«Special Forces» — who are they?
In the current time is quite difficult to give a precise definition of «special forces». The fact that in Russia a tremendous huge amount of units made by different departments (from the tax service to MES), which are called commandos. Originally called special forces special units of the Head Intelligence Directorate (GRU). But the configuration occurred in the power structures (and not only), still require some way to divide the existing special purpose special teams into three groups.
First, it is the leading intelligence unit, asking for sabotage and guerrilla operations behind enemy lines, and conducting antidiversionnye event.
Second, that state security units, police units, whose purpose is to fight the terrorists and organized crime.
Third, includes all other units, tasks and functions which are quite hard to find: the Presidential Security Service commandos, special forces MOJ units performing security officials and especially the principal objects, etc.
The first group includes the following special forces (Spetsnaz) service outdoor intelligence GRU, FSB.
«Barrier» — Special Forces service outdoor exploration (about 300 people). The division was created in 1998 with the Directorate SVR. Soldiers of the «Barrier» work during day and night shift. Special Forces very hushed up, because open disk imaging it actually is not. Based on the disk imaging media group «Barrier» provides power support intelligence operations abroad, with all this, the scouts have the right not coordinate their activities with other power ministries. From the media it is clear that «Barrier» participated in operations in Iran and Iraq.
At the time of the Russian GRU only cut one of the best fighters prepared because unit on forces was actually perform all assigned tasks.
After the collapse of the USSR 5 Army brigades and 1 nautical remained on the territories of the former Russian republics. The guide at the Russian security forces were only four special brigade. It should be noted that most of the GRU best team of the USSR remained areas of Belarus (near the village of Marina Gorka). Now it is a glorified special unit is subject to several departments: Security Committee, ministries of defense and internal affairs of the country.
Russian spetsnaz brigades have also been restructuring: two brigades of the GRU (of 4 remaining) were transferred to Navy. At GRU were 16 Brigade, stationed in the Ryazan region (Chuchkovo) and 22th Brigade, headquartered in Kubinka (Capital Region).
22th Brigade, was nicknamed «Gray Wolves» contains three companies, each of which operates on a specific destination of hostilities: the southern, south-western and western. Fighters uchyat foreign languages, geography, strategy fighting in deserts criteria, mountainous and forested terrain. In the brigade has the 4th company created specifically to perform fundamental tasks. It is clear that it is formed only of officers and warrant officers. Fitted base 22 Brigade went on heritage from the training center military academy. The database contains a residential accommodation for military personnel and their families, airfield, shooting and tankodrom.
Soldiers armed brigade classical PM and AKM, silent guns, pistols, sniper rifles, hand flamers «Bumblebee», automatic grenade launchers «Flame», mines directed acts radiominami. Radio operators are working on specifically designed for GRU ratsiyah: its weight is 12 pounds, and the radius of the act — three thousand miles. Zapelengovat her work is virtually impossible, radiogram simultaneously delivered to the addressee.
All units are provided with the necessary Russian Spetsnaz special gear and weapons. Counterterrorism groups have special equipment of cosmic connection, a silent weapon, the shot of which can not be found shooting.
No exception was the reconnaissance and sabotage unit GRU «Dolphin». On their own equipment, it is not inferior to similar units USA, France, Germany, Italy and the UK. In «Dolphin» come, in the main, the Marines. Candidate for this special forces soldiers must possess good physical shape, able to work at great depths. Training is conducted in three steps. Initially, students are gaining a suitable physical form: jog 100 km., Many swim in wetsuits (up to 18 km a day), to overcome the complex obstacle course, rowing. Have to sleep only 3-4 hours. Then the students proceed to a detailed study of diving equipment, master mine-explosive case study strategy of fighting in water and on land, basic intelligence radiodelu, ability to handle cool and firearms, as special equipment. Increased attention is paid to training action under water, and the ability to infiltrate the hidden and protected objects, methods of evacuation. As students learn dogfight on land and under water, the special moves are processed against the enemy.
Students are taught how to have actually ever available tool, both Russian and zabugornogo production. Some models of the guns used by Russian special forces, have no analogues in the world. The total number of combat swimmers in the service of various Russian power ministries, is about 2-thousand people.
Management «B» FSB («Vympel») was created to conduct special operations outside the country. As part of the enlisted men, owning good health, with a stable psyche owning foreign languages. Many commandos had more than 1 higher education. Each fighter «Vympel» able to work in all the criteria without the help of others, apart from the main group.
Being undertaken in 1992 for the release of the captured exercise «terrorists» nuclear icebreaker «Sibir» observers do not see how vympelovtsy emerged from the water, climbed on deck and disarmed the guards.
According to available disk imaging media, because of the refusal to participate in the storming of the White House detachment «Vympel» was reformed in 1993 and transferred to the Interior Ministry. Back «under the wing» FSB «Vympel» back in September 1995.
On account of this huge amount of detachment successful operations conducted in Chechnya and Dagestan. Many former vympelovtsy serve both municipal and private structures.
By the second group includes the following special forces «Alpha», «Orcas» SWAT (Special Detachment frisky response), «Bison», etc.
Unusual prominence in the midst of the special parts of this management group received «A» of the FSB Russia.
Management «A» (group «Alpha), as a division of the Russian FSB, produces the fight against terrorism. On account of this group capture Amin’s palace in Afghanistan. Together with them, participated in the operation group «Zenith», Marines and soldiers, so called, «Muslim battalion.» In August 1991, a group «A» refused to comply with an order to participate in the storming of the White House, in saving lives of many people. With the outbreak of hostilities in the North Caucasus, «A» group took an active role in counter-terrorism operations. Control «A» and «B» freed hostages held by terrorists in the performance of «Nord-Ost» (2002) and the Beslan school (2004)
SWAT team «Orcas» is the pride of the Russian special services. The duties of the «killer whale» comes control over facilities of the Northern Fleet and the Leningrad VO help Arctic Border group and the Interior Ministry. «Care» this order enough. On the terrain of the region are nuclear reactors, nuclear power, nuclear warheads for missiles and torpedoes, and many other weapons that can be bait for terrorists and criminals. In connection with the need to perform ambiguous tasks division «Orcas» have in their composition not only land group, and team combat swimmers, climbers, skiers. «Orcas» superweapon and have modern means of communication, including standards and zabugornogo production. Under «Orcas» serve only the officers. The average age of men is 27 years. They have the best physical shape. Any of them can be directly and parachutist and diver, and mountaineer. Many already having one or two degrees, were trained at the Academy of the FSB. Employees of «Orcas» trained for operational and intelligence work. And although the surgery «Orcas» strictly secret, it is clear that the men spent a lot of operations to curb the activities of terrorists and armed groups capture.
The structure of the Interior Ministry includes federal and regional special units frisky response (SWAT), the main task of which is to combat organized crime at least what methods available. But, as needed, SWAT teams may be attracted to the operations of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation. Currently, there are 87 teams SWAT (about 5,200 soldiers).
The third group comes FSIN Special Forces («Typhoon», «Rosich», «Omega», etc), Special Forces Drug Control Service, SWAT, FSO, Kremlin Regiment, etc.
Do tradesman SWAT concept is often associated with the riot police or Coll. But the title of the special unit «Lynx» at the Interior not many people understand, although detachment was established in 1991. This is most likely due to the fact that such riot in each region are their names — «Skif» (Rostov-Nadon), «Tiger», «Rus», «Russia», «Falcon», «Hero» (Moscow) «Rosich» (Novocherkassk), «The Warrior» (Nizhny Tagil), «Vyatich» (Armavir), «Ermak» «Novosibirsk», «Typhoon» (Khabarovsk), «Mechel» (Chelyabinsk), «Svyatogor» (Vladivostok) , «Mercury» (Smolensk), etc.
The main objective of SWAT squad «Lynx» is the oppression of unrest in prisons capture escaped prisoners. Fighters these special units are distinguished by excellent physical training, combat training and fighting temper. Snipers units «Lynx» listed as the most prepared spices in the world. Not including snipers, commandos in MIA includes divers negotiators bombers, paratroopers, vysotniki, engineers, drivers, owning extreme driving abilities, combat swimmers, etc. Fighters «Lynx» is also distinguished by excellent mental preparation, the ability of decision making in extreme circumstances. Officers «Lynx» martial arts techniques have, can use many types of firearms and cool guns. All fighters are parachuting, mountain, underwater training. Capable of doing many transitions and work autonomously. Very often men tested for extreme survival in different regions of the world: the Amazon, in Namibia, Polynesia (divers) in the Himalayas (vysotniki), Tanzania, Brazil, of New Zealand, Vietnam, etc.
SWAT comes in the police as a contingent of special purpose, performing over unsafe tasks in urban criteria whether the detection and elimination of armed criminals, or maintaining the same force patrolling city streets traffic police posts; security during mass events or suppression of riots at occurrence of emergencies and disasters.
OMON units involved in ensuring order in critical situations on the territory of the Russian Federation.
So how do OMON special operations on the territory of the country, they are trained. Armed with riot police are the best tools and equipment standards.
In the midst of the biggest riot police unit known has «Bison». This group was created in 2006 in the suburban Schyolkovo. Number of units — about 2,500 fighters. Armed with a BTR, helicopters, cars («Tiger»), and other special equipment. In squad includes dog handlers and snipers. The duties of the «Bison» comes not only security in public places, and the struggle against sabotage, assault, terrorist groups and intelligence. Specifically, soldiers of the unit to ensure order during rallies and marches in Moscow, Ryazan, Vladivostok (rally motorists) and Nizhny Novgorod. It is worth noting that five employees «Bison» awarded the title Hero of the Russian Federation, 95 fighters are holders of the Order of Courage.
OMON detachment «Bastion» is a division of Ministry of Internal Affairs of St. Petersburg and the region. He was created November 25, 1988. Contains five battalions (1,150 men), motorized battalion, of which company comes on boats. Cars are in service with Hammer, T-98, MTA «Tiger», BTR, water cannons and buses. Soldiers have the technique of unarmed combat, cool gun and firing machine guns. «Bastion» participated in the Chechen counterterrorism operations, acceleration unauthorized rallies.
Special Forces — is a special society of people are constantly on the limit of human ability. Not everyone is able to peacetime risk their lives, and Special Forces soldiers are ready to do puzzles at any time of day. Their life has nothing to do with being a majority of the population — live and work on special rules. In spetsnaz admiration can cause such properties that for the civil parties are irrelevant. Experienced commando counts only their strength, ability, proficiency. Briefly it can be laid out so credo: «Do not Believe, do not ask, do not be afraid.» This means that despises death commando, do not believe in such properties as the generosity and humanity, do not even believe in the force until you feel it. When the manifestation of anger to him — he must take up the challenge. From time to time special forces soldier feels a sense of complete freedom, fortune and happiness. In this state, he is deprived of horror — the mind triumphs over terror, timidity, meanness surrounding it. Specifically, in this state, the fighter performs heroic deeds.
But in order to become a real fighter special squad special purpose, requires long preparation, the acquisition of combat experience and the desire to defend the motherland.