In the September issue of the specialized scientific and popular magazine "Russian space" article "after the first Soviet" on the work of KBKhA. Unfortunately, the author did not consider it in the comments and amendments proposed by the specialists of KBKhA. For this reason, in the publication contains invalid actual errors. In order to avoid undue criticism of the company present below the editor of this article, as amended corrections and comments.
From the Soviet reserve to new developments
In Voronezh, sit in the mass production of new liquid rocket engines
- Steering motor RD0110R (14D24) — site KBKhA
TTX RD0110R (14D24) —
June 11 in Voronezh Chemical Automatics Design Bureau has successfully completed testing of a new interagency oxygen-kerosene rocket engine 14D24. Designed in KBKhA in a short period of time (three years) and manufactured by the Voronezh Mechanical Plant, the engine is designed for use as part of the first stage of a new space launch vehicle light class "Soyuz-2.1V 'development Samara" Samara Space Center Progress ". Interagency Testing Engine and firing test of the first stage, conducted recently in SIC RCP, opened a direct route to the first flight test of the launch vehicle.
Delivery of the new rocket engines in the series takes a KBKhA regular.
August 27 in Voronezh interdepartmental tests have been successfully completed another new rocket engine — RD-0124A, for use in the universal rocket module URM-2 space rocket "Angara" development Khrunichev. MV Khrunichev.
And not so long ago — June 25 — the successful launch of the spacecraft from Baikonur "Resource-P" completed flight tests rocket "Soyuz-2.1b." At its third stage is powered KBKhA 14D23. Again — not the Soviet backlog, and new development.
Two years ago in the news flashed news agencies reported that "Voronezh enterprise" KBKhA "in the presence of the head of Roscosmos, Vladimir Popovkin held control technology test of Russia's first liquid-fuel rocket engine 14D23." It is already known that the use of this engine allows you to increase capacity by about a ton of missiles. A General Director — General Designer Vladimir KBKhA Rachuk stressed that 14D23 was the first Russian engine developed from the Soviet Union and a melted on the national missile.
How is creating a new engine, which experts have dubbed the world record for the economy?
- RD0124 (14D23) — site KBKhA
TTX LRE RD0124 (14D23) —
It's not a ton of excess
Yes, today, of the engine — one of the main issues. By the way, the Americans have a long-standing rivalry here. Moreover, they are with their "Saturn-5" started fairly briskly — 260 kg pulling a kilogram of fuel. New developments are dragging them no more than 300 kg. As regards domestic developments, the previous ours, Voronezh engine RD-0110 gave a figure of 326 kg, colleagues from the RSC "Energy" — 350 lbs. A new engine KBKhA 14D23, question, provides traction to 359 kg per kilogram of fuel. This is the best, and so far unbeaten record in the world among all the oxygen-kerosene rocket engines.
How it all began? Back in 1992, samartsy of "Progress Samara Space Center" proposed to develop a better engine in place of the RD-0110 for the carriage of goods. Project tasks stipulated that he would be more economical predecessors, and the payload will raise with the then 7 to 8 tons. Imagine — added a whole ton. And what is the extra ton, raised in orbit? Well, at least once a satellite or a considerable burden for the ISS. Agree, not so bad.
Break your head over this challenging puzzles come from specialists "Energomash" and KBKhA. It is worth noting that the main developer of the oxygen-kerosene engine closed-circuit always means just "Energomash" and Voronezh before with similar problems encountered. And suddenly — 359 kg of cargo per kilogram of fuel. For some, this result was unexpected, but the fact remains — in KBKhA developed a liquid oxygen-kerosene engine, which is so far considered the best in the world.
Thereby managed to win the competition with big-name rivals? As you know, the world of design ideas so far nothing fundamentally new has been invented, and all of CB work today, in general, in two ways — is to increase the pressure in the combustion chamber of the engine, and increasing the efficiency of mixing. What zakovyrka? The fact that an increase in pressure in the combustion chamber and increase the coefficient of mass ratio of oxidant and fuel, not only increases the specific impulse of the engine thrust, but also heat flux into the wall of LRE chamber. Roughly speaking, if the engine is stronger raskochegarit — walls do not survive. That had to be smart designers Voronezh, thinking outside the box, the accuracy of the calculations.
The chief designer of rocket engines Victor Gorokhov leads to a sample of the engine. — That's … That's turbine pump the oxidizer and the fuel pump, — he says — to turn the turbine — is necessary gasifier gas … Here comes the camera … To ensure proper pressure — requires a high temperature gas generator. So that the temperature variations are very large.
The designers say that the maximum temperature that is required to bring the engine to operating conditions, up to 860 degrees Kelvin. Consequently, the motor must be rated for this temperature. But because the average temperature of the engine still less. Here Voronezh and thought: what would happen if you reduce the temperature fluctuations? And, imagine, they managed to limit the scope of the average temperature in the 720-740 degrees.
— We have created the engine, — said Victor Gorokhov — which runs without the so-called casting temperatures. Consequently, we have received a higher average temperature, because the generation of the gas flowing efficiently former provides a higher level of pressure in the chamber.
Another important area of work for the creation of a new engine — improving the process of mixing.
— Components must act and injected into the combustion chamber evenly, mix well, — said Victor Gorokhov — and we have developed blends elements work well for this task. And they have no equal.
It is imperative that the new engine configuration, weight is almost identical to the previous one. This means that its installation at the booster does not require any modifications, additional work and costs. Figuratively speaking, removing the old engine, you will without any effort, putting in its place a new one. And get additional tonne payload, which can be thrown into orbit. Is not it a success?
The future of "hydrogen"?
— Annoying fact — says First Deputy General Designer Sergei enterprise LOBOV — Russia so far the only major space powers, which does not have to use the booster with an engine that would run on fuel "liquid oxygen — liquid hydrogen."
Well, it seems, Voronezh KBKhA managed to rectify this omission. KBKhA developed since 1998 engine family RD0146 (RD0146U, RD0146D, RD0146E)
— is the first Russian liquid-propellant oxygen-hydrogen engines, made by bezgazogeneratornoy scheme. According to experts, the engines of the scheme is characterized by high reliability and simplicity of design. By the way, this is confirmed by more than a hundred fire tests, which have passed the four sample engine without a single accident.
During that time, had undertaken much of the most diverse and demanding applications. In particular, a conceptual and technical designs, design documentation released to the engine and components, prepared for the production of their production, in KBKhA organized the production of liquid hydrogen, modernized booth for fire tests, conducted fire tests of the engine, and other important events. In fact, the oxygen-hydrogen fuel was proposed during the time of Tsiolkovsky — he claimed that he was the future. But the idea of the great old man for a long time did not find practical application. Of course, because of the specific properties of hydrogen — for liquid hydrogen is 14 times lighter than water and boils at a temperature of 20 degrees Kelvin. It is not hard to guess how much fire and explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. Suffice it to say that the discharge of static electricity consumer in the tens or hundreds of times more energy is required to ignite the air-hydrogen mixture. And how much is required to run the liquid hydrogen rocket? So getting it in large quantities, the creation and operation of the systems were able to learn only recently.
Which today is used oxygen-hydrogen fuel? For example, in the upper stages of launch vehicles, where it is most effective. It is a universal level "Centaurus", which is used for space rockets families "Atlas" and "Titan-3", and the second stage of the rocket "Delta-3". The fuel tanks of the rocket stages, designed to contain the liquid hydrogen like giant thermos, the walls of which are covered with special insulating polymeric materials. This isolation provides channels through which the missile when finding the start helium gas is fed — as removed explosive gases that may accumulate in the tanks.
— The oxygen-hydrogen engines are very complex systems, — says Sergey LOBOV — but, in my opinion, they are the most promising, and they are the future. After all liquid fueled engines oxygen-hydrogen fuel for the specific impulse is 30 percent larger than the oxygen-kerosene.
An important detail — getting the task to develop an oxygen-hydrogen engine KBKhA spent in the process of working on it a lot of equity. The actual funding from the government to develop the engine RD0146D began two years ago.
Today Voronezh engine is ready for mining in high-altitude conditions. At the company say that if you do not experience shortage of financing of works already in 2016 put the engine for flight tests.
When working on this engine, the leadership KBKhA, in fact, created a strong effective co-operation, consisting of the industry. For example, Khrunichev. Khrunichev develop, manufacture and supply electromechanical actuators. KBhimmash im.A.M. Isayev provides the engine block booster oxidizer and fuel pressure accumulator unit. NGO "Lightning" has developed and delivers electroplasma ignition system. Perm NGO "Spark" has developed a nozzle orifice of radiative cooling. SIC RCP from Moscow Peresvet and CIAM. PI Baranov participate along with KBKhA to conduct fire tests samples of the engine.
Notably more. While working on a new engine, Voronezh, they say, have realized a lot of metal own original ideas. For example, first applied supply circuit with separate oxidizer turbopump assembly and fuel. Also in collaboration with the Samara plant air bearings are created unique new bearing, which operates at 120 thousand revolutions per minute. In the combustion chamber of the engine implemented bezgazogeneratornogo combustion pressure of 80 atmospheres, and in the best foreign models — only up to 60 atmospheres. Together with specialists from the Marshall Center. Keldysh in a short time developed a laser ignition system. According to the designers, the use of laser ignition to start the rocket engines using non-hypergolic propellants, has some serious advantages over traditional methods. He can choose initiate combustion zone in the broad geometrical limits and without changing the design of the combustion chamber. Finally, a new system able to operate in an extended range of pressure ratios and fuel mixture.
In a word, made a big backlog, allowing in the future to create new engines.
The new conditions — new requirements
— New conditions sometimes require us strong and innovative solutions not only in the design work — CEO Vladimir KBKhA Rachuk — so that we have among other things put a lot of effort in the development of important social programs.
It seems that the leadership KBKhA succeed. Here are higher than in the average salary in active development project of the service housing, as part of the collective agreement implemented the program "Youth", "care", "Women."
— Of course, it is not easy — enters into a dialogue first deputy general director Yury Sasin — But without these problems did not improve the company's competitiveness in the labor market does not retain highly qualified engineers and workers, not to attract talented young people. The fact that the case is shifted from the "dead spots" — obviously.
Take, for example, the issue of housing. The enterprise has come to the conclusion that the current system of mortgage lending is not real for young workers, the financial burden is too great even if part of the interest payments on the loan. To solve the problem will be through the purchase and construction of housing, followed by handing it to the hiring of concessional company employees.
One of the factors that attract the youth initiative — genuine and sufficiently energetic modernization of production. On their own and federal funds are significantly upgraded machine park. Work on the new equipment is so complex and demanding that they trust it is not for everyone. For example, Dmitry Dimov, until recently, worked in the technology department KBKhA an engineer, and now moved to the shop, to the machine. However, this construction and machine-it is difficult to call. To be precise, we are talking about the heart of the modern multi-axis computer-controlled. Alexei Likhachev, who retired as an engineering office, is currently working on a modern machine, electrical discharge machining. And Alexander Tolstoy — all-rounder. He has mastered almost all machining centers, and is able to work on any new modern equipment.
It is noteworthy that in KBKhA based not only on recent graduates of engineering faculties. For example, Sergei Popkov of those who graduated from vocational courses at the training center. There, he received the first skills in machining centers, and today makes it better at the production site KBKhA. Yet another young worker Vadim Lopatin has mastered modern computer-controlled machines actually own. Fortunately, have a desire to learn and help from more experienced colleagues.
And another important point — in KBKhA pulled professionals from other companies. For example, Alex Zinchenko, Andrew and Alexander Chasovskikh Borzakov moved here — to the production site KBKhA — with other plants. Long-term production plans and prospects for professional growth, the ability to develop new equipment today are the factors that are able to attract in the aerospace industry competent and devoted to their work.