NUCLEAR BATTERIES IN SPACE
The first widespread use of atomic batteries found in space, because that's where needed energy sources capable of generating heat and electricity for a long time, in a sharp and very strong temperature gradient, with significant variable loads, and as in unmanned flight radio emission from the power source did not carry much of a threat (in space and without emissions enough). Chemical energy is not paid off. So, when the Soviet Union 10.4.1957 was launched into orbit the first artificial satellite of the Earth, its chemical battery can provide energy for 23-days. After that, their power was exhausted. Silicon solar cells are effective only when flying close to the sun, to fly to remote planets of the solar system, they do not fit.
The methods of energy conversion in space vehicles are of two types: direct and machine. Types of converters of thermal energy into electrical energy are divided into static (i.e. no moving parts) and dynamic (i.e., moving from rotating or moving parts). The problem of selecting the type of energy conversion is still urgent development of various transducers and space nuclear power plants (KYAEU) based on them.
Thus, under the well-known initiative of NASA's space nuclear power plants for the implementation of the "Prometheus" project "Jim" (orbital mission to the icy moons of Jupiter) is selected dynamic transducer (gas-turbine unit based on the Brayton cycle). Resource KYAEU 10 years in the electrical power output of 250 kW (e).
Beginning in the early sixties, a wide scope in the USSR, the USA and some other countries were working on the direct conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy based on thermoelectric and thermionic converters. Similar methods of energy conversion principle simplifies installation, eliminates the intermediate stages of the transformation of energy and allow you to create a compact and lightweight power plants.
Soviet atomic batteries used in satellites of the "Cosmos". In September 1965 as part of vehicles "Kosmos-84" and "Kosmos-90" was launched radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), "Orion-1" electrical power of 20 watts. RTG weight was 14.8 kg, design life — 4 months. Ampoules RTGs containing polonium-210 have been designed in accordance with the principle of ensuring the conservation of the integrity and tightness in all accidents. This principle has proven itself in accidents carrier rockets in 1969, when, despite the total destruction of objects, the fuel block containing 25,000 curies of polonium-210, has remained tight.
Research ship "Lunokhod-1", launched to the Moon by the Soviet Union in November 1970, was provided by radioactive isotopes (polonium-210) to adjust the temperature. "Lunokhod-1" operated for 322 days. Over 11 lunar day he walked 10.5 miles, exploring the area of Mare Imbrium, carried out a detailed topographical survey of 80,000 sq.m. the lunar surface. During that time, was held 171 a session, using radiotelesistem "Lunokhod-1", the land was transferred more than 200,000 images of the lunar surface. " Successfully worked radioisotope thermoelectric generator voltage and using the "Lunokhod-2".
Energy sources, equipped with long-lived isotopes are especially needed for space probes that are in "long-distance journeys" to remote planets. Therefore, U.S. probes "Viking", which were planted on Mars in July and September 1976 in order to search for intelligent life out there, carry on board two radioisotope generator to provide power lander. Space station near the Earth, such as the "Salute" (USSR) and the "Skylab" (USA), derive their energy from solar panels, solar powered energy. However, the probes to Jupiter can not be equipped with solar panels. Radiation from the sun, which is near the distant Jupiter probe, it is not enough to ensure the unit of energy. In addition, during space flight Earth — Jupiter is required to overcome huge interplanetary distances in duration from 600 to 700 days. For these space missions is the basis of good luck reliability of power plants. Therefore, U.S. probes of the planet Jupiter — the "Pioneer 10", which was launched in February 1972, and in December 1973 reached closest approach to Jupiter, as well as his successor, "Pioneer-2" — were equipped with four powerful batteries with plutonium-238, placed at the end of the arm length of 27 m in 1987, "Pioneer 10" flew past the farthest planet from Earth — Pluto, and then it is produced on the land space body left our solar system.
Table 1 Main features KYAEU receiving real-world experience in the use of space vehicles in the United States and the Soviet Union / Russia
- Figure 3. KYAEU "BUK"
1 — reactor, 2 — liquid metal piping circuit, 3 — radiation protection, 4 — expansion tank FMN, 5 — refrigerator-radiator, 6 — TEG, 7 — Power frame design.
- Fig. 4 BEECH
It can be said that the use of radioisotope heat sources instead of chemical allowed tens and even hundreds of times to increase the duration of stay of satellites in orbit. However, the use of satellites with more power energy radioisotope generators are not sufficient. With power consumption of 500 W or more cost-effective to use a nuclear fission reaction, ie small nuclear plants.
- Figure 5 KYAEU "TOPAZ"
1 — unit supply system of cesium vapor and drives regulatory authorities; 2 — TRP, 3 — IMC conduit, 4 — RE 5 — expansion tank FMN, 6 — CI 7 — frame design.
NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Since thermoelectric generators
The space race, especially in the military sphere, demanded energoosnaschennosti satellites, ten times greater than the one that could provide the solar panels or isotopic sources of supply. Indeed, on the basis of a radioactive isotope is difficult to build a direct transmitter of heat into electricity (for thermocouples) high power. In this respect, much more promising use of a nuclear chain reaction. In outer space, in 2000 there were 55 nuclear reactors. The use of nuclear-thermal energy can be divided into mechanical and machineless. Provide the necessary power compact nuclear power plant (NPP), which, due to the limited size of satellites should work without dimensional or steam turbines. Direct conversion of nuclear energy into electrical heat has decisive advantages in comparison with the engine for autonomous reactor power plants is relatively small capacity (from 3 kW to 3-5 MW) and high resursosposobnosti (3 years of continuous operation up to 10 years in the future).
- Figure 6. Thermoelectric space nuclear plant
The nuclear electric plant (NPP) is designed to power the spacecraft equipment uses the principle of direct conversion of heat into electricity nuclear reactor in the semiconductor thermoelectric generator. Disposal of nuclear power after the operation is performed on the transfer orbit, where the lifetime of the reactor is sufficient for the decay of the fission products to a safe level (at least 300 years). In the event of any accidents with nuclear power spacecraft incorporates a highly efficient system of additional radiation safety, uses aerodynamic dispersion of the reactor to a safe level.
The use of thermoelectric and thermionic energy converters in combination with nuclear reactors has created a fundamentally new type of applications in which thermal energy source — nuclear reactor and converter of thermal energy into electrical energy have been combined into a single unit — the reactor converter.
A typical nuclear reactor comprising: a fast reactor with a beryllium reflector side, including 6 cylinder control rods, refrigerator radiator, coolant loop 2 (eutectic sodium — potassium), an electromagnetic pump, thermoelectric generator, and control rod drive; shadow radiation protection lithium hydride provides weakening of ionizing radiation of the reactor to a level acceptable for instruments and equipment of the spacecraft — the radiator for heat dump into space from the second coolant circuit; console with units of the emission system assembly reactor fuel rods from the reactor vessel. Electrical power — 3 kW thermal power — 100 kW, weight NPP — 930 kg load of uranium 235 — 30 kg.
In the 50 years of the Soviet Union began work on the creation of the reactor thermoelectric power plant "Buk" with small-size fast reactor and being out of the reactor thermoelectric generator for semiconductor devices. More than 30 units "BUK" operated on the spacecraft "Cosmos" series for a number of years.
In 1964, the Institute of Nuclear Energy. Kurchatov launched the first reactor of direct conversion of heat into electricity, "Daisy." The basis is a high-temperature fast-neutron reactor, the core of which consists of dicarbide uranium and graphite. The reactor core (cylinder) is surrounded by a beryllium reflector. The temperature in the center of the core — 1770 ° C, on the outer surface of the reactor — 1000 ° C. On the outer surface of the reflector is a thermoelectric converter comprising a large number of silicon-germanium wafer, which is heated by the internal heat generated by the reactor, and external cooling. Unused heat is emitted from the transducer into the environment ribbed refrigerator emitter. The thermal reactor power 40 kW. Removable electric power to the thermoelectric converter 500 watts.
High-temperature nuclear reactor converter allows you to produce electricity without any moving of working bodies and mechanisms. In "Daisy" most fully embodied the idea of direct conversion reactor: there is nothing moving. Unlike the American SNAP-10A reactor there is no coolant and pumps. The Americans were forced to abandon their version of the reactor due to the fragile position in the field of high-temperature materials.
- Figure 7 Reactor "Daisy"
The reactor-converter "Daisy" has successfully worked 15,000 hours (instead of the expected 1000 h), developed at the same time — 6100 KWh. A range of works including installation of "Daisy" has shown its absolute reliability and
The efficiency of such generators can be improved by using, instead of the thermoelectric energy converter thermionic flat modular elements disposed at the boundary of the core and the radial reflector.
On the basis of the installation "Daisy" was set up pilot plant "Gamma" — a prototype of an autonomous transportable nuclear power plant "Elena" power up to 500 kW, designed to supply power to remote areas.
The first in our country, space nuclear electric plant (KNPP) "BES-5" with a homogeneous fast reactor and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) was developed to supply equipment radar reconnaissance spacecraft during ascent and at all times during the existence of an active satellite in a circular orbit height of about 260 km. Generating output "BES-5" 2800 W, 1,080 hours with the resource. 3 October 1970 launched the NPP "BES-5" in the spacecraft radar reconnaissance ("Cosmos-367"). After the 9 launches nuclear power "BES-5" was adopted in 1975 by the Navy of the USSR. Only at the time of decommissioning nuclear power "BES-5" (1989), was launched into space 31 installation.
In the operation of the installation work was carried out to refine and upgrade BES associated with an increase in radiation safety, electric power increase at the end of life up to 3 kW and an increase in resources to 6-12 months. The first launch of the upgraded version of NPS was made March 14, 1988 as part of the spacecraft "Kosmos-1932".
Table 2 radionuclide thermoelectric generators (RTGs), and heating units (BO) for polonium-210 and plutonium-238, a gamma-radiation (IR) on thulium-170
A typical representative of KNPP used as a source of high power radio satellite (space radar and teletranslyatorov), the direct conversion of heat into electricity, is the installation of "Book", which in fact was a TEG — semiconductor converter Joffe, only instead of an oil lamp it used a nuclear reactor. As usual, one semiconductor junction was placed in the cold, and the other — in the heat, between an electric current running through them. With cold in space all right — it is everywhere. Well suited for heat metal coolant, which washed the portable nuclear reactor. It was a fast reactor with a capacity of up to 100 kW. Total load of highly enriched uranium was about 30 kg. Heat is transferred from the core liquid metal — eutectic alloy of sodium with potassium solid-state batteries. Electrical power was 5 kW. Hours "Buka" — 1-3 months. now as, continued until the beginning of perestroika. From 1970 to 1988, launched into space about 30 radar satellites with nuclear power plants, "Beech" with semiconductor converter reactor. If the installation fails, the satellites are in orbit long existence height of 1000 km.
The main achievements of Soviet science and technology in the field of thermoelectric technology for space missions related to the research and development of nuclear power, "Daisy", KYAEU "Buk" and the real experience of its operation in space during the years 1970-1988. during 32 runs.
NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS With thermionic converter
In parallel to the work of the Soviet Union to build nuclear power with thermoelectric generators were working on nuclear power with thermionic converter having higher specifications. In fact, it uses the same as in the semiconductor transducer principle, but instead of cold and hot junction is used karbiduranovy hot cathode and anode cold steel, and between them are easily ionized cesium vapor. Effect — an electric potential difference, that i
s a natural cosmic powerhouse. The thermionic conversion compared with thermoelectric can increase efficiency, improve resource and improve the weight and size of the spacecraft and power plants as a whole. Principle thermionic conversion of thermal energy into electric energy is that scorching heat generated in the reactor metallic surface effectively emits ions adsorbed located with a small clearance cooled wall.
In 1970-71, the Soviet Union was established thermionic nuclear power plant "Topaz" (Thermionic Converter experienced in the core), which used a thermal reactor with a capacity of up to 150 kW. Full load 31.1 kg of uranium was 90% uranium-235. Machine weight 1250 kg. The basis of the reactor fuel elements were — "garland". They were a chain of thermocouples: cathode — "thimble" of tungsten or molybdenum filled with uranium oxide anode — a thin-walled tube made of niobium, cooled by liquid sodium-potassium. The cathode temperature reached 1650oC. Electric power of 10 kW. "Topaz" had teploelektricheskogo conversion efficiency of 10.5% versus 2.4% in the previous reactors.
In addition to uranium-235 is promising to fuel reactors for space purposes of plutonium-238 dioxide, due to its very high specific energy release. In this case, the relatively low efficiency of the thermionic reactor is compensated by direct conversion of the active energy release of plutonium-238.
Tested two thermionic converter reactor at intermediate neutrons (without inhibitor) — "Topaz-1" and "Topaz-2" electric power of 5 kW and 10, respectively. In the installation "Topaz" direct (machineless) energy conversion is performed in embedded into the core of the reactor thermal power generating small-sized channels. Installing the "Topaz-1" is equipped with a thermal converter reactor and the liquid metal (sodium, potassium or lithium). The principle of the direct conversion of thermal energy into electric energy is to heat the cathode in a vacuum at a high temperature while maintaining a relatively cold anode, wherein the cathode surface to "evaporate" (emitting) electrons that flying airgap "condense" on the anode and the closed on its outer chain is an electric current. The main advantage of such a facility, compared with an engine generator — no moving parts. Implementation of the concept converter reactor on fast neutrons with lithium cooled in the future possibly can meet the challenge of installing electrical capacity 500-1000 kW or more.
- Figure 8. Thermionic space nuclear plant "TOPAZ"
Nuclear power plant comprising: a thermionic converter reactor moderated by zirconium hydride and beryllium reflector side, including rotary regulators; reactor system converter: actuators controlling the supply of cesium in the power generation channels, arranged in a block, situated in front of converter reactor, radiation shadow protection of lithium hydride provides attenuation of radiation of the reactor to levels acceptable for spacecraft instruments, drainage system unutilized heat from the reactor coolant (eutectic sodium-potassium), including an electromagnetic pump fed with electric power from the converter reactor, emitter-relief heat space and other units. Electrical power — 5 kW thermal power — 150 kW, resource, including the work of up to 1 year to 100 kW mode — 7 years, none of uranium 235 — 11.5 kg, weight — 980 kg.
Table 3 Brief description of the NPI "Topaz 1"
Nuclear fuel at Topaz-1 (uranium dioxide enriched uranium-235) is contained in the core of a refractory material, which serves cathode (emitter) for electrons. Heat released by fission in the reactor heats emitter to 1500-1800 ° C, resulting in the emission of electrons. Striking the anode (collector), the electrons have enough energy to the outer closed circuit between the electrodes of the thermionic converter (emitter and collector) to produce work in the external load. Electrode gap of a few tenths of a millimeter. Cesium vapor introduced into the electrode gap (OEP), significantly stepping up the process of generating electricity in the reactor. In the power plant structure is implemented expenditure cesium system in which cesium vapor pumped through the IES to remove impurities. Past MEZ trap cesium vapor absorbed on the basis of pyrolytic graphite and gaseous impurities were removed in space. Cesium system had thermostat cesium vapor generator with electric heaters, which are ensured by maintaining the desired temperature of the coldest zone thermostat. In the cesium vapor generator was used a number of devices that ensure retention of the liquid phase in a certain position and prevent it falling into the vapor path under the action of small accelerations in space flight. In the design of the generator applied cesium vapor maximum amount of cesium was 2.5 kg, at a given flow of vapor, determined by conducting the throttle at the exit of the Republic of Poland, clearly limited the possible resource nuclear power. The requirement to minimize the weight and dimensions had to be implemented, taking into account the fact that the heat dissipation in space is possible only by means of the radiation through the use of a specially designed cooler-radiator. The implementation of the system heat sink significantly hampered because it uses an aggressive liquid metal sodium-potassium eutectic. Added to this are the high reliability requirements of autonomous functioning and resursosposobnosti nuclear power in congestion during injection into orbit, arbitrary orientation and the lack of gravity at work in orbit, the need for nuclear and radiation safety in terms of possible accidents rockets at deducing the spacecraft with nuclear power on orbit, as well as providing security meteor in space flight, etc. Nuclear electric power plant "Topaz" is designed to power the spacecraft equipment for military use. The use of satellites to nuclear reactors can provide stable power regardless of the location in orbit.
Nuclear and radiation safety is ensured by the construction of a nuclear reactor. Of any accident, including a hypothetical carrier rocket on the launch pad and during ascent into orbit, a nuclear reactor is subcritical. Due to the introduction of the reactor start-up blocking is not possible to achieve orbit. The lock is released by radio command from Earth only after the withdrawal of the calculated orbit direct trajectory measurements. The height of the orbit is chosen such that the existence of the spacecraft after the cessation of a functional setting, including any emergency with the installation was enough for the decay of the fission products to a safe level. This time is more than 350 years. This provides guaranteed security of the world's population using the facilities of this type.
NPI "Topaz 1" was developed for radar reconnaissance satellites, "Topaz-2" — for spacecraft system of direct television broadcasting from space. The first flight model — satellite "Cosmos-1818" with the installation of "Topaz" was released on the radiation safety of the fixed circular orbit at an altitude of 800 km 2 February 1987 and worked for six months without a hitch, while stocks of cesium. The second satellite — "Kosmos-1876" was launched a year later. He has worked in the orbit is almost twice as long. The success of "Topaz" has stimulated the development of a number of projects with a thermionic converter reactors
, in particular nuclear power plant electric power up to 500 kW based on a lithium-cooled reactor.
On the basis of nuclear power "BES" and "Topaz" has prepared a number of projects with improved facilities. Prepared technical proposals for thermoelectric nuclear power "Dawn-1" for the spacecraft optical-electronic reconnaissance. NPI "Dawn-1" differs from the "BES" level of electric power (5.8 kW versus 2.9 kW) and High Yield (4,320 hours vs. 1,100 hours). In 1978 set up nuclear power "Dawn 2" electrical power of 24 kW and a resource for 10,000 hours, and then the space nuclear power plant "Zarya-3" 24.4 kW of electric power and resource of 1.15 years. It was intended to create thrust pulses satellites orbit correction and power supply special equipment.
Thermionic space nuclear plant "TOPAZ 100/40" is a dual-mode nuclear power plant (NPP). It is designed to power the electric propulsion (ERE) for output to high (up to geostationary) satellites orbit satellite communication systems "Cosmic Star» (Space Star) and the supply of electricity on-board equipment. Output to power the reactor power plant is only when the spacecraft radiation-safe orbit (800 km or more). The design meets the NPS adopted at the 47th General Assembly of NGO document "Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space." In the starting position of nuclear power is placed in the compartment of the spacecraft diameter 3.9 m and a length of 4.0 meters under the cowl. In the orbital position of nuclear power to push the (reactor as remote from the apparatus) and has a length of 16.0 meters and a diameter of 4 meters.
Nuclear power plant comprising: a thermionic converter reactor operated systems: Drive regulators, the supply of the propellant (cesium) in the power-generating channels, shadow radiation protection of lithium hydride, which provides attenuation of radiation reactor to a level acceptable for instruments of the spacecraft; drainage system unused heat from the reactor liquid metal (eutectic alloy of sodium and potassium) coolant comprising a solenoid pump, refrigerator emitter 9 composed of panels heat pipes for heat discharge space and the other units. Electrical power — 40 kW electric power in electric propulsion mode power — 100 kW, resource, including the work of up to 1 year to 100 kW mode — 7 years, the weight of nuclear power — 4400 kg, loading of uranium 235 — 45 kgVo avoid rapid fall of nuclear power on Earth satellites at the end of active service are transferred to a disposal orbit altitude of about 1000 km, where the spent reactor must survive Od 300 to 600 years. Transferred to a similar orbit and emergency satellites. To do this, however, was not always. For almost 20 years, there were four cases of launching a satellite falling to Earth: two — into the ocean, and one — on land.
Historical primacy in space nuclear accidents owned by the U.S. — in 1964, failed to reach the orbit of American navigation satellite with a nuclear reactor on board, and the reactor fell apart in the atmosphere along with the companion pieces.
In the USSR, the first accident associated with the executing September 18, 1977 4300-kg satellite series of US-A (aka "Cosmos-954", orbital parameters: perigee 259 km, apogee 277 km, inclination 65 degrees). The satellite was part of the maritime satellite system space reconnaissance and target designation MKRTS "Legend", designed to detect potential enemy ships and the delivery of data to be used by them to our fleet of cruise missiles. At the end of October 1977, "Cosmos-954" stopped regular orbit correction, but to translate it into a graveyard orbit failed. Subsequent reports by TASS, January 6, 1978 satellite suddenly be leaking, causing the system board out of order. Uncontrolled reduction apparatus under the influence of the upper layers of the atmosphere ended January 24, 1978 from the orbital decay and fall of radioactive debris pas northern Canada in the vicinity of Great Slave Lake. Uranium elements of the satellite is completely burned in the atmosphere. On the ground, found the remains of a beryllium reflector and semiconductor batteries. However, the radioactive debris was scattered over northwestern Canada in the area of several thousand square kilometers. USSR agreed to pay Canada $ 3 million, constituting 50% of the cost of the operation «Morning Light» cleaning of the impact area, "Cosmos-954".
December 28, 1982 worked from August 30, "Cosmos-1402" failed to translate into a graveyard orbit, and he began to drop uncontrolled. Structural improvements since the last accident allowed to separate from the core of the reactor pressure vessel and heat-resistant compact prevent falling debris. The active area entered the atmosphere Feb. 7, 1983, and radioactive fission products were scattered over the South Atlantic.
In April 1988, has been lost contact with "Cosmos-1900", launched in December 1987. Within five months, the satellite was down uncontrollably, and ground services could not give any team in the withdrawal of the reactor into a high orbit, nor the separation of the core for a more secure its descent from orbit. Fortunately, over the five days prior to the expected entry into the atmosphere, September 30, 1988 triggered the automatic withdrawal of the reactor, including due to the exhaustion of fuel supply in the orientation of the satellite.
Continuation of the power supply of the "Topaz" was a thermionic nuclear power plant "Yenisei-Topaz." Electricity supply channel — Singleton, electric power — 5 kW, life — up to 3 years.
- Figure 9. NPI "Yenisei"
Although the event itself did not cause material damage to its imposition preceding the disaster of the "Challenger" and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant has led to protests against the use of nuclear power plants in space. This fact was an additional factor in the termination of satellite missions to space radars in 1988. However, the main reason for non-space radar with nuclear Power On the calls were not the international community and certainly not for the noise generated by the reactors gamma-ray astronomy, and low maintenance characteristics.
PROSPECTS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
Tab. 4 Key Features KYAEU "Buk" and "Buk-TEM"
Total load of highly enriched uranium in the "Book" 30 kg, coolant — liquid metal — a eutectic alloy of sodium with potassium. Electricity source — a semiconductor converter. Electric power of 5 kW. In the "Topaz" has been used a thermal reactor power of 150 kW. Full load 12 kg of uranium. The basis of the reactor fuel elements were — "garland", representing a chain of thermocouples: cathode — "thimble" of tungsten or molybdenum filled with uranium oxide anode — a thin-walled tube made of niobium, cooled by liquid sodium-potassium. The cathode temperature 1650oC, electrical power plant of 10 kW.
From 1970 to 1988, the Soviet Union (Russia) launched into space about 30 radar satellites with nuclear power plants, "Beech" with semiconductor converter reactor and two — with thermoemission installations "Topaz".
Now to space nuclear power plants (KYAEU) of the new generation of the following requirements: integration of nuclear power plant in the spacecraft output by modern launchers (such as Proton, P
roton-M, Angara), nuclear and radiation safety, including with a possible accident (falls to the Earth "clean" reactor); transport energy regime — on the heights above the radiation-safe orbit 800 km; subcritical reactor state for all types of accidents, the negative temperature coefficient of reactivity at operating parameters, backup units, subject to resource degradation; combination of different energy conversion systems; preferential testing of components and assemblies in-pile conditions, the possibility of an extended stay in the space before the start of nuclear installations; electrical power output 50-400 kWel (at 115? 120), a resource 7-10 (up to 20) years.
In the field of thermoelectric devices currently in the Russian draft of the transition from the nuclear power plant of the "Book" to a more perfect "Buk-TEM" (Table 4).
Experience of work carried out in the field of thermoelectricity for KYAEU suggests the feasibility of a TEG-based Si-Ge TB / TM radial-circular geometry consisting either purely thermoelectric nuclear power, nuclear power or combined (thermal emission + thermoelectricity) with output power of 10 teploenergogeneratora -100 kWel for space missions of the 21st century.
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