Chinese ship reached Europe through the Northeast Passage

BEIJING, Sept. 12 / Asian Reporter /. The first Chinese cargo ship crossed the Arctic Ocean by way of the Sea, which was formed due to global warming, and reached the shores of Europe.

Court who follow the path of the Sea in the Arctic Ocean, capable of reaching Europe from Asia for two weeks earlier than in the case of navigation on the traditional route through the Suez Canal.
China's use of the Northern Sea Route can have a big impact on maritime transport between Asia and Europe, given the growing volume of China's trade with European countries.


August 20, 2013 U.S. global edition The Wall Street Journal devoted a special publication is remarkable, from his point of view, the event — a Chinese container Yong Sheng August 12 sailed from the Chinese port of Dalian (formerly the Russian Far on the Liaodong) in order to pass the North Sea Route (NSR) and reach the Dutch trading port of Rotterdam, which has a European continental significance. Yong Sheng arrival in Rotterdam is scheduled for September 11, 2013. The event is remarkable in that it is the first container ship carrying goods from China in containers, which should be an alternative transport route to Europe. Yong Sheng has a displacement of 19 tons and owned by the Chinese state-owned company Cosco Group. Swimming through the NSR will require 35 days to go, instead of the usual 48-. In that case, if the ship sailed to Europe in the usual way via the Suez Canal and the Mediterranean Sea, it would take about two weeks longer. The northern route from Shanghai through the Arctic Ocean with access to Europe has a length of about 8.1 thousand nautical miles. The route is from Shanghai using the Suez Canal by 2.4 thousand nautical miles longer. It is not considered as SMP saves from 12 to 15 days' Chinese and Japanese container vessels. According to the calculations of Norwegians, the transition from the Norwegian town of Kirkenes in the Chinese Shanghai SMP saves bulk carrier class "Panamax" even 21 days by way of comparison with the route through the Suez Canal. In material terms, this means a saving of $ 820 million and 3980 tons of emissions of CO2. The average speed of Norwegian tankers along the NSR is 12.8 knots, and the period of their Arctic area — 8.2 days. As for Russia, the distance traveled by vessels from the port of Murmansk port in Yokohama via the Suez Canal, is 12.8 thousand nautical miles, and the Northern Sea Route — only 5.8 thousand nautical miles — more than twice as less. It is significant that the deceased in Mumbai a few days ago Indian submarine before that arrived in India on SMEs.

About mission Yong Sheng Chinese official media has informed the world in advance, at the beginning of this year. The Chinese believe that SMP is "the most cost-effective solution" for the shipment of Chinese goods to Europe. China never really hide his interest in the NSR. Recall that in May this year, he was granted the status of permanent observerArctic Council. According to Chinese estimates, in 2020 the transit of the NSR would be 15% of foreign trade in China.

Now swimming Yong Sheng passes on the background of relatively favorable weather in the Arctic. Warming in the Arctic Ocean has made in the summer relatively free of ice. Normal navigation NSR under the prevailing weather conditions are now available from July to the end of November. The best months to go through the NSR considered in September and October — the most pure ocean surface ice. In 2011, the last vessel proceeded on SMEs in the Pacific Ocean on November 18, marking the end of the longest period in the history of navigation on this route. Thus, the Northern Sea Route and after the peak warming in 2007-2009 is still not available for year-round navigation. This hampers the development of the said corridor. According to the observations of the American Meteorological Services National Snow and Ice Data Center, in the past year ice covered 860 thousand square miles of the surface of the Arctic Ocean, which is 53% less than in 1979. Then the figure was 1.8 million square miles. According to the Americans in the last 50 years, the temperature in the Arctic has increased by four degrees Celsius. This is much higher than the global average, warming in which during this time is equal to one degree.

Now international interest in the NSR increases. The state of the ice conditions in the Arctic can be used in the summer months to the CAP even without a special court reinforcing the structure, which allows swimming in ice conditions. The NSR can sail most ordinary ships from Europe to Asia and from Asia to Europe. In September 2010, the first foreign-flag bulk carrier passed through the NSR from the Norwegian town of Kirkenes to China. In 2010, SMEs benefited from four foreign ships, in 2011 — 34, and in 2012 — 46. This year — at least 58 vessels. It is believed that in view of Russian vessels passing only on certain sections of the route in this navigation of ships visited in the NSR will be 462 units. Apparently, at the end of navigation, which can be summed up in November this year, the figure is lower. But, nevertheless, the newly established administration of the Northern Sea Route to navigation in 2013 received 391 requests for permission to sail the vessel in the waters of the NSR. 52 applications for various reasons, have been rejected.

In general, foreign ship owners recognize the potential of SMEs. However, they believe that it will take years for the approval of the submission of the commercial viability of the route. The leaders of shipping companies fear that sudden weather changes in the NSR can either disrupt the arrival of the ship in time to the destination port, which would require the payment of penalties or require icebreaking support that the force majeure clause will increase the cost of freight. Risk factors include the NSR drifting icebergs, field-year ice, the mechanical action of which the hull is no less dangerous than the pack, and unstable weather conditions. It is still unclear whether the current climate change in the Arctic long-term, or else the current cycle of warming over the next 10-20 years will be replaced cold snap, which would complicate the navigation along the NSR.

The Executive Director is located in Copenhagen, the research center of shipping SeaIntel Maritime Dane Lars Jensen indicates a tendency for the use of maritime transport increasingly large-tonnage vessels to increase their effectiveness. These vessels are used in the calculation for the transported container for 25% less fuel than the older and smaller in displacement ships. Jensen believes that the use of increasingly large container makes it impossible them to compete with smaller vessels, even if the latter are used NSR. This, in his opinion, is the limiting factor for the development of transit navigation on Arctic highway.

Most of the goods transported by MSP, now make up minerals, including oil products excel. Only in 2012, 26 vessels transited the NSR 894,079 tons of diesel and jet fuel, gas condensate, liquefied natural gas and other petroleum products. 18 tankers proceeded from west to east, and 8 in the opposite direction. However supertankers in the NSR is not risked going out. The largest oil tanker in the NSR is a Norwegian tanker "Marika", brought the August 2012 66,552 tonnes of jet fuel from Korea to Finland. In November 2012 the Norwegian gas transport "ObRiver" backwards delivered from Hammerfest, Norway, 66,342 tons of liquefied natural gas plant "Statoil"Arrives Tobata, Japan. To the chagrin of Russian carriers and consumers, is negligible in the Russian tra
nsport through the NSR amount of fish and seafood from the Far East to the European part of Russia — only 3% of the total turnover.'s Why it's important for the current flight SMP Chinese container Yong Sheng. Oznachennoe transport expands the range of goods carried by the Arctic sea route to Europe. This is a landmark event.

In 2011, the NSR was transported 820,789 tons of goods in transit, in 2012, a 53% increase — total 1,261,545 tons. By the most conservative estimates, the 2013 transit traffic along the NSR will increase to 1.5 million tons. And, nevertheless, the largest voluntary association of shipowners, ship-building companies, manufacturers ship machinery and insurance companies register Lloyd believes that in 2021 about 15 million tons of cargo will be transported along the NSR. Thus, according to Lloyd's, the potential growth of SMEs in the coming years: the order. Over and above this amount, the NSR has planned to transport 15 million tons of liquefied natural gas and 10 million tons of oil. The Russian state defines a close figure, when declaring the task of bringing transit through the NSR from the existing 3 million tons to 50 million tons a year. On a more optimistic estimates declared by the Russian cabinet, in the long term by the year 2030 only cargo of hydrocarbons from the Gulf of Ob on the NSR can be more than 50 million tons a year. For comparison, last year alone, the Suez Canal was 17 thousand ships which transported 900 million tons of cargo. Panama Canal last year benefited 15 thousand ships. Thus, the Kara Gate Strait in the foreseeable future will still not become a new Suez Canal to international shipping.

Scaling shipping in the Arctic requires Russia to improve preparedness of emergency services on the route of administration and MSP new set of rules of navigation. "Polar Code" international shipping, which will enter into force in 2016, will establish more stringent environmental standards for Arctic shipping. Now foreign ship owners are afraid of accidents on the middle section of the route north of eastern Siberia in the removal of existing databases rescue services.

March 12, 1997 Russia ratified the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982. As a result, the water area of the SMP has received the status of international waters. According to the 234th article of the Convention, the SMP is considered Russia as historically constituted a single national transport communications of the country. According to the 234th article, the coastal State, the marine waters of which more than half is covered with ice, it may take additional measures to prevent marine pollution from ships and of sailing in these waters by regulating the shipping rules of national law. Therefore, the status of SMP on the convention allows Russia to set security mode using their vessels to provide rescue operations, as well as offering support for icebreaking on the track.

Today, the fees for the use of SMP is set unilaterally by the Russian side and, according to foreign shipowners, is often overestimated. Freight icebreaker is now three times more expensive than a cargo ship. This rate is about 100 thousand dollars a day. The service is not interesting to most foreign ship owners who would like to use the PSD in clean sea ice surface. Based on the Murmansk "ATOMFLOT"Unprofitable and subsidized by the state in the amount of 1.2 billion rubles a year. New Russian law on SMP determines the level of ship fees. It states that the payment of icebreaker assistance will be based on the volume of services actually provided. Now all the income from SMP collects FSUE "ATOMFLOT" through rates through the use of icebreaker assistance. additional source of revenue from the Russian SMEs are deductions from the insurance fees for the passage of the NSR. fact, now is not clear how would relate to future revenues and expenses of the Russian NSR. Nevertheless, the Russian state is interested in the development of the international transit of navigation on it controlled Arctic highway.


The Northern Sea Route (for reference)

Possible practical uses of Northeast Passage (as originally called the Northern Sea Route) to swim from Europe to China to Europeans for the first time in 1525 said Russian embassy interpreterDmitry Gerasimov. In the middle and second half of the XVI century, the British and the Dutch have taken a number of unsuccessful attempts to pass the North-East Passage. In 1648, the explorerDezhnev80 years passed before Vitus Bering Bering Strait, which separates Asia from America. On the possibility of the use of SMP in the middle of the eighteenth century, wrote Russian scientistMikhail Lomonosovin the preparation of the Arctic expedition Chichagova Basil (1764-1766).

However, the practical sailing the SMP began in the second half of the nineteenth century. In 1878, Sweden's Erik Nordenskiöld on the barge "Vega" was almost entirely in a single navigation entire NSR. He made the first significant voyage past Cape Chelyuskina — the northern most tip of the continent of Eurasia. In 1893, past Cape Chelyuskina was NorwegianFridtjof Nansen, and in 1901 — a Russian polar explorer Baron Eduard Toll. In 1914-1915, the hydrographic expedition of the Arctic Ocean under the direction ofBoris Vilkitskion the icebreaker "Taimyr" and "Vaygach" made the first voyage through the NSR with a wintering in the direction from east to west. However, for the first time in a single navigation SMP was passed only in 1932, Polar ExpeditionOtto Schmidton the icebreaker "Alexander Siberians." First through voyage from east to west along the NSR in a single navigation in 1934 implemented a captainNikolay Nikolaevon the icebreaker "Litke." The first transport operation in the Northern Sea Route — Through a cargo timber swimming "Vanzetti" and "Spark" from Leningrad to Vladivostok held July 8 — 9 October 1935.

During the civil war in Russia, when the "supreme ruler of Russia," AdmiralAlexander Kolchakat Omsk created the Committee of the Northern Sea Route, Moscow Chairman of the CPC Ulyanov-Lenin appropriated funds for an expedition to study the Northern Sea Route. After the defeat of Kolchak Committee of the Northern Sea Route in full has been saved and put the Bolsheviks in the institutions Sibrevkoma. In the yearsThe Great Patriotic WarThe Northern Sea Route — this is the most important traffic artery of the Soviet Union. The Northern Sea Route were hundreds of ships, of which about 170 — in convoys. The NSR was transported more than 4 million tons of cargo passed warships.

In 1960, the fleet of SMP was introduced first atomic icebreaker "Lenin". Since 1974, in order introduces a family-type icebreakers "Arktika", "Arctic" (1972), "Siberia" (1977), "Russia" (1985), "Soviet Union" (1990), "Yamal" (1993) "50 Years of Victory" (2007). Thanks icebreakers, with 1970 the NSR is a year-round navigation on the route Murmansk-Dudinka. All six are now operating or created in the USSR nuclear submarines require the decommissioning of the period from 2014 to 2025. The government plans — building up to 2020 at the Russian shipyards three nuclear icebreakers. The project lacks funding.

At present, Russia continues the development and use of the Northern Sea Route. Through the MSPs are still performed "Northern territories" in the Krasnoyarsk region, Yakutia and Chukotka. The main users of SMEs in Russia today are the companies: "Norilsk Nickel","Gazprom"," Lukoil ","Rosneft"And" ROSSHELF. "Comp
any" Norilsk Nickel "has six icebreaking cargo container ships. Annual turnover of the NSR for the Navy," Norilsk Nickel "is about 1 million tons, of which 0.45 million tonnes — is heading metal and 0.55 million tonnes — loads for the Norilsk industrial district. In the fleet of "Lukoil" — ten icebreaking tankers, as well as a multi-functional icebreaking tug and icebreaker. "Gasflot" operates two multi-purpose icebreaking cargo ship. Yet , compared with the 1980s the volume of traffic on the Russian SMEs declined by about 5-6 times with the former high of 6.8 million tons of cargo a year. In 2009, we developed a program of construction of the Murmansk Arctic unit, which is designed to increase the flow of goods through the NSR . In 2012, the sea port of Dudinka on the Taimyr Peninsula became an international passenger and cargo crossing points. Russia plans to open ten specialized regional centers to ensure the safety of navigation in the Northern Sea Route. first centers began their work in the navigation of 2013.

For international shipping the Northern Sea Route was opened in 1991. March 12, 1997 Russia ratified the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982. The water area of the SMP has officially acquired the status of international waters. According to article 234 of the Convention, SMP is seen as historically constituted a single national transport communication Russia.

July 4, 2012 the State Duma adopted the Federal Law № 132-FZ "On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation in the state regulation of merchant shipping in the waters of the Northern Sea Route." The law provides for a number of measures to promote SMEs, including the creation of the Administration of the Northern Sea Route in the form of a federal state fiscal institutions. The said document has introduced a new definition and boundaries of the Northern Sea Route, which means the body of water adjacent to the northern coast of Russia, covering the internal waters, territorial sea, contiguous zone and the exclusive economic zone of the country and limited by lines maritime boundary with the United States and the parallel of Cape Dezhneva in the Bering Strait in the west — the meridian of Cape Desire to Novaya Zemlya archipelago, eastern coastline of Novaya Zemlya archipelago and western boundaries of Matochkin Strait, Kara Gate and Ugra ball. Thus, the SMP starts from the Kara Gate and ends the Bering Strait.

The law introduced compulsory insurance of civil liability of owners of ships sailing in the waters of the NSR. The law came into force in January 2013. In mid-May 2013 in Moscow, began its work the administration of the Northern Sea Route.

Russian Maritime Register of Shipping introduces its rules are new requirements for ships operating in Arctic seas. They should come into force in 2014.

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