Call "time to bring down" has become one of the hottest trends in recent months, in an environment of domestic Internet intellectuals. In reality, however, figured out how to blog Interpreter, emigration from Russia is a modest, on the European and international standards, the scale — for the last 20 years, left the country from 1.6 to 2.3 million people.
The primary source of the call was the interview with the head of the Accounting Chamber Sergey Stepashin, the radio station "Echo of Moscow" 15 January 2011. We give the most complete excerpt from it:
SS: There. The second is, of course, medicine. Certainly. And the third — what we talked about. I am, after all, co-chair of the Association of Lawyers. This is all that concerned, in general, the situation with the right in the country, with the law, and human rights. Here's something in that context. Wrong in this, as primitive as we sometimes, you know, see. Here, you have no rights, we are all wonderful — come to us to live up permanent residence in Tel Aviv, relatively speaking. I am not informed of these rights. I'm so in the broader context, of course. Because a man who does not feel like the master protected in the country, no modernization, innovation and jerks it does not.
M.BARSCHEVSKY: By the way, if you mention Tel Aviv, then we continue the list. This Boston, Munich it is and so on.
SS: It's not even Latin America.
M.BARSCHEVSKY: And even Latin America. You're talking now about the innovation. And, in fact, violating human rights, that these rights, common law rights, not allowing him to safety without providing him a remedy, we lost a lot of brains, which today could be very useful to us in innovation.
SS: But I have the exact figures. 1.25 million people working abroad. It's not the worst of our …
M.BARSCHEVSKY: You mean, not plumbers?
SS: Well, it's academics, professionals.
M.BARSCHEVSKY: Million 250,000?
SS: One million 250 thousand. It took about as much since 1917.
As you can see from the interview, Stepashin did not specify over what period beyond the borders of Russia appeared 1250000 Russian citizens who work there. However, the data source is also not entirely clear, quick to spread the Russian liberal media. February 11 Alexander Minkin in the "MK" published an article with the headline screaming "Run of the tandem." In it, he totally shameless way "handles" data Stepashin:
"Even more pitiful that people are fleeing. The Chamber officially reported: "In recent years, Russia went from 1.25 million people."
According Minkin, the number of people emigrated from Russia in the last few years. Although we note that Stepashin said no such thing. Then veteran journalist distorted the quote, and the head of Russian Federal Migration Service Konstantin Romodanovskii:
"This data confirms the Director of the Federal Migration Service Romodanovskiy" about 300-350 thousand Russians are leaving each year to work abroad. " How many returns, he said. "
Meanwhile, in an interview with TV channel "Russia 24" Romodanovskiy he literally said the following (quoted by news agency RIA Novosti)
"Every year in Russia leaving more than 300 thousand Russians, of whom around 40,000 — a permanent place of residence. Before the crisis, the figure was 70,000 people, but then, this figure has declined. The actual number of Russians, including leaving the country without notice, now is about 350,000 people a year. "
That is, according to statistics FMS migrate or work abroad for a period of more than a year before the crisis was leaving about 70,000 people every year, and after that — about 40,000. Even if you take the first digit, then for 2000-2010 will only 700,000 people. But Minkin spat on common sense and continued ventriloquize:
"But all these official numbers can be multiplied and two and three."
I would like to ask a question here — why just not ten? However, consider the figures given Stepashin official data difficult. A little more serious than the MC, edition of the "free press" for a discussion of this topic took comment from political analyst Dmitry Oreshkin. He immediately admitted that it is only the non-professional assessment:
"SP": — Dmitry Borisovich, Stepashin called true figures of emigration?
— This is a non-professional assessment. Stepashin — not a demographer, not an expert on migration. It is important to understand that this leak of the population — not quite emigration in the Soviet sense of the word. We are not talking about those who refused citizenship forever rasplevalsya with the homeland. Stepashin technique — as I understand it — is built on the underreporting of taxes collected on individuals.
Then estimated and not based on anything data began to walk freely in the media, blogs, moved to the Western press, where they were thence reprint edition. How many Russian emigrants according to official statistics
Recall that 20 years ago, in 1990-1991, according to the opinion poll, in the Russian Federation from 6 to 8.5 million people were treated for himself as possible in the short term migration abroad — mainly in the West. However, according to official statistics, in 1991-1999, of Russia (excluding other republics of the former USSR) for permanent residence abroad left only about 1.1 million citizens.
According to the Federal Migration Service in 2008 to relocate to another country left 80 000 people, in 2009 — 44 in 2010, according to preliminary data, the figure dropped by almost 28%. In 1993 from Russia for permanent residence abroad have left about 140,000 people. Then came the recession — annually leave the country for permanent residence about 100 thousand people. Most of this flow accounted for the so-called "ethnic migration": in German, Jewish, etc. lines. A second burst occurred in 1999, when the permanent residence of the Russian Federation on the left up to 160,000 people. She then began to fall — to 67,000 people in 2002 and 54 million in 2004.
According to the committee, the figures accounted migration even less:
International migration from Russia last 10 years steadily declined from 146 in 2000 to 32 thousand in 2009. Two-thirds of this migration accounted for the other countries of the CIS:
The number of workers in foreign countries from 2000 to 2009, decreased from 65.2 to 12.1 thousand people. Source: State Statistics Committee report "The present demographic situation in the Russian Federation." Additional data can also be viewed in a different table of SSC.
Blog Interpreter does not believe the calls without regard to these figures, as they may be under-reported — neither FMS nor the Ministry of Internal Affairs, or especially SSC can not keep track of how many people in Russia actually went abroad for permanent residence. In his office figures are based only on recorded cases. As already wrote our blog, in the 2000s, migration has become more difficult to account for, first, because of the appearance of downshifting, and secondly, due to the fact that many Russians, having received a residence permit in one way or another country abroad, or not formally left the Russian Federation, or live in two houses.
Therefore, in our analysis we decided that we need to follow the international classification of workers — according to her, such a person may be, or has received long-term visa for a stay in a country abroad, or also who left for her there. Long-te
rm visas in this case are the visa allowing a stay in the country for more than 90 days a year or six months — the so-called "annual" visa, a two-year visa (residence permit may be annual) or a visa that permits permanent residence (permanent residence is updated every 5-10 years depending on the country). In addition, such documents are for residence permits for refugees, asylum seekers, etc. categories.
Of course, the total number of people receiving such a visa will fall away not only workers but also students, people who left for medical treatment, to work under the contract, including a foreign representative Russian companies and organizations, volunteers and so on.
How many Russian in Europe
The European Union is the main center of attraction for migrants from Russia. According to the "Just press", 18.5% of potential migrants from Russia to consider themselves the most likely countries of the UK, Italy and Germany. Besides these, the top 15 countries include Spain, Switzerland, Finland, France, Sweden, Austria, Norway and the Czech Republic.
Another 15% of respondents choosing Australia and the United States, the top 15 also includes New Zealand and Canada.
The largest Russian-speaking colony in Europe are located in Germany. According to the Statistical Office of Germany, at the end of 2009, entered the country 2.25 million migrants from the former Soviet Union (Source). This is 14% of the total number of immigrants in Germany, of which there are 15.7 million people (source). These people are pedantic Germans were divided into two categories, with the reasons for migration (first of all, it is about ethnic Germans from the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, as well as the Jews), and no such grounds. The first category — 8,480,000 people (in her natural way were Russian, Ukrainian, Kazakh and Kyrgyz Germans, ie Volksdeutsche). The second category consists of 7,220,000 people. It hit the Turks, Arabs, immigrants from the former Yugoslavia, and so on.
Thus, immigrants from Russia who left Russia for permanent residence in Germany, and were not ethnic Germans and Jews, as well as members of the families of such workers were in the second category.
In this category, only 2.8% of people are citizens of the Russian Federation — that is, there are about 202 million people (Source). These numbers correlate well with the data Statistical Office of Germany 2006: according to them, lived in West Germany 187,514 foreigners with Russian citizenship (Source). Especially for those who read the text carefully, we note again that there is no question about migrants, Germans from Russia (they arrive in Germany is not considered to be foreigners). In the years 1980-1999 from the republics of the Soviet Union to Germany to move to permanent residence (that is, as a rule, according to the national line) — 1.734 million (Source). In the 2000s, the influx folskdoyche from Russia to Germany (Spaetaussiedler) was noticeably decline: in 2000 the figure was 41,478 people, in 2005 — only 21 113 people, and only 6 years in Germany had left 223,731 Russian Germans and Members of their Families (Source). According to the German Federal Government, in 2006, the flow of immigrants became shallow at all — came just 7747 people, of which 5189 were from Russia (Source).
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