fleet main battle tanks did not appear yesterday — fundamentally flaws the T-72, from which practically has its origin T-90, clear to spice before the collapse of the Union of Russian, and work to create MBT latest generation already started in the 80s . Part of the flaws — outdated engine (the development of the famous B-2, who was standing on the tanks BT-7M, T-34 and KV), box, lag on abilities attack equipment and avionics would be eliminated "little blood": the method of the development of new units. But a number of flaws, and more specifically — not a good survival of the crew in case of penetration of armor, the tightness inside the machine, which entails a significantly higher fatigue, tankers, and other features that determine the size of the assembly and "seventy-two", sought drastic measures. Should construct a new tank with a different approach to its assembly and other weight and size restrictions.
Get on the "defense" new MBT in the 90s, it was unrealistic — the death of Russian superpower bury these plans, as well as a huge number of other projects, but the study of operating experience and combat the introduction of machines available, their advantages and shortcomings lasted. Acts of our troops in Afghanistan and Chechnya, the Iran-Iraq war and the campaign in the Persian Gulf gave a lot of valuable disk imaging.
By the final 90's it became clear that Russian tanks started to "throw the Channel" in the case of the third world, not quite good in the criteria of local conflicts. With all of this on the first plan "got out" specifically fundamentally layout flaws — low survival of the crew and his inflated fatigue due to the dense assembly machine.
Since 2015 the armed forces will have a new main tank with fundamentally new tactical and technical "
In addition, the criteria devilish cuts in military spending has been very significant and another flaw: Russian tanks in comparison with western peers was the worst modernization potential. The radical increase in technical features, as in the modernization of the "Abrams" M1 to the M1A2 and M1A1 variants or modifications in the development of advanced Leopard 2 — 2A5, 2A6 and 2A7, for Russian cars sought where great effort.
These shortcomings were compounded by not small "species diversity" Russian tank fleet inherited from the Soviet Union. 10's of thousands of tanks of various types, located on the bases of storage with no hope of ever stand in line, hanging on the Ministry of Defence dead weight.
What … the story of the Central Committee of the
These supplies Russian Federation was due to the specifics of Russian defense systems management. "The industrial lobby" whose impact has grown all the years after the victorious end of the stateliness Russian and headed for the peak after the arrival of the post of Minister of Defense Dmitri Ustinov, almost ousted from the military decision-making in the production of weapons.
The consequence of such an approach was the abundance of standing in service platforms — by 1991, Russian army immediately exploited T-54/55, T-62, T-64, T-72, T-80. If all this were multiplied variations of each model: for example, there was Omsk T-80U with a gas turbine engine and Kharkov T-80UD-opposed diesel engine. Many veterans of the "defense" remember that time with nostalgia, extolling the importance of having multiple-independent lines of development of military equipment. The military, especially those who had parts in the same division display on the teachings of three disparate types of spare parts of tanks, responding to these memoirs in the main not very politely, and representations of financiers, usually, no one was asking.
With all of this having had to do something. As the main platform of the Russian Army chose the T-72. Such a step is more than the highest price of the Omsk gas turbine T-80 and the excessive demands of the tank to the qualifications of the personnel. And in the criteria for the economic disaster of the first half of the 90th Ural Machine gaining extra points.
The decision in favor of it did not mean the immediate lifting of the T-80 with weapons — these tanks remain in service, and at the moment, but the development of the platform actually ended. Another loser was "to 187", also made on the basis of the T-72 and, according to the views of a number of professionals, significantly surpassing the "object 188" — the future of T-90. Prerequisites select "Object 188" are unknown to this day exactly, but the main motivation is called the cost of the machine.
T-90 went into production in 1993. True, the word "series" is, for sure, a very resounding: in the first years of production (1993-1995) Russian army was less than 120 vehicles, then the creation of "the ninetieth" for their own Army stalled for nine years. In the next period of "military" part of Uralvagonzavod survived by exports of tanks, the first in India.
Very expensive and complicated
About "to 195", also known as the T-95, has been said a lot, but the main points of the story all the same should refresh your memory. Work on a fundamentally new tank for the Armed Forces resumed first-2000s, virtually the same time as re-started purchases of T-90.
T-95 to equip an uninhabited tower, and the crew of the machine is located in an armored capsule, separated from the tower and autoloader. This assembly was to dramatically increase the survival of the crew in case of penetration of armor, eliminating one of the major shortcomings of Russian tanks.
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Grew and firepower by installing a 152-mm guns. The tank according to information released by the media got over 60 tons, which required the creation of a corresponding motor.
Given the time were formulated and equipment requirements MBT, which in modern conditions should maintain liaison with other units on the battlefield, receiving and transmitting information in real time. Protection and firepower of the tank makes it a natural "center" order of battle, which resulted in the highest requests for communication systems and management, and, of course, to the qualification of the crew.
Properties and the price of T-95 impacted ultimately his fate — in the current criteria for the implementation of this project was the daunting task for Russian industry, and the cost of the machine was prohibitive. Budding tank was to create anew, taking into account the state of the Russian defense industry and ability of the economy. It will g
o about it below.
Passion for the T-90
Meanwhile, since 2004, the T-90 again went into a series for the Armed Forces. First, they got one, and then, from 2007 — two battalion sets a year. Happening and update an old car repair method Polga with elements of modernization of T-72, which were given the T-72BA.
At about 2007 on the public for the first time the Ministry of Defence claims were made to the T-90. First, the military was not satisfied with the increasing cost of the machine and save betrothed earlier shortcomings of the tank. Manufacturers with their own side explained the price increase limited-edition, rising costs of raw materials and devices. But if the second factor really was the case, the first was designed to introduce the public misleading: only the volume of production of T-90 for export in 2001-2011 close to 900 cars, and with the internal order amounted to about 1,300 units and talk about the limited-edition here at least wrong. Over the past 10 years, the T-90 — the most high-volume main battle tank in the world.
Part of the shortcomings of T-90 has been eliminated: the newcomer welded tower (inherited from the "Object 187") markedly increased the security of the machine, and the French thermal imagers significantly raised the capacity of the tank to detect targets on the battlefield. Coupled with the fact remained claims to communication systems and management capabilities to the dynamic protection, in the end, to the overall quality of the production of MBT. Some of these shortcomings are recognized and controlled Uralvagonzavod who expressed complaints received from subcontractors to the kit, providing a severe negative impact on the final product.
Yet the rise in the price of T-90 and the preservation of the machine as a whole led to the fact that in 2010 the Ministry of Defence has decided to waive the procurement of the tank in the existing form. The scandal earlier smoldering on the pages press, broke no worse than forest fires that swept Russia so hot in the summer. Adding gasoline to the fire of the fact that the dispute was not only the T-90 military presented severe claims almost to the entire spectrum of equipment and weapons Army. From the mill industry representatives in the address subordinates Anatoly Serdyukov was accused of fraudulent nearly undermining the country's defense and complete incompetence. In turn, the leaders of the military department argued that defense without wasting utility appropriations allocated to it, with all this within the framework of a new approach to equip the army declared their readiness to the procurement of foreign weapons.
The apotheosis of the scandal was mentioned above demarche Commander of Land Forces, who said that modern Russian tanks are inferior in their abilities machines NATO nations, and often in China, being vpribavok unreasonably expensive. Made at a meeting of the Council of the Federation in the heat of the argument declaration is not intended for the press, but it got into print and flames shot up to the skies.
The news of the "Armata"
At the end of April in Moscow held a "round table" with the role of representatives of the defense industry and military professionals who discussed the situation with the T-90. More enthusiasm in the middle of other performances aroused words of Lieutenant-General Yuri Kovalenko, a former first deputy chief of the Head Armored Directorate of the Ministry of Defense. He confirmed the creation in Russia of a new main battle tank under the code "Armata", representing the adaptation of the latest developments in this field to the ability of Russian industry.
"Since 2015 the armed forces will have a new main tank with fundamentally new tactical and technical characteristics, with the new automatic ammunition feed, with the crew accommodation in bronekapsuly, with the removal of ammunition from the crew compartment," — said the general Kovalenko. In the middle of other innovations, he said overcharge capacity autoloader, which will contain 22 and 32 shells for different purposes.
As crotch solutions industry offers tank T-90AM, which must be shown at the exhibition in Nizhny Tagil this summer. Another modification of the T-90 will, as expected, the newest tower with external borders of the crew compartment combat pack, which will significantly increase the survivability of the machine. The sealed tank assembly, low ergonomics, lack of elevation angles / declination guns will apparently be corrected since the adoption of the adopted "Almaty was."
What is the army MBT?
Does it make sense to invest in the development of the T-90 and other machines? This question is often asked not only commoners, and some representatives of the expert community, claiming that the value of tanks now disappeared. But despite the constant sample "bury" the MBT, and even armored vehicles as a class, the value of this technology only grows.
"Armed conflicts shortly demonstrated that the position of the tanks remain the backbone of at least some significant military and played almost all crucial role on the battlefield. Moreover, in connection with the development of "mine warfare" and the improvement of anti-tank weapons at the moment there is a kind of "renaissance armor", — said the director of the Center for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies Ruslan Pukhov. — Now you can read about the beginning of a new step in the development of the heavy armored vehicles associated with the nomination at the heart of the requirements of security, achieved the development of both structural protection and passive and active protection systems. An essential place for all that is adapting the design of tanks to operate in urban areas, so that will be required to ensure the protection of radial-specific development of surveillance and fire-control equipment and auxiliary weapons, etc. ".
Commenting on the words of a professional, you can add that reducing fleet MBT in all countries of the world have only increased requirements to the capabilities of each individual machine, the value of which has increased dramatically. These criteria multi-million dollar "tank hordes" in warehouses in Siberian forests or the Arizona sands have all the smallest value. All the important role played by the ability to make a modern car that is able to act on the battlefield and prototype perfectly do puzzles in the criteria as a local conflict, as well as a great war. Bimbo modification of the T-90 will be demonstrated today is in the summer, "Armata" — in the coming years. Soon we will get the answer to the question, will be able to make our home a car on their own.