With the end of the second world war in the armies of almost no subversive intelligence units, most of them were disbanded, the second part — cut. But it soon became evident that special forces are more effective way to fight against increasingly real nuclear threat posed by NATO. After a detailed analysis and research experiences produced during the war, in 1950 the Soviet government decided to develop the first special forces units. They all were under the specific control of the Head of the Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Army.
Together with that, it is worth noting that all who believe that the history of Russian special forces began a little more than half a century back, wrong. Similar divisions existed in the past for many centuries. So, namely, in the XVIII century by some Russian generals (P.Panin, Suvorov, M.Kutuzov) raises the question of the necessity of creation of special military units. First such compounds appeared in 1764, and they were called the Jaeger. At the end of the same century Catherine II initiated the first rotation of the Zaporozhye Cossacks to the Bug, and then to the Kuban. In these areas very needed chasseur strategy — combat operations in mountainous terrain, conducting reconnaissance, raids, ambushes. The preparation of these units very much like a modern — combat operations mixed with the power and intelligence agents. In 1811 was created separate internal security body whose duties came protecting and restoring order in the country specifically. The War of 1812 has allowed Russian troops to acquire a lot of experience, which has been successfully applied in the forthcoming. In 1817, on the initiative of Alexander I were made mobile gendarmerie formation frisky horse response. Slightly later, in 1842, on the basis of the Cossack battalions were made bellies battalions on combat activity which has learned more than one generation of future commandos. Then in 1903 when the General Staff was created Exploration office, and one year later, these offices have appeared in all military surroundings. A year later, in 1905, on the basis of police appeared units that were engaged in the execution of tasks similar puzzles of modern riot. In 1917, the General Directorate of the General Staff appeared, and in 1918 — military intelligence, as part of a special mission, which has been designated as anti-Asian Basmachis and various rebels. In the 30s of the last century reddish Army Airborne units replenished and subversive groups.
As for the newly formed unit, the tasks set before him were very harsh: organize and conduct reconnaissance, to destroy all the possible means of nuclear attack, identify the enemy army units and conduct special operations behind enemy lines, organize and carry out acts of sabotage, behind enemy lines to create a guerrilla fight against terrorism, search and neutralize saboteurs. In addition, the commandos were also to do puzzles on jamming, blocking communication, power failure, the elimination of transportation hubs, stimulate mess and chaos in the municipal and military leadership of some countries. At first glance it may seem that lion’s share of these problems — is not feasible, fantastic, but completely army commandos successfully coped with them, because the units were available all the necessary hardware and the corresponding weapons, including nuclear mines portable.
Preparing commandos was very intense. Usually, it used personal applets. Any group consisted of 3-4 men and one officer who exercised continue to monitor their pupils. If we talk specifically about preparing the officers themselves, their programm was so intense that after a couple years of training each officer could without the help of others to change almost the whole army unit. Fully understood that these special purpose units were classified even more than the presence of nuclear development in the Russian Union. This is evidenced by at least that the existence of bombers with nuclear warheads, nuclear missiles and nuclear submarines actually knew everything, and the existence of Spetsnaz GRU — not even every general or marshal.
The first textbook for commandos was «Instructions combat use of units and special forces units,» which was made by the creator of the last chief of intelligence guerrilla group «Chekist» of Belarus Pavel Golitsyn.
Everything seemed to be going well, but soon began difficulties. Army began to cut. More than 3 x 10-s special forces were abolished. Ultimately, there are only one special purpose company special. In the next four years of army commandos «build muscle» after such a severe blow, and only in 1957 were formed five battalions bleaching special purpose. These couple of years later, in 1962, were joined by 10 teams for special purposes. They are all calculated on the peacetime and wartime. Staff at peacetime included at least 2-3 hundred men in each brigade. In wartime, the state was at least 1700 soldiers (officers and soldier). So Makar, at the beginning of 1963 Russian special forces consisted of 10 teams have been cropped, 12 individual companies, 5 separate battalions stationed in the Baltic, Leningrad, Belorussian, Kiev, Carpathian, Odessa, the Metropolitan, the Transcaucasus, and the Far East Turkestan military surroundings.
At the same year, the first has to conduct large-scale exercises. But even despite the fact that their results were very successful in 1964 occurred newcomer reorganization, as a result of which the number decreased by three Special Forces Battalion and 6 mouth. So Makar, army commandos consisted of 6 companies, 10 brigades and two battalions.
Coupled with that, it should be noted that there were units which are in addition to standard training programs SWAT trained and under perform specific tasks. Namely, the 99th Special Forces Company, which was stationed in Arkhangelsk military environment, prepared to carry out tasks in the Arctic and fighters 227th company, which was surrounded in the North was prepared to implement the operations in mountainous terrain. Create strike groups for special purposes were activated only in the late 1960s.
On the basis of Airborne School, located in Ryazan, in 1968 began training Prof. intelligence special purpose. At that period of time and the formation of the well-known accounts of the 9th Company, the last edition of which took place in 1981, after that company was dissolved. In addition, officers are trained commandos in the Frunze Military Academy in Kiev Voka (Intelligence Department), but their specialty was closer to the faster troop spies. In 1970, the training company was formed, after a while — a battalion, and then — the regiment, which was stationed in the Pskov region.
Special forces carried out operations abroad. The first such large-scale special operation was zabugornoy operation in Czechoslovakia in 1968. Warsaw Pact countries began to introduce his troops into the area of the country. Plane that transported commandos requested the forced landing in the capital due to faulty engines Tipo. For a couple of minutes commandos seized the airport, then there was transferred Airborne Division. Around the same time, a group of fighters who arrived in Prague earlier seized more important position — stations, telegraph. When it was brought under the control of the government building, the management of the country were shipped to Moscow.
If we talk about all zabugornyh operations, the general difficulties army commandos conducted its operations in about 20 countries in Latin America, Asia and Africa. From time to time and had to deal with the well-known South American commandos. It was only many years later, the Yankees managed to figure out what exactly Russian commandos smashed their elite units in Vietnam in 1970, and in Angola in 1978. Very often even happened that the South American intelligence agencies knew that the Russian special forces carried out any special operation. A striking example of this can serve as one case. It happened in 1968 in Cambodia. Nine commandos conducted a helicopter raid on the secret camp, which was located not far from the Vietnam border. From this camp the Americans threw their own saboteurs of the countryside of Vietnam. Armed camps provide two light helicopters, about 10 of heavy transport helicopter and 4 «Super Cobra». Specifically, the aim of the latter were Russian special forces. Least half an hour it took fighters to hijack a helicopter and kill the other three, even despite the fact that actually had to act under the nose of U.S. Special Forces.
In general, a huge amount of disk imaging special operations conducted by the army special forces on the ground in Mozambique, Angola, Ethiopia, Cuba, Nicaragua and Vietnam, to this day no. But rather data about operations that were carried out for 10 years of the Afghan conflict. Starting conflict broke out a special operation to destroy the governor Amin. Most of the historians are convinced that the operation was a gamble of net. Yet, she failed. Also special forces units that already existed at the time — «Thunder», «Zenith», «Vympel» and «Alpha» — took part in the operation and the Army Special Forces soldiers. About 6 months to capture Muslim battalion was formed, which was also known as the 154th separate group of special purpose, consisting of the fighters and the GRU (Russian Muslims). Most of the soldiers of the detachment were Tajiks, Uzbeks and Turkmens, in fact they all possessed Farsi. Shortly before the storming of the palace they entered the palace guard. The assault was carried out less than an hour.
After a little respite after surgery the same battalion in 1984 right up to combat acts conducted by spetsnaz strategy, ambushes and raids, engaged in exploration. In addition, in late 1983, soldiers started to create divisions border zone «veil» with which supposed to block about 2-hundred routes on which the rebels received weapons and ammunition from the territory of Pakistan. But since it is so excellent plan sought a huge number of commandos, in 1984 there were deployed 177th and 154th units of special purpose. The full amount of the GRU special forces who were on the ground in Afghanistan, was approximately 1,400 fighters. But such numbers seemed not enough, because in Russian Union formation of additional units of special forces.
Read about the operations that were conducted army special forces in Afghanistan, can be very long. Among them were those who remembered too much. So, namely, first 1984 177th spetsrota reinforced by several companies of combined arms and tank platoon, was to find and capture the nearby village of Waha caravan with a gun and ammunition. But this is not possible, and the commandos were surrounded. Only after an uneasy fight, supported by artillery and aviation detachment was able to leave a terrible area.
After some time, in 1989, the structure of 22th and 15th brigades of special purpose has been changed drastically. They confiscated all armored vehicles, grenade launchers, communications. This was motivated by the mismatch of the armed special forces task, in other words, conduct reconnaissance and anti-military struggle. And the introduction of the special forces weapons in the whole decade was considered «atypical case of application» … Yet, when a year later 15th spetsbrigada arrived in Baku for struggle with local criminal gangs, the technique she returned all the same. Then it was all about 40 flights of IL-76 and delivered from Tashkent communications, cars, and about 2-10-s armor. Brigade successfully fulfilled all the tasks assigned to it, but when he returned home, all combat equipment and communication facilities were again withdrawn, despite numerous requests command.
Activity was more intense and the Army Special Forces during the Chechen conflict. Russian special forces were present on the terrain of the country since the beginning of the invasion. First time fighters commandos used only for reconnaissance. In addition, due to a weak training ground units, special forces took part in the assault groups, namely in severity. By the way, 1995 was the most tragic, so as that’s when the commandos suffered huge losses.
But it did not break the morale of soldiers, and they continued to operate in its own classical manner. When it signed a peace agreement KHasavyurtovskiy, everyone was saying that this world is very shaky. Therefore, when fighting broke out in Dagestan, in the confrontation international formations and Chechen terrorists and insurgents, one of the objectives was to provide intelligence spetsnaz relative positions and defensive structures Wahhabis. Army commandos showed himself only with the best hand, being the best combat training and objectives, and acting is much more excellent, if others.
In spring 1995, on the ground there is not Chechnya 1st riot. The last of them assigned to the North Caucasus district, returned home during the second half of 1996.
It is worth noting that more than a weary time period not only for the Army Special Forces, and for the armed forces in general, began years after the collapse of the Union of Russian. Since the beginning of reform of the army special forces were able to inflict so much damage, which was not even in the years of the Afghan and Chechen wars. At the end of the war in Afghanistan, part of units returned to duty station, part — were disbanded. At times, some special forces expelled for fighting gangs in Ossetia, Baku, Nagorno-Karabakh, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan. Some special brigade were in the Armed Forces of Ukraine, Belarus and Uzbekistan.
So Makar, the exact answer to the question of how many special forces units in the current time is in Russia, no. Partly due to the fact that the information is confidential, partly because of constant reform of the army. And even in spite of the decision on the transfer of the Army Special Forces in the structure of the ground forces and the development of Special Operations Forces Command, until a final decision has been taken because the Army Special Forces — is not just a subdivision, and research universities and the rest of the organization (easier saying something that should be hidden from prying eyes, but coupled with the fact plays an important role in the work of the Special Forces mission).
Valery created Bowa