Recently, around the paratroopers are many rumors. It was reported that on the basis of their supposedly will create the National Guard. That winged infantry throw to cover the Russian military bases abroad. What will happen with the "blue berets", which tasks they perform, in an exclusive interview with "RG" said Navy Commander Vladimir Shamanov Hero of Russia.
Vladimir, where such a buzz about the assault? As far as I know, after all these rumors and you personally touched.
Vladimir Shamanov: I think this is a provocation of information. The media reported that I was even summoned to the Kremlin — ostensibly to discuss the new challenges of the Airborne Troops.
Responsibly declare that nothing like that happened. With no one on this subject, I did not keep any conversations.
The main purpose of Airborne — a reflection of external aggression, and not doing police work.
Generally speaking, the landing was and remains the reserve of the Supreme Commander.
That is, subject only to the president of the country?
Vladimir Shamanov: Not really. Minister of Defence and the Chief of the General Staff, we also comply.
You can not break the concepts related to the peaceful and military life. With the start of any, including the local, the general management of the war fighting goes to the commander in chief. Obey him and the Armed Forces and Minister of Defense with the Chief of the General Staff. A man running the army should have a reserve. Applying it, we can change the situation on the battlefield. Therefore, everything is logical.
Why is the role of the main reserve took it airborne?
Vladimir Shamanov: I think there have affected the unique opportunity of the Airborne Troops. Who decided to see how in a particular case comes to the United States and NATO. Airmobile component of its army Americans are constantly developing. But if you compare it with the Navy, then in many ways inferior to us Americans. They have, for example, there is no desantiruemye armored vehicles, they are limited to drop a load.
At the same time, Russian troops — is currently the only branch of service, where battalions are ready to act in its environment. As a former chief of the combat training of the Armed Forces, I can responsibly say that no one in Cilah general purpose tasks such is not working out. And the Marines have already mastered them.
Let us look at the other information — that Airborne Division still being reshaped to a team?
Vladimir Shamanov: There is an approved plan by the President of the Armed Forces until 2016. According to him, the Airborne troops, at least for the next four years, will remain divisional structure. But in the future we can consider the option of building and Brigadier Airborne.
My predecessors as commander of the Airborne Forces — the generals Alexander Kolmakov and Valery Evtukhovich — have developed, in my opinion, absolutely correct ideology. If you reformiruete three global branch of the armed forces, yet leave the Navy in its current form. And when the "run-in" structural changes in practice, life will tell you what to do next.
In support of this approach suggests the war with Georgia in August 2008. 19th Brigade of North Caucasus Military District, as in the whole 58th Army, which I had once commanded, as it is sad to admit, were not able to independently solve the problem of localization of the aggressor in the territory of South Ossetia. But it did Airborne troops redeployed to the Caucasus rail and air transport.
Drawing on international experience, for some reason, talk about the structure of the Brigade of the American army, but forget — they have after all and there is division. This does not prevent, on the contrary, even helps to create a sustainable management system. Such a system, we are now creating in the Russian army. In my opinion, building a divisional Navy in terms of management is the best to date.
But one team in the airborne troops already there.
Vladimir Shamanov: Yes, in Ulyanovsk. I served in this connection, even when it was stationed in Azerbaijan. Then it was called the 104th Guards Airborne Division. Her "reformatting" the brigade was associated with a decrease in the number of Navy. After all the calculations it turned out — for people divisional staff is not enough. And then decided to stop for the brigade.
I sometimes meet with veterans of the connection. They say our division fought in the Great Patriotic War, it is necessary to return to her former status.
Is it real?
Vladimir Shamanov: Today, there are no conditions for this. I hope that someday they will be.
In the military districts have their amphibious brigade. Who leads them?
Vladimir Shamanov: Such compounds — two in the East and one in the south — are subject to the District Commander. As far as I know, you want to deploy a brigade in the Western Military District. As for Central, the General Staff said, and we support him in this — there's plenty of 31-th separate air assault brigade Airborne.
Operational-strategic commands, especially on the East direction, of course, one must have airmobile reserve. He first responds to the emerging conflict. The emergence of a new "hot spot" is easier to prevent a demonstration of the flag than the "stew" of her then the whole world. Often, it turns out.
What, then, is engaged in airborne?
Vladimir Shamanov: Speaking of the air assault compounds they need for rapid response to external threats, especially when it comes to covering the state border. The second function — perform antiamphibious and anti-sabotage tasks in the interests of strategic commands. And the third — on the basis of our divisions is preparing resource mobilization for the military districts.
It's no secret that the call is now trying to organize on a territorial basis. Recruitment offices in many cases, recruits are sent to serve closer to home. And when the soldiers fired into the reserve, do not have to wrestle with where to get the soldiers in case of war. I think this is reasonable in all respects ideology.
In your opinion, landing four divisions and one airborne brigade is not enough for such a large country like Russia?
Vladimir Shamanov: We are constantly analyzing the events that occur in the last few years in the Arab world, in Afghanistan, in Iraq. And see — major clashes of large masses of people who were in the Second World War, no longer in sight. Given that Russia has such a guarantor of sovereignty, as nuclear weapons, to localize the conflict scale of the five-day war with Georgia Airborne in their current form is sufficient. Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces has set the task — at the same time be able to locate one conflict and one small — medium intensity. We will cope with this task.
Even though the airborne division, one might say, reduced strength — only two regiments.
Vladimir Shamanov: There is a classic Russian ternary system. Three platoons make up a company, three companies — a battalion, three battalions — the regiment. A three regiments — division. But in the airborne compounds is now really on the two regiments. Do not rule out that after 2030, when it will be seriously increased the attractiveness of military service under the contract and the ratio of professionals to recruits will be 70 to 30, the situation will change. Perhaps then it will be appropriate to raise the issue of the deployment of additional airborne or air as
sault regiment in each Airborne Division.
In other words, right now there are neither right amount of equipment or personnel?
Vladimir Shamanov: Exactly. Why untrained soldier trust an expensive military equipment? Here it is necessary to proceed from the principle of reasonable sufficiency. Today she is.
A few years ago, you saw the new Russian-made sniper rifles, and they were not too happy. Something has changed since then?
Vladimir Shamanov: First, re-launched machinery equipment factories in Izhevsk and Tula, with whom we work. Now we await that their products will significantly improve the combat skills that will begin replacing old Dragunov sniper rifles.
In addition, after our snipers have been trained in the Navy was passed to testing of 20 foreign-made sniper rifles. We tried them in all climatic conditions. Along with advantages over our weapons, detected in imported samples and material weaknesses. Foreign rifles in the cold woody, on the sand cease fire. In general, we have seen once again that simplicity — this is a traditional virtue Russian weapons that should be cherished. But, of course, without compromising quality.
There are great advances in the creation of tools that increase the effectiveness of automatic weapons. For example, there was a thermal imager "Shahin" improved properties collimator sights, the entire spectrum of optics. Together with the chief command of the Army, we are working to determine the best battle gear. I would also like to say about the introduction of automation, the constituent elements of "Flight-K." It will significantly reduce the time to explore, search and transfer target indications. Which ultimately will increase the accuracy and efficiency of destruction by fire.
Winged infantry, but their wings have not airborne. Is this normal?
Vladimir Shamanov: Features of the aviation industry is now limited, so all funds focused under the wing of the Air Force. This is the logic of an integrated approach. At the same questions that we put on interaction with aircraft, with each year are solved better. For example, last year the teachings of Novorossiysk and Ulyanovsk came not only with the use of military transport and tactical aircraft, but with the massive use of helicopters. Five years ago, on this one could only dream of. With the Navy worked even heavy Mi-26. No problems in interspecific interaction was not.
At the same time, given the gradual saturation of the troops with new helicopters, we are considering the possibility of a landing assault compounds own army aviation. That is, helicopter units.
By the way, why do you have one division called Airborne, and others — air assault?
Vladimir Shamanov: In the first throw with parachutes 100 percent of the people and technology. Secondly the technique desantiruyutsya only one battalion from each regiment. The others are planted on already captured enemy airfields.
By the way, in the future, such a division would have an opportunity to air assault battalions heavier weapons. The long-term combat vehicle BMD-4M, for example, has two options armor. Basic — thrown when a car with a parachute. The intensification — when, instead of landing facilities, and it is almost two tons, the "Quartet" attach additional armored plates. In a second embodiment, the security, of course, will be higher. For applications that do not involve landing parachute, mainly going to use heavier and more in the future — a military air assault connection. They are also expected to provide their own aircraft.
In local conflicts, judging from the experience of the Chechen campaigns, airborne units are most often used as a helicopter landings. And ideally, perhaps, VDV have to have one or two full-fledged army aviation brigade — 20 drums and 40 special vehicles and helicopters. Plus unit drones. After all, they can be used to solve many problems — from reconnaissance to strike.
But why these teams are not left in the Air Force? Let's say you need helicopters. Apply for and get everything you need.
Vladimir Shamanov: I support the army aircraft to return to those in whose interests it works. And then the helicopter will definitely not be in the role of stepchildren. Let's call a spade a spade. It is necessary, for example, to the reduction in the Air Force. Who is the first and more cut? Army aviation.
Regular military transport aircraft airborne do not need?
Vladimir Shamanov: That's different. Military transport aircraft operates not only in the interests of Airborne. She had intended to transport cargo, medical evacuations, etc. Therefore, transport aircraft can only be in the Air Force.
Clarify the situation with the BMD-4. Prior to 2015, planned to buy for more than a thousand troops of these machines. But the Ministry of Defence, as I heard, refuses to contract. "Four" Navy no longer needed?
Vladimir Shamanov: The machine we need the air. I will say more — re-think their priority. Our technical backwardness is simply rolls over. 95 percent of the armored vehicles operated 35-40. A discrepancy between the BMD-1 and BMD-2 solved problems showed even the two campaigns in the North Caucasus. There Airborne Division had to reinforce artillery and tanks infantry divisions. Even in the fight against gangs we lacked firepower. And if the enemy is more serious if you have to act without fire support to infantry? With the 30-mm gun and one triggered by an anti-missile times on the tower today many do not navoyuesh. During the five-day war in the village in the Foothills of the ambush was a Russian company. Past it was a column of Georgian tanks. Our guide on four ATGM launchers for — the officers. But none have pulled the trigger. Remembering how the landfill of five such facilities did not work four, they just did not dare to attack.
The idea to equip airborne combat vehicle with a tank firepower came about during the Afghan war. The result we have only now and then — not immediately. The first version of the BMD-4 had a "raw" unreliable base. But modernized, made in Kurgan version of "four" — BMD-4M is satisfied with us. Fighting module "Bakhcha-U" with a digital fire control system, a 100-mm gun and fires a projectile through a barrel guided allows it, as artillery fire from indirect fire and destroy any tanks without entering the zone of destruction of their weapons. Five of these machines, whether they are in a wait, vlegkuyu would burn Georgian tank battalion.
Why, then, BMD-4M is not a series?
Vladimir Shamanov: It's unclear. And today it is our biggest problem. In 2009, the Ministry of Defence agreed with the industry on the complete retooling Navy to the "Quartet" — provided that Kurganmashzavod at his own expense will carry it to the desired condition. Industrialists met its obligations, the BMD-4M included in the state armament program until 2020, approved by the President of Russia. In spring 2011, the General Staff proposed to strengthen bronezaschischennost "Bahchi" and then had to begin its delivery. Chief designer made a revision. Tests have shown that the parameters laid down in the new tactical and technical requirements are achieved. But supply is still there. As there is no logical explanation for the decision to refuse them.
Do you offer something in return? After all, once again raises a question on a single machine for airborne and infantry …
Vladimir Shamanov: Do not offer. And choose not anything. Armored "Lynx" and "Tiger" armed worse BMD-2. Armored personnel carriers that make Arzamas, not desantiruyutsya have weak engines, weapons and armor. Well, a single machine for airborne and infantry could not create because of weight restric
tions in landing. Why would limit the scope of our infantry bronezaschischennost? Especially the concept of operational use in airborne different. We need desantiruemye, floating, maneuverable and has serious firepower machine. Because in the rear of the enemy have no tanks, no artillery, no support. With what we fly, and on the fight. A fly on the task, even the level of a five-day war to us today is nothing.
Of course, once the machine will be better, "four". But in the next 7-10 years, the industry will not offer it. A BMD-4M us today more than satisfied. Landing on her fight, and no one knows better than we do, what should be such a machine. Without re Airborne at no future. Without a new BMD assault force in modern warfare prepared for the role of saboteurs, guerrillas. Therefore, we will fight for it. I think it's time to take on this issue, not only military but also political decision. Especially the president of Russia has approved the — in 2015 in the Armed Forces have 30 per cent of modern technology.
The next question is on the Kalashnikov assault rifle. You are satisfied with its landing option? After all, the Defense Ministry is known to refuse his purchases.
Vladimir Shamanov: I believe that the need to have a chain Infantry Kalashnikov has not disappeared. After passing a number of improvements, it has and will have its own niche in the field. Another issue is that the army has accumulated a large stock of such weapons, and more machines until you need it. Rather, it is necessary to upgrade existing designs.
There is much talk about the future soldier gear. In your opinion, it should have its own in each species and type of troops or need a single, unified for all the armed forces of a sample?
Vladimir Shamanov: suhoputchikami We agreed with the opinion that the 80 per cent it should be a single unit. And 20 percent of equipment to adapt to the peculiarities of service intelligence, special forces, marines, paratroopers, members of other military occupations. Simply put, everything that makes a soldier a soldier, must be one. And what does the expert specialist — it individually. General — this helmet, boots, vest, belt, pouch, bayonet …
And with regards to 20 percent of the landing?
Vladimir Shamanov: There will also be a difference — one for the Airborne Special Forces, for our intelligence — more. If you take an ordinary trooper — a soldier or officer of Airborne Company — the first thing they need to provide good equipment with an optical device and electronic tablet, where the soldier will at least see their comrades.
With this new equipment should be what is called a lift. Weight more than 25 pounds, not every person will stand. And when he offered himself to carry 40 pounds — it is unreal. After all equipment is necessary not just to raise with him will have to move — often at an accelerated pace. For this reason, I always say, loaded on a soldier all he could need — it is impossible. But it is necessary to strive for this. By the way, in recent years, our industry has taken a big step up in quality and properties of materials. And not only clothing, but also helmets, body armor, etc.
A new form of paratroopers like?
Vladimir Shamanov: Once criticized tissue, improving its noticeable. Quality underwear, including underwear and vest, also quite comfortable. With regards to the field form, there is a feature in the 98th Airborne Division and the 31st separate airborne brigade. These compounds are part of the Collective Rapid Reaction Force, which identified a single standard field form. She and the other cut and color special.
7th Airborne Assault Division has the necessary equipment for operations in the mountains. I will say more: we even equipped Raevskii — is near Novorossiysk — own mountain range. All that is necessary, paratroopers receive. Ten years ago, such support communications, automation, equipment and other necessary things for the fight could only dream of. Needs in the long run in two Navy today: in the long term, we need our own helicopters as soon as possible — the new airborne combat vehicle.
55-year-old Lieutenant-General Vladimir Shamanov Commander of the Airborne Troops since May 2009. Service in the Navy began a cadet of the Ryazan Airborne Command School. Went virtually all the "hot spots" in the territory of the former USSR. For his courage was awarded four battle honors. The title of Hero of the Russian Federation Shamanov awarded for outstanding achievements in the destruction of the bandits in Dagestan in August-September 1999.