Doctors and professionals came mainly from among the wise men, magicians, sorcerers, healers, magicians — contributed to this natural observation, and the desire to find the answer to the phenomena of nature, the mysteries of the human body. Respect for the natural science knowledges Magi permeated many of the early chronicles.
The Magi were experts "potions", ie medicinal plants. Magi successfully played the role of pediatricians providing assistance to women with infertility, they were invited into homes for the sick, suffering from contagious diseases, the wounded and the "ulcer" patients.
In earlier written materials dominates complete indivisibility of the concepts of "sorcerer", "doctor", "lechets", "zeleynik", "magician". On ancient view, magic — it is a high art, skill ("vlshebnaya hytrost"), and the magician — is a "wise" man of great experience and knowledge.
To show a special depth of medical knowledge among physicians, Old Russian literature assigns them the epithets "wise", "hitrokov", "Filozof."
Medicine in Novgorod as an example of medicine in Russia
Novgorod in their sanitation and beautification stood first among the largest cities in northern Europe.
Here earlier than in Paris and London in the squares and streets there were wooden bridge, operated an extensive underground drainage system of wooden pipes.
Novgorod Kiev before (late IX — beginning of X century). Started building wooden houses.
Bath in ancient Russia was much more common than in any European country. Novgorod physicians were well aware of the healing power of baths.
Soap at that time were imported from abroad and was available Beautiful and comfortable clothing — not only a manifestation of tastes and fashions of different eras, but also a kind of indicator of sanitary culture of the population. Novgorod in the XI — XIII centuries. dressed in clothes, retains heat well, and protects the skin from damage, dust, dirt, insect bites, not full range of motion.
For washing clothes and body wash Novgorod used legkomylyaschiesya soil, minerals, had in its composition fat and ash. Laundry was boiled water barrels with ash.
Novgorod were strong people. Physical labor, simple, healthy food, prolonged exposure to fresh air increases their resistance to the damaging effects of microorganisms.
But the cruel scourge of famine, pestilence carried off many lives. From the middle of XII before the XVIII century. plague, smallpox, anthrax, typhoid — 17 times been the cause of devastating epidemics for Novgorod. All who were able, fled the city, leaving him in the care of secular and monastic healers.
With the constant risk of their lives they avoided yards and streets. Fed patients, giving them food through the flame campfire. Transported over long dead cemetery.
The first hospital was based mainly in the monasteries. Wooden buildings are usually located within hospitals quadrangular space formed by the monastery walls. In large monasteries, along with hospitals built baths and "svitoshnye" (laundry).
From the XV century. centers with a hole in the ceiling instead of the chimney vent furnace, replace that with time has come-mounted system of pipes circulating hot air on them. Mica windows closed. Patients slept on wooden planks. Instead of used mattresses dry moss, straw, reeds.
The widespread use of drugs from plants and animals supplemented with surgical techniques in the arsenal of art.
Honor in ancient Novgorod were surrounded "rezalniki" (surgeons). Using the extract of belladonna and tincture of opium, they spent quite a complicated operation to amputate limbs, craniotomy, laparotomy.
Some chronicles can find a description of medical action. So, judging by the "Izbornik Svyatoslav" (1073, 1076), the physician should first of all be rezalnikom (surgeon — MM), able to cut fabric, amputated limbs, produce therapeutic cauterization with a hot iron, ie . upot ¬ reblyayuschim metal: "Iron is not a rumor, that does, but the doctor knows action of iron." In other chronicles original illustrations draw attention to medical issues. Thus, the "Personal Chronicle", covering the period from the "Tool steel ¬ rhenium world" until 1567, contains pictures of old dentures are called "drevyanitsa" or "toyagi." They were intended for amputees. Crutches, also of wood, sometimes with complex devices, were used to support the shoulder and knee. In the "Code" was even a miniature illustrating the process of manufacturing the forge iron crepe ¬ tion on a crutch.
Medical data in ancient chronicles were often associated with diseases of the powerful. Thus, in "The Tale of Bygone Years" (1044) speaks of a permanent bandage on top of the head for congenital cerebral hernia, made Prince Vseslav. In the Ipatiev Chronicle (1289) establishes a description of the disease and colorful description of Prince Vladimir V. Volyn by which modern doctors can detect disease in question: most likely, it was cancer of the lower lip. Unfortunately, the Ipatiev Chronicle does not report, as the prince was treated — maybe even because the treatment outcome was fatal.
Much more detail and skilled chronicler illuminates disease Basil III (father of Ivan the Terrible), results in almost clinical description of the disease, which was, in all probability, purulent inflammation of the hip joint (purulent arthritis).
Etched in the annals of a kind of "history" rucskih princes evidence of use and a variety of surgical treatments for example, in the Nikon Chronicle described as a "summer 6949" (ie, in 1441) has long been aching to Prince Dmitry Y. red during Communion provide expert medical care his spiritual doctor monk Father Hosea: the heavy bleeding, he successfully used the method of tamponade.
Old Russian historians reported the use of the method of cauterization (burning through tinder). According to the Nikon Chronicle, in "Summer 6970" (in 1462) in the treatment of Grand Duke Vasily, who suffered "suhotnoy disease" was used when conventional treatment — cauterization. Unfortunately, the method used did not help.
One of the few well-known names — the legendary Eupraxia (1108-1180), granddaughter of Vladimir Monomakh, the daughter of Prince Mstislav. In 1122 she was married to the son of the emperor of Byzantium Alexei room and coronation named Zoe. In Byzantium, she studied Greek and "a lot of it was engaged in his favorite field of medicine, can be re-read available to her medical work (Hippocrates, Galen, and others) and as a result she wrote a manual medicine.
This guide — one of the oldest Russian medical manual "Masi" ("Alimma"): the only surviving copy of this manual, keep in Florence, Lorenzo de 'Medici in the library. At the end of XIX century Russian historian H.M.Loparev found in Florence this work and bought a copy of the Greek manuscripts "Alimma." The manuscript, which consisted of five parts, is brought into a system different sparse medical data, in particular, describes "external disease" and are recipes of various drugs, the recommended in diseases of the skin and teeth, described the diseases of the heart and the stomach. The most commonly used drugs in the manuscript were given all sorts of ointments, why, perhaps, all the work is called "Alimma." This work, synthesized a number of medical observations of the time and attributed Zoe was obviously familiar and used lechtsami ancient. What was the "doctor's estate" Old Russia?
In the then existing monastery and church hospitals are educated doctors, monks, professionals. Of course, the main occupation of scholars, monks, while representing a very thin layer of intellectual culture media, was not likely to heal the sick, or the study of ancient literature and correspondence, and theology, to absorb the major intellectual aspirations of the clergy. But still, as evidenced by the historical sources, there were many among them t.naz.monastyrskih doctors.
In addition to the educated (in some way) doctors, monks, to use their patients in monasteries, medieval Russia acted numerous secular doctors, professional lechtsy, master the basics of their profession in the manner of craft apprenticeship, often in families of hereditary healers. They are dominated by specialists of "therapeutic" profile — kamchuzhnye (for the treatment of rheumatic pain, in the modern sense — rheumatism), full-time (they are involved in the treatment of eye diseases), chepuchinnye (specialists in syphilis), those treated for "spoiling" (ancestors of modern psychoneurologists ), etc.
The fact that in medieval Russia treated by surgery was routine, we can say quite definitely. These techniques have been used in practice. Medical, including surgical, help the common people, particularly treatment of wounds, to some extent, provides the legislative
Were among the secular doctors and lechtsy "surgical" profile — rezalniki: among them differed bone setters ("Trauma"), kamnesechtsy (specialists in the treatment of diseases of the urinary bladder), kilnye master (time treating clubroot, ie hernia) chechuynye ( treating hemorrhoids). Later, in the XY HU1 centuries, to contemporaries also mentioned an alchemist, "doctors Polish rock", students and others obschelekarskie
True, their affairs, their practice, their treatment methods in ancient chronicles say extremely small. Probably several reasons for this was, for example, lack of awareness of chroniclers in medicine, but the main reason may have been initially skeptical of the church to this lechtsam, which, along with the methods of the ancient and traditional medicine, used and severely persecuted Orthodox ways volhovaniya have come more from pagan times. Can not be excluded, however, and the elements of a competition with physicians monks from the monastery medicine.
Pharmacology in Russia
Thus, a disease that modern doctors called scurvy, our ancient colleagues won rosehip extract, garlic, onion. By the way, the bow was considered a uni ¬ versal means of it even lay down saying, "Bow of seven illness." Tar rescued from skin illness ¬ her carrots — from anemia, pumpkin seeds expelled worms. It is believed that there was even a complex brew, encompassing what is mercury: it was used in the "stickiness" (STD) diseases. The use of certain medications must be accompanied by a conspiracy. Since the end of XVII century in medical reference occurs chrezvhychayno many "medical" prayers and voodoo spells, borrowed part of the folk epic of antiquity, part of the apocryphal books of all these prayers and charms were, of course, a kind of psychotherapeutic medications and sometimes helped patients.
Teriak — link to this panacea everyone has a doctor who left a mark in history, from Galen, Avicenna ending, and further — up to recent times. Teriak included in the arsenal of Tibetan medicine and wider-medicine of the East.
Historians and doctors are trying to ancient sources of information to find the recipe for this drug, but so far without success. But it would be interesting to know more about it and maybe (why not?) Restore it to life. It is suspected that teriak and still in the arsenal of the failsafe of traditional medicine.
In the work "Vertograd" (1534g.) can be found more than a hundred names of substances and drugs were traded Russ. So, doctors have used arsenic to treat diseases of the skin, which results in the enlargement of the horny layer. For the treatment of skin diseases also used cinnabar and mercury. Using these tools, getting rid of these parasites like lice and fleas.
In Russia were known side effects of mercury — stomatitis, as well as ways to prevent them.
Old Russian healers used and minerals to treat disease.
Lapis was used as a laxative and for the treatment of intermittent fever.
Diamond used to lubricate the edges of wounds and ulcers, and for the treatment of gums in scurvy.
The use of agate is mentioned in the "Izbornik Svyatoslav". From it in ancient Russia produced vessels for the transport and storage of medicines. Even in those days was considered agate drug. It was used in the form of powder or ointment in bite wounds. In the medical manual describes variety of agate — onyx, which has been used for the manufacture of tools for bloodletting. In Russia vysokor valued amethyst. It was used as an antidote for alcohol poisoning.
In ancient Russia was widespread method of treating diseases with certain organs, bile, animal juices, bird eggs, extracts from the bodies of insects. Raw materials for such drugs and mined in Russia, and imported from other countries. Lot of raw materials brought from the eastern countries.
The most popular means for all stomach disorders considered "bezoar stone," which was found in the intestines of many animals.
There is another means of animal origin to be in Russia, — the secret musk glands — the source of musk. It was used in diseases of the heart as well as in diseases of epilepsy, mental depression, treated them and binges.
Very popular among doctors of the Moscow State used antler "ottirki" — spotted deer antlers. In Russia antler "ottirki" prescribed for epilepsy), with stomach and uterine bleeding, for paralysis patients drank their wine and water for heart disease.
Especially appreciated in Russia, substances that act beneficially on the heart, calms the nerves, giving courage. In ancient medical reference called them gentle affectionate names: "Lyuba", "zelie nice", "gift from heaven" and so on.
But the main place in ancient medicine deals drugs of plant origin. Currently they are studied, and many of them have been successfully used by physicians today. So, cloves are recommended at the weakness of, in diseases of the stomach, liver, and heart. Pepper (black) was considered among Russian doctors present a panacea for all ills. Treated them, and rheumatic diseases. As a means of giving cough ginger. He was received in vinegar overnight.
Were popular as nutmeg, mace, which was imported from India. They were used as a diuretic and for initiating chronic patients.
As disinfectants used in ancient Russia tarragon, rosemary, etc. "Kyiv-Pechersk Paterikon" (16.) Mentioned senna and rhubarb, which are used as laxatives.
However, it was difficult to keep the medical manual and herbalists. Keep them at home was unsafe. That man could write a denunciation, judge, to take all the property to the state, and a man exiled to some remote monastery. And such cases in Russia was much.
Despite this, medical reference and herbalists continued secretly stored in many homes, so we have an idea of the many elements of the traditional medicine of ancient Russia.
In medical reference Russian medicine become important plants. Harvesting of medicinal plants goes to the first place by the introduction of natural service, as well as by herbalists expeditions of pharmacy orders. Special "authority" had all the onion family, especially garlic and onions. In ancient herbals reported the ability to stimulate skin regeneration for burns, bruises, wounds.
In handwritten medical reference injury differed "the fired", "section" and "stab", and special attention was paid not to the "fresh" wounds, and the common complications — the "old" does not heal the wound. Dominated by conservative treatment, using various ointments. Used for dressing or dried mycelium of the fungus, "dozhdevki lips," or "tree moss", collected mainly "with the fragrant trees": the moss was considered, in addition, a good hemostatic, wounds and ulcers were irrigated by various medicinal fluids. Used lotions and washing. Used powder, fumigation wounds smoke. Deep Wounds ("fistily") were douching. In vogue was "Levashi" — patches, as well as direct attachment to the wounds of different parts of fresh medicinal plants. In general, herbal medicines, together with the chemical nature of the substances (minerals, salts of heavy metals, some of the complex organic substances), were then (and later too) main arsenal used for treatment.
The so-called "mass" Surgical care in medieval Russia did not much different from that in Europe. For example, limb amputation ("scrubbing"), which was mentioned in the chronicles of "passing, passing," — these complex operations at the time although not often, but still made Russian rezalnikami, this preserved historical evidence. Lechtsy medieval times did "stitching" wounds — so they used and the appropriate tools and supplies (needles, thread, etc.). The operation was performed "on the bench lekarskoy" (the operating table). For transporting injured with broken limbs and treatment of used tires of various materials at hand — it is also mentioned in the chronicles. There was, however, we then professor of surgery — and in Western Europe, despite centuries of the existence of universities, they totaled just units. There was no "fraternities surgeons" — just because the division of medicine and surgery was unknown in Russia, either then or later ….
What our ancestors did not suffer?
But in those days had the flu, but just call it something else. But how — is unknown.
Designation of diseases and symptoms primarily through Slavic vocabulary indicates a very ancient basis of private pathology. Of Internal Medicine noted: zlatyanitsa (jaundice), kamchyug (arthritis), whiskers (pleurisy), vdush (asthma). By nervous — mental attitude turning foam or illness epilepsy (epilepsy), relaxation (paralysis). Leper called diseases such lupus, leprosy and other skin troubles.
Of infectious knew tabes (consumption), fire (typhus). Tryastsya (malaria) is described in the form of everyday, cherezdnevnoy and "quarter" (four days). The group counted among the fatal plague womb bloody (dysentery), pulmonary plague, corn (bubonic plague), vozuglie or prisch goryusch (anthrax), toad gorlyanaya and many others.