The history of domestic aviation (Museum in Krakow)

During my trip to Krakow I visited an interesting museum — Museum of the History of Polish aviation. In fact, it a huge part of our history, carefully kept, but, alas, not at us, and in Poland. Strolling through the whole "street" instants and dryers, constantly ask yourself, why on Khodynka rot which year planes why Monin recovery vehicles engaged enthusiasts? Why aviation sites like IL-14 in the Bulls, Tu-114 in Domodedovo, IL-18 at Sheremetyevo, simply destroy and surrender to the scrap at the price of scrap metal? Surprisingly, in a country that rightly should be proud of not only names like Ilyushin, Mikoyan, Mil, Tupolev, Sukhoi, Myasischev, Yakovlev, etc., but also the huge teams of design offices, research institutes and other aviation companies in this country, in our country with you, there is only Monino, and what were going to do the National Air and Space Museum, now consists of a pile of scrap metal, rot in the center of Moscow. Our history is not interesting in our country. But it is interesting to the Poles, and guests of Krakow.

1. Museum — it is a huge complex, located on a disused airfield Krakow Rakovica. The museum consists of several hangars, as well as a huge exposure in the open. Here you can wander around, literally, for hours and not see one exhibit twice.

2. The center of the museum, as well as the entrance to it is new, the newly constructed administrative building. There are classes for children, they learn about the history of aviation, about aerodynamics, about how to fly a plane. Operates aircraft modeling circle.

3. The central building is currently being boring, in my opinion, an exhibition of American aviation, as it only shows the most minuscule of its historical piece, the outbreak.

4. Right at the exit to the inside of the museum, the viewer encounters parade colored Sparkle (PZL TS-11 Iskra). First jet aircraft developed in Poland, the main trainer aircraft of the Polish Air Force, the oldest of all used at the moment in the country's air force (announced in 1960), but incredibly reliable.

  • PZL TS-11 Iskra
  • PZL TS-11 Iskra

4. Poles hoped that spark will be the main training aircraft for all countries, "Warsaw Pact", but the choice fell on Czechoslovakian L-29. In 2011, in the ranks of the Polish Air Force had 79 training Sparks.

  • PZL TS-11 Iskra
  • PZL TS-11 Iskra

5. A little further, you can see the hard worker, my old friend, the Yak-40 — passenger aircraft for local airlines, developed in the USSR in 

1960 egody. Of the 1013-built aircraft, 125 were exported. This aircraft carried the higher ranks of the Polish state. This is the plane landed at the Smolensk airport a few minutes before the tragic fall of the presidential Tu-154.

  • Yak-40
  • Yak-40

6. Next to Yasha another one of my favorite, Ilya — IL-14. These aircraft were units. More recently, the barbarians destroyed the monument of IL-14 near the former a / p Bikovo, but in Poland, so the history is not forthcoming. It should be a beauty!

7. This IL-14 — one of the 80 built under license at an aircraft factory in Dresden East Germany, and he worked there, drove the party chiefs of East Germany.

8. Proud handsome. What a beautiful machine.

  • IL-14
  • IL-14

9. And for the IL-14 are the most interesting, in my opinion, the exhibits. IL-28 and IL-28SH. The first Soviet jet tactical bomber.

  • IL 28 and IL 28SH
  • IL 28 and IL 28SH

10. Vaguely in my head trying to scrape together the memories of this plane, but can not do it — I see this for the first time. Useful to Wikipedia, and understood. They remain in the world no more than 20 pieces.

  • IL 28sh
  • IL 28sh

11. Here's a little quote from Wikipedia article dedicated to this aircraft"In the operation of aircraft was completely reliable and enjoyable to drive. A characteristic feature was the absence of any automation engines running, so the pilot had to myself "stoke ores", listening to the sound of the turbine. There were frequent launches tightened, the flare exhaust and a fire also spread to various process parameters did start the engines, even on the same plane. Practiced start engine aircraft technician (as more knowledgeable "character" of his car) and landing the pilot in the cockpit after the engine has stabilized idle. "

  • IL-28R
  • IL-28R

12.

13.

14. Following is one of three built in Poland, regional aircraft PZL MD-12. And not having gone to a series of plane, according to the designers, was easier to manage than the IL-14 and more economical (with two engine more? Doubt), but the main customer, a / k Lot decided that they do not need a separate plane for regional routes, and refused to use it. The project never went to series. One aircraft was flying on the line Warsaw — Poznan, transporting visitors Poznan International Fair.

  • PZL MD-12
  • PZL MD-12

15. G
eneral view of the MD12 and Ilya

16. Following is the legendary Li-2, producing since 1942 in Tashkent copy of the American Douglas DC-3. The plane is a DC-3, the design documentation which has been redesigned with a translation into metrics, taking into account the use of domestic materials. In the structure, compared with the DC-3, also made some non-critical changes. Engines do not copy, use existing national analogue-62IR A. Shvetsov 1000 hp (The same that is still used in the An-2).

  • Li-2
  • Li-2

17. We turn and get to the whole "street" lined with the MiG-15. MiG-15 — Soviet fighter developed by OKB Mikoyan and Gurevich in the late 1940s. The most massive military jet aircraft in aviation history, which consisted in service around the world. There were built 15,560 (!) Units of this aircraft in all possible versions.

  • MIG 15
  • MIG 15

18. A little further on is the MiG-19PM — the first Soviet supersonic fighter serial. It was he who fought with the Phantom in the folk song of the same name and in real combat conditions of the Vietnam War.

  • MiG-19PM
  • MiG-19PM

19. Another turn, and another street, this time the MiG-21. The most common supersonic combat aircraft in the world. Mass-produced in the USSR from 1959 to 1985, as well as in Czechoslovakia, India and China, and has been used in many armed conflicts.

20. Due to mass production, featuring a very low cost: MiG-21MF (pictured), for example, cost less than even the BMP-1.

  • MiG 21 MF
  • MiG 21 MF

21. MiG-21 was in service with the Air Force and was used in more than 65 countries. Soviet pilots for a distinctive appearance was nicknamed "balalaika". Before 1966, the countries of the Western bloc had no definite idea about the plane, but very eager to take possession of them, August 15, 1966 the plane was hijacked in Israel to Iraqi pilot Munir Redfa. It is considered one of the most successful and prominent Mossad operations.

  • Mig 21
  • Mig 21

22. More recently in the Polish Air Force in service were Mig-21, but the time has come, and the Poles took them out of service. Although the MiG-21 is still flying in Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Serbia and other countries.

  • Mig 21
  • Mig 21

23. Mig-29. Of course. The famous 29th and also has a museum, and in the Air Force, Poland. This particular aircraft was delivered to the Air Force of the GDR in the late 80's, and after the reunification of Germany began to serve Bundesluftwaffe. In 2002, all the MiG-29s were sold to Poland for the symbolic sum of one euro. Here they were repaired, were sent to Israel for upgrading and returning, began to serve in the 41st Tactical Regiment in Malbroke. Well, that moment was decommissioned in 2007 and donated to the museum.

24. For the MiG street starts agricultural aviation. In Russia now this class has no aircraft can fly only a few, and in Poland agriculture is developing rapidly. During our trip, the tractor worked on almost every field, which to my eyes looked very strange.

25. Then, at the end of the exhibition, is a unique and very interesting aircraft — WSK-Mielec M-15 Belphegor — jet agricultural aircraft, designed and produced in Poland in the 1970s, commissioned by the Soviet Union. He is the only jet agricultural aircraft and the only jet biplane. For his very strange looking and howling jet engine was nicknamed "Belphegor" on behalf of the demon Belphegor.

The plane made a biplane to reduce labor, take-off speed, the stall speed. Bucky brought to the wings to reduce the torsional moment at the base of the wings. In this case, the tail had to do more to make up for the moment of inertia, and lift up high to take out of the swirling flow of air remaining for the fuselage and fuel tanks.

About 150 of the 175 built aircraft were delivered to the Soviet Union and used in 1976-1983, after which they were withdrawn from service and scrapped. More details about this car can be an interesting read here.

  • WSK-Mielec M-15 Belphegor
  • WSK-Mielec M-15 Belphegor

26. Nearby stands the honored worker of the village, forest, farmland, north, south, east, west — An-2 — corncob.

In 1958 the Soviet Union signed a treaty with Poland and gave her the right to produce the An-2. Conditions of sale were signed by these aircraft in the USSR. By the leading Polish producer of An-2 identified the airline WSK PZL-Mielec in Mielec. Annual production of the An-2 was initially about 400 copies in 1965 reached 500 copies, and in 1973 — 600 copies. September 24, 1984 the stocks Mielec airline descended 10,000 th An-2 (serial № 10208-28, registration number of the USSR-81528).

An-2 — the only aircraft in the world, the production of which has been going on for over 60 years (now it is made in China). The aircraft was exported to 26 countries.

However, the rate of production of An-2 decreased by only 40%, the plane continued to enjoy strong demand even after the An-2M and An-3.

Only in 1989 the demand for the An-2 has been steadily decline, which ultimately led to the termination of its full-scale production in 1992. However, small series of AN-2 were collected and later, until January 2002, when four cars were assembled by order of Vietnam.

Only in Poland was issued 11,915 copies of An-2 (of which 10,440 delivered in the USSR and CIS).

27. Nearby are the An-26 and Tu-134, which in Russia is surprised no one so far. Workhorses, loyal and reliable aircraft.

28. Well, then show the remains of exposure. Here, for example, the Yak-11.

  • Yak-11
  • Yak-11

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And if you think it's a miracle the whole exposition of the museum, you are wrong. The museum's collection has more than 200 (!) aircraft, and not just the Soviets, but also Italian, German, British and American, and more than 100 aircraft engines (they are set in a separate hangar). The complex also has several thematic exhibitions, for example, one of them dedicated to the service of the Polish airborne troops.

To say that would not go away — to say nothing. My dream is that in Moscow or in Zhukovsky, there were such a museum, where it would be coming with children, students, friends, and explore our history and achievements of our science. But while this is all a dream …

By the way, this museum was not just me,

but Sergei ottenki_serogo, read it in the magazine, too Reporting from the museum.

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