The Republic of Poland until the end of the ’80s was an active member of the Warsaw Pact. Currently, this country — a more active member of NATO from all Eastern European states that are members of this military bloc. Poland has developed special operations forces and first made in 2008 as part of its armed forces new arm — Special Operations forces. It is composed of the 1st special regiment commando group «Thunder» and the division of marine special forces «Formoza». History SWAT fleet rises to the Republic of Poland in 1973, when the order came to the Chief of Staff of the Navy to develop a research group on the formation of lung units divers. One of the initiators of the creation of a naval special forces captain was Sigmund Zawadzki. Group, headed by Captain Joseph Rembiz, was created in Gdynia, in the center of divers training. It consisted of 9 persons.
The group completed its puzzle, and in 1976 as part of the third shock flotilla of ships was created Special Operations Division, which consisted of six officers: Commander, 3 senior assistants and 2-professionals. Special Operations Division (WDS) was subject to a special section consisting of commander, Sergeant (boatswain), 3-fighting groups, the control group. Battle group consisted of 6 divers; commander, deputy, diver-operator, and 3 divers. In turn, the control group consisted of 6 people and boats SMK-75 M. In total, the special section included 35 soldiers. Immediately with the appearance of WDS divers training center was eliminated research group. In order to comply with privacy in documents WDS was listed as «Department divers third shock flotilla of ships.»
Until the late 80’s size and structure of WDS remained constant. Planned on the basis of WDS do division, consisting of 3 special sections, three battle groups in each peacetime, wartime same time, the number of sections was increased to 5. Number of personnel division was planned that way: 90 people in peacetime and 150 people wartime. But these plans were not implemented. Only a few staff structure changed WDS. After the reorganization unit consisted of 3 battle groups, group logistics and operations department. As part of WDS had served 36 fighter, among whom were soldiers and contractors on an appeal. Contractors were usually the best part. Order of the commander of the Navy from November 12, 1990 WDS was divided into a special group and a technical support, and the commander of the group was subject to marine hydrographic group, which in 1992 entered into the marine reconnaissance group. In 1999, Poland joined NATO, which had a perceptible impact on the development of special forces of the country. In 2002, the division was renamed the diving section of Special Operations. In 2004, the newly renamed section dubbed the group of divers and special purpose.
During the second period of its history (1990-2006), when the beginning of the impact from NATO partners was changed destination unit. During this period the underwater saboteurs received additional tasks: several militant groups began to do as sabotage and intelligence functions. Began introduction of modern equipment and technology. To work under water have been used underwater tugs and surfaced version — inflatable boats with a motor. There was a modern parachute technique allows you to make parachute jumps in the water diving equipment. Began to be conducted exercises with the use of helicopters, which were used for the landing of divers. Also started close cooperation with both Polish and zabugornom with special forces. In October 2006, the unit re-divided into groups of special divers within the same team. July 1, 2007 a special group of divers was excluded from the Marine reconnaissance team and organizational joined the Marine Special Operations Group.
September 12, 2007 the Minister of National Defence ordered the introduction of configurations in the chain of command of the Navy’s special purpose. Since 2008, the Marine Special Operations group was excluded from the structure of the Navy and assigned to a specific submission to the commander of the special purpose. In 2011, the Maritime Special Operations Force changed its title and became known as the military part number 4026 «Formoza». It should be noted that the title of «Formoza», which until nedavneshnego time was unofficial, came from the name of an individual training center — in the sixties Vietnamese, held training there, gave her such a title. Since that time, it was assigned to the division title and spices used in communication. Wide popularity in this division has allowed the command name and legitimize it. Since 2011, the group commanded by Commander Darius Vishnyarek.
Puzzles DEPARTMENTS AND ACTIVITIES
Division created for special operations in peacetime, also in a situation of crisis or war. Main tasks is to act on the sea, underwater and coastal sites. «Formoza» often collaborates with marine department «Thunder» divers 1st Special Commando Regiment, and by some of its employees of the naval forces of NATO. Role in defense: the external borders of Poland is one of the main tasks. For the 2002-2003 period. Polish troops guarded the ship «Xawery Czernicki» in Gulf waters. Divers «Formoza» are also trained to acts performed on land and in the urban environment. «Formoza» has provided experience and tradition. This is true organized, well equipped and armed unit, which is staffed by personnel prepared. Marine special forces are regarded as non-standard type of command forces created for special events (actions or missions). Personnel «Formoza» valid criteria when applying ordinary armed forces is not likely either do not need, for reasons of military-political nature, as for operational or technical reasons. Frogmen are also used to support and protect other forces, organizations and institutions.
Staff structure and manning
Base unit — couple fighters who cover each other. Three pairs of special forms the group 5 groups — department. This unit passes three-year training course. In the first year of study in the main worked through shooting, swimming vast distances, driving and improving foreign languages. At the initial step of its own history frogmen unit was equipped conscript soldiers. Now «Formoza» became quite prof that allows to increment its capacity and efficiency of operations. When typing in the squad try to give preference to candidates with strong ambitions that are not afraid of problems have developed in-depth knowledge and skills in different areas, own developed brain and are characterized by resistance to stress and the highest physical activity. If the candidate set is usually taken people for positions frogmen special groups specialists climbers, also staff and logistical units.
Candidates must meet the subsequent aspects:
— Prof. be soldiers or fighters reserve;
— not have a criminal record;
— have at least a high school education;
— have a formal conclusion about the absence of medical contraindications to excessive physical stress.
Candidates are required to have frogmen so called certificate «Non-Storm» the absence of contraindications to commit jumps and slopes under water. Candidates listed above appropriate aspects to apply for a role in the selection of the addresses are located on specialized websites and in the media of information. Candidates are tested, the shape of which will depend on what position they claim.
Nominees of the assault teams are subsequent stages of selection:
— verification of documents for compliance with the stated job;
— mental tests;
— physical tests;
— long-term tests in terrible weather criteria and on a very rough terrain to test candidates’ ability to endure long exercise;
Selection of candidates is conducted each spring. Successful passage of the selection and endorsement of the committee is a prerequisite for admission to the unit, but pulls the immediate purpose for the post.
CHECKING THE PHYSICAL CONDITION
This verification takes place on sports equipment for a maximum of 2-days. All tests are conducted both on land and in water and contain a swimming freestyle and swimming underwater, running at different distances, pulling on the bar, climbing rope, pushups, fight. Unsatisfactory rating on any of the tests exclude the candidate from among applicants on a free position in the division. Checking candidates in water and altitude objects is dependent on jobs claimed by the candidate. During the wrestling test candidate goes on the carpet without guns, form odezhki — random. Sparring is held against the 1st mate. In assessing the actions of the candidate counted his motivation, coordination, equipment for the fight.
Armaments and equipment
Armed with frogmen group «Formoza» is various small gun, the middle of which is, as a model of western producers and Russian weapon. Of short-guns Polish fighters prefer 9mm SIG-Sauer R226 and Beretta 92. Also used submachine guns chambered for 9 x19 Luger / Parabellum, RM84 «Glauberg» and a different version of Heckler & Koch MP5A3 and MP5N. As for the automatic gun, which the West belongs to a class «assault rifles», here in the midst of pets as before Russian AKM. Also used 7.62-mm automatic rifle M-14 automatic rifle and modern German company Heckler & Koch G36 NC under standard NATO cartridge 5.56 x 45 mm, which entered service in 1995, the Bundeswehr is the main rifle its personnel to this day. Of the more massive samples armed detachment is 7.62-mm machine gun Kalashnikov PC. It is undisputed in the midst of the world’s favorite guns in this class. Antitank grenade in the group also Russian — RPG-7, but as a grenade launcher rifle G36 used the German 40-mm H & K AG-36. Incidentally, this launcher has a special butt and can be used separately from the rifle. Polish snipers in service to this day is the SVD. In the group used modern diving equipment: breathing apparatus closed type, dry type diving suit with socks latex, equipment for underwater wireless waterproof tray for diving diving, etc.
During its existence a special group of divers took part in almost all search and rescue operations, and provide security VIP-persons as prime minister, president, and even the King! 1994 marks the beginning closely cooperation and interaction with the special forces of NATO member countries: USA, England, Germany and France. Polish frogmen participated in almost all joint exercises with employees of similar units of these countries. In 2000-2001, as part of the Polish military contingent personnel «Formoza» has been focused in the Gulf region, where acted with U.S. Navy ships. In 2002-2003, during the second Gulf War, a group of special divers came in the Polish military contingent was on board and functional cargo vessel «Xawery Czernicki». «Formoza» now considered one of the most prepared units of the armed forces of Poland.