The Slavic area in the excavations in the ancient settlement near the village Sidorovo expedition department of archaeological monuments of Donetsk regional museum under a senior researcher Edward Kravchenko discovered historical treasures. And also proof that in our region are ten centuries ago, there were quite impressive settlements, who, having laid their fate otherwise, could eventually grow to large cities.
The settlement could destroy Svyatoslav
Edward Tamm, who recently returned from Poltava, which gave a report on unusual findings at the International Conference, I found in his "office" of the museum — a room full of artifacts and "breath of old times." On the walls, in boxes, on tables — amazing things discovered during the "Journey to the Past" (the excavation on a particular object). Basically — all on the same Sidorov.
— Started working there in 1971 Kharkiv scientists — says Kravchenko. — But they were not long in our area, opened a small area (200 square meters). Later it became clear that it is a huge mound of the Khazar Khanate — the largest one found in the Donbass ancient settlements. It existed in the VIII-X centuries, and its area of over 120 hectares.
Excavations continued until 1996 and were mainly in the repository. Well, from the beginning of the new millennium, they have been held for the residential part of the settlement. In eleven expeditions took part and Edward E. (headed them).
— Vladimir Mikheyev, who led the Kharkov researchers 41 years ago, took a general view of the monument and recorded that the settlement had two lines of fortifications, are separated by a distance of more than a hundred meters. In 2012, we decided to cut the inside line in search of new material. See how it looks on the map — shows me Kravchenko monitor survey area made thanks SASPlanet. — Here — extension, here — outside. It turned out that was once covered with old buildings for new, enclosing area, circumference of 2.5 kilometers. It — huge earthworks, which would be pointless without a lot of defenders. And they are, therefore, was that the defend …
Construction of the new line of fortifications have been linked to the growth of the village, which has absorbed the smaller settlements located nearby.
— That is, was the process of urbanization — continues archaeologist. — Is it possible that the strengthening of defensive lines of the monument has been associated with the emergence of the threat posed by Pechenegs or a powerful new state — Kievan Rus. Anyway, it was over the death of this interesting settlement and termination of life in it. It is possible that the defeat of a hand in the famous Prince of Kiev, father of the future Baptist of Russia Vladimir — Svetoslav, famous as a great military leader. He lived just at the time when the thriving place that we now examine. And though such a defeat, which is available at such a settlement near the village of Lighthouses (there found even traces of fire and skeletons of people who died obviously not the death), there is no haste and carelessness some individual graves identified in the fortress, says that the last days of the settlement were associated with the siege, which ended not in favor of the defending …
The ancient "treasures"
It is possible that it is the last days (hours, minutes) of life of the settlement related to finding the loudest season.
— Clearing the curb next square in the inner strengthening, professor of history of one of the schools Dobropolskaya Alexander Petrenko came across the so-called "Forging a treasure." He first discovered the stirrups and bridle, and under them — two blacksmith tongs, scissors for metal. Most likely, a local craftsman turned him these expensive items in leather or fabric and hid, hoping to return them to the best of times. But they are for him and did not come: smith or killed, or driven away into captivity.
Another finding of this season, in common with the one that was made at the beginning of the excavation, in the distant 71st. Then Kharkiv found a small cross made of iron plate. These tend to come across in the Crimea, where they have existed since the IX-XIV centuries. They are inserted into the wall of the lower part of the bent and prayed.
— Forty years ago V.K.Miheev considered that "Sidorovsky cross" refers to the Golden Horde (XIII-XIV century). But this year, during the excavation of layers of materials Khazar time (VIII-X centuries) met again cross the same type. This indicates that in the present monument to the Christian community — emphasizes Kravchenko. — And the cross, and blacksmith tools are rare finds on the territory of the Khazar settlements and in the Donets Basin in general.
According to him, during the earlier excavations of burial grounds, it was found that the settlement predominated Muslim community. This is evidenced by the burial rite — the dead were buried on the right side of the face to the south — to Mecca. During excavations at the settlement were recorded execution traces what that population group of pagan rituals.
— In one of the pits we got Pogrebnaya crouched skeleton woman. Nature of the arrangement of bones suggests that buried his hands and feet were turned out of their sockets. Obviously some of the rites — said Kravchenko. — In the center of the other building was closed half pithoi (vessel), which turned upside down and filled up with stones. Before that, presumably, to the fire poured leftovers. This is — the famous rite associated with leaving home when he died last man of the family. Thus, following him to the light sent and hearth — the key to family happiness. We found clusters and astragalus — playing or tarot bones and a piece of deer or elk antlers inscribed with runic inscription on it: perhaps a curse or a conspiracy.
Occasionally appear out of the ground and the pagan amulets, which have nothing to do with Islam or Christianity. That suspension will fall with a bronze image of a rider, then — something resembling a ring located on top of a small human head. This year, for example, found a diamond pendant of white bronze. Gizmo is a rare, but because — valuable.
— Everything indicates that the population in this place was not only the multi-ethnic terms (as evidenced by the variety of residential buildings), but also in the confessional, which is typical of large settlements of the Khazar Khanate — says Edward E.. — And if there were historical conditions, we had a city much earlier than it happened. In fact, we are digging in the place which can be called early urban center, the embryo of the future city.
Last season was a surprise finding and unusual coins.
— This — Copper stater Bosporan king Reskuporid V, — a small coin shows Kravchenko resembling button of. — By the way, the fourth century AD. How did she get the medieval monument — is unclear. But in 2004, during the excavation with materials of different ages there were also fragments of pottery of the Christian era. Given the finding coins, we can assume that somewhere in the vast area we are studying the monument there is a part of the earlier layer. So that is where to dig and what to look for. I'm sure — we are waiting for new and interesting discoveries.
Pupil has proudly stood the test
The expedition, which took place in July and August on the spot where once lived the Khazars, was attended by experts and enthusiasts from all over the Donetsk region — students, pupils and teachers.
— This year, we had not sweet — says Edward Kravchenko. — Natural anomalies like conspired to check the strength of archaeologists: that terrible heat (and alumina in dry weather clutched in 15 minutes after clearing), the heavy rain from hurricane wind (our camp almost demolished!). But I must give credit to all the participants to stand. Of particular note from Kramatorsk Yaroslav. The boy finished the ninth grade and was the youngest in the expedition. All two months working side by side with adults. Was initiated to archaeologists with the obligatory oath, porridge and tea (with a fair amount of salt) and nocturnal journey through ancient settlement, then to write on the road with chalk desire.