The unit of special purpose «Vityaz» twice a year, conducted qualification testing for the right to wear maroon beret — the subject of a special distinction and pride fighters squad. So, it is not so long ago, such qualification tests were based on a mountain training center «Hatsavita» included in the North Caucasus regional command of Interior Forces (Krasnodar region).
In fact, since the first days of training special purpose company, who later became a famous «Vityaz», the officers suggested the use of the maroon beret as a mark of distinction. Lieutenant General Sidorov, who at the time served as chief of combat training of internal troops, supported this idea and approved. On his orders, one of the companies was ordered first batch maroon berets of 25 pieces.
In the period 1978-1988’s Maroon Berets used only in days of grandstanding of classes or days of municipal prazdnichkom. With all this wore them only a small part of the military. In 1988, the division gave 113 Berets (specifically so was the number of fighters staffing company), sewn from fabric maroon color. Gift father gave 1st of soldiers — Simanenko. Since that time, for six months Maroon Berets worn with or without it. Authorities at all it kept silent. But soon the situation changed dramatically. Uniformly, studying and analyzing the experience of foreign colleagues, namely, training features American «Green Berets», special forces and control of the armed forces, and of soldiers themselves have changed their attitude to wearing berets.
SI Lysyuk made a proposal to introduce an exam that has promoted would reveal more worthy to wear the maroon beret. So makarom supposed to raise the profile headdress. Instructors of the number of commandos supported his proposal, and together accounted for examination program that survived to the present day, but with small changes.
Initially, testing had to spend not quite legitimately, masking them under the overarching control classes. A problem was that the management did not take the idea of wearing maroon beret elected, considering that this headgear should be worn at all fighters units without exception, without regard to their level of training. But over time, the situation has changed. Successful role commandos in numerous special operations, the highest level of moral and psychological preparation have shown that in reality, these tests are very, very necessary. Because very soon they will become classics for special purpose units MVD Russia.
The main purpose of the tests is to identify soldiers holding more than the highest level of personal training for action in different critical situations, namely, in the process of disarming criminals, release of the hostages. More principled and objective is to create incentives for education in fighters big moral and ethical qualities.
Qualification tests are carried out in several steps. At first, preparatory step is carried out the final inspection of military skills and abilities acquired for a certain period of training programmke training special forces units. With all of this very principle that the total score for the final review did not fall below 4 points, and the score for the special physical, fire and tactical training should be fine. In testing included such standards as running a distance of three kilometers, Cooper test (here comes the emphasis crouching — stop lying, pushups, jumping out of the squatting position), pull-up.
Preliminary testing carried out for a number of days before qualification testing.
Qualification tests are conducted, usually in one day. It includes standards such as overcoming a 10-kilometer march-throw (before which certainly held briefing, during which clarifies set tasks), and then overcoming the extreme conditions in a special obstacle course, the proficiency check for the assault on the high-rise building, martial arts and acrobatics and then — the 100-meter sprint. In addition, the process of overcoming distance fighters also need to be overcome «infected» areas with gas masks and water obstacles repel sudden attacks of the enemy, to reflect an attack from the air, overcome blockages, marshland and the other natural obstacles. From time to time at a distance use special obstacle in the form of smoky areas, minefields, fire. At times, men are required to move a small fire small dashes or crawling. Moreover, throughout the race running a special group, which is engaged in «psychological treatment», putting pressure on the commandos. The main objective of these groups is reduced to the identification on the mental level unbalanced people. After overcoming distance tests are conducted on acrobatics and pull-ups. Time to overcome the forced march commander determined depending on the weather criterion, the season, the countryside, but the reference time should not exceed 2 hours. All fighters who failed to meet the time limit, to undergo further tests are not allowed.
On the route fighters escorted instructors of those who wear the maroon beret, and who observe the correctness of overcoming obstacles. At the same time, instructors is strictly prohibited to provide any sort was to assist participants, give commands, or to interfere with the test.
Then, after overcoming the route checks the status of the gun. All participants lined up on the parade ground, and commanding in turn calls the fighters out of action. Checking is shooting blanks. In this case, if the gun gave a misfire, a fighter for the upcoming test is also not allowed.
Then being tested in military capabilities High shooting on a background of fatigue. Immediately after the performance test tools fighters nominated at the shooting range, where do special training exercises firing a machine gun. Each participant has their own by less than 20 seconds.
Ability of high-rise buildings assault tested for 5-storey building. With all this the soldiers use special equipment descender. For all this they have certain steps to conduct fire from machine guns, grenades use imitation, knock-footed layout and window frame which is down for the land. To complete the task given to less than 45 seconds. Those who can not cope with the task in the allotted time are not allowed for the upcoming test.
Next are the acrobatics: kicking Layout forthcoming somersaults body lift from a supine position, with acrobatic flips forward bridge or ramp. With all of this all men should do exercises without stopping.
Paramount importance and training fights. Usually, they extend to 12 minutes without interruption. With all this change 4 partner in the set which not only checks already have maroon berets, and the soldiers, claiming that right. The winner is determined in the trial who intensively participated in the fight and survived without a knockout.
It should be noted that for the commandos, whose age is 35 years and more, there is a special, reduced, the program, which will include a 3-kilometer cross, 6-minute training fights without performing High Accuracy, storming buildings and acrobatic exercises. On a route march-throw such fighters do only one set of input. Only the passage of the obstacle course conducted without configurations.
To evaluate the qualification tests in part, a special certification commission, whose members evaluate participants in each trial. For each step fighters get credit or fail. In addition, in the process of checking each participant may receive comments, which are marked in the report. If a fighter receives three such observations, it automatically removed from the passage of the upcoming test. So Makarov, until the end comes only 20-30 percent of the total number of soldiers involved in the trials.
The right to wear maroon beret commandos Only those who have passed all tests with an «offset». Handing beret held in a festive atmosphere, with full construction division. After awarding a fighter gets the right to wear maroon beret not only from the front, and with a daily form. In addition, he receives a certificate, in which the identification number confirming the right to wear the maroon beret.
But the Special Forces should not forget that the right to wear maroon beret can not only receive, and lose. So, namely, maroon beret can lose in such cases:
— manifestation of cowardice and timidity in combat operations;
— lowering and special physical training;
— making uninformed decisions, eventually killing comrades, was thwarted by military task;
— introduction of melee abilities in greedy purposes;
— periodic violations of criminal law and military discipline.
Finally, we note the maroon beret brings its own holder any additional benefits and privileges: no wage increases or promotions. It only moral gratification and a reason to be proud.