"There was a man, which had only 30,000 troops in the Middle Kingdom, and no one could stand against him. Who is it? The answer is: Sun Tzu. "
According to the "Notes" Sima Qian, Sun Tzu was a military commander principality have during the reign of Prince Ho-lyuya (514-495 BC). Specifically merits attributed to Sun Tzu's military successes have principality, which brought him the title of Prince of hegemony. According to tradition, it is assumed that specifically for the Prince Ho-lyuya and was written "A Treatise on the art of war" (500 BC).
Treatise by Sun Tzu has had a fundamentally impact on all martial arts of the East. Being the first of all the treatises on the art of war, a treatise by Sun Tzu is constantly cited Chinese military theorists from U-Tzu to Mao Tse-tung. A special place in the military and the theoretical literature of the East occupy comments to Sun Tzu, of which first appeared in the era of the Han (206 BC — 220 AD), and new ones continue to be created and this time, although the Sun Tzu is not fussed about maintaining their own treatise examples and explanations.
Of all the "Seven military canons" "Military Strategy" by Sun Tzu, usually popular as the "Art of War" is most popular in the West. For the first time translated the French missionary, about 2-centuries back, she constantly studied and used by Napoleon, and, perhaps, by some members of the Nazi High Command. During the last 2-1000-lety it remained the most important military treatise in Asia, where even the common people knew its title. Chinese, Japanese, Korean military theorists and Prof. men certainly studied it, and many of the strategies played an important role in the military history of the famous land of the rising sun from the VIII century.
A long time it was believed that the "Art of War" is an ancient and more profound Chinese military treatise. But, even if slight chance of later strata and configurations, we can not ignore the fact that more than two thousand years of the history of warfare and the existence of strategies to 500 BC and ascribe to the actual creation of the strategy to one of Sun Tzu. Compressed, often abstract nature of its passages given in evidence that the book was compiled by step development of early Chinese writing, but can be extended equally compelling argument that is so philosophically sophisticated style is likely only if the experience of fighting battles and traditions harsh military research topics . The basic concepts and common passages likely they say in favor of extensive military tradition and progressive knowledge and experience than in favor of "creation out of nothing."
At the current time there are three points of view about the time of the creation of the "Art of War". First attributes the book historical figure Shove It, considering that the final version was produced soon after his death in the first V. BC Second, based on the text, attributes it to the middle — the second half of the period of the "Warring» (IV or III cent. BCE). Third, also based on the text itself, as in the earlier discovered sources, puts it somewhere in the second half of V. BC
Almost real date will be set, but it is entirely possible that this was a historical figure, and he Shove It not only served as a strategist and maybe commander, and made the canvas book that bears his name. Then, the most significant was passed from generation to generation in the family or in the school closest disciples, with age, correcting and finding increasingly wide distribution. Most of early text was perhaps edited a famous descendant of Sun Tzu Stick Binh, who also used it extensively in his own doctrine of "military methods".
About Sun Tzu mention the many historical sources, including the "Shi Ji", but "Spring and Illumine Wu and Yue" offer a more exciting option:
"On the 3rd year of the reign Helyuy-Wan captains of poruha I want to Chu, but no action followed. At Tszysyuy and Bo Xi read as each other:" We train soldiers and settlements on behalf of the governor. These strategies will be profitable for the country, and therefore governor should poruha to Chu. But he does not give orders, and not lust to collect the army. What should we do? '. After some time, the ruler of the kingdom I have asked the Jixi and Bo Xi: "I wish to send the army. What do you think about that? "We Tszysyuy and Bo Xi said," We want to get the orders. " We ruler vsekrete believed that the two harbored a deep hatred for Chu. He was very afraid that these two will lead the army only in order to be destroyed. He ascended the tower, turned around to face the south wind and a heavy sigh. After a while, he sighed again. None of the ministers did not realize thoughts ruler. We Tszysyuy guessed that the governor will not accept solutions, and then recommended him to Sun Tzu.
Sun Tzu named Wu, was a native of the Kingdom of U. He excelled in military strategy, but he lived far away from the court, because ordinary people did not know about its capabilities. We Tszysyuy, being well-versed, wise and sympathetic, he knew that Sun Tzu can seep into the ranks of the enemy and kill him. At one point in the morning, when he open a discussion military affairs, he recommended Sun Tzu seven times. Governor I said, "If you found the excuse to push this spouse, I want to build it." He was asking about Sun Tzu's military strategy, and every time he laid out the other or any other part of his book, he could not find enough words to praise. Very satisfied, the governor said, "If you can, I'd be willing to subject your strategy malehankih checkout". Sun Tzu said: "It could be. We can conduct a test with the ladies of the inner palace. " The governor said: "I agree." Sun Tzu said: "Let the two beloved concubine of your Majesty will lead two units, any one will lead. " He ordered all three hundred ladies to wear helmets and armor, carry swords and shields and line up. He taught them the rules of war, in other words, to go forward, retreat, turn left and right and turn round in accordance with the battle drum. He said of the bans and then gave the order: "From the first kick drum you should all get together with the second hit attack with weapons in their hands, with the third line up in order of battle." Here the ladies behind her hands, laughed. Then Sun Tzu personally picked up a stick and hit the drum three times, giving orders and explaining them 5 times. They laughed as before. Sun Tzu realized that the ladies will continue and will not stop laughing. Sun Tzu was furious. His eyes were widely opened, a voice like a roaring tiger, the hair stood up on end, and ties were broken cap on the cervix. He said the jurist "Bring the executioner's ax."
[Then] Sun Tzu said: "If the abstract is not clear if the explanations and orders do not trust, it is the fault of the leader. But when these annotations are repeated three times, and orders explained 5 times, and the troops as before does not make them, it is the fault of commanders. According to the requirements of military discipline, what is the punishment? "Jurist said," decapitation "then the Sun Tzu gave the order to cut off the head of the commanders of 2-units, in other words, the two beloved concubines ruler.
Ruler We went to the site to keep track of when the 2-his beloved concubines were about to behead. He quickly
sent a bureaucrat down to the order of, "I realized that the commander can control the troops. Without these 2-concubines food I will not be satisfied. Better not to behead them. " Sun Tzu said: "I have been appointed captain. According to the rules for the generals when I command the army, even if you give the orders, I can perform. " [And beheaded them].
He again hit the drum, and they moved to the left and right, forward and back, unfolded according to the terms prescribed by the rules, not daring even to squint. Divisions were silent, not daring to look around. Then Sun Tzu have reported the governor: "The army is perfectly obeyed. I beg your Majesty to look at them. Whenever you want to use them, even force to go through fire and water, this poses no problems. They can be used to bring the Middle Kingdom in order. "
But the governor suddenly I was not happy. He said: "I know you're awesome leadership of the army. Even if because of this I will become hegemonic space for their learning will be. Warlord, Please disbanded his army and return to for themselves. I do not wish to continue. " Sun Tzu said: "Your Majesty loves only the words, but can not comprehend the meaning." We Tszysyuy admonished: "I have heard that army — It nepriznatelnoe thing, and it can not be arbitrarily inspect. Because if someone forms the army, but not speak in punitive campaign, a war Tao does not manifest itself. At this point, if your Majesty heartily finds professional people and wants to raise an army in order to punish the fierce kingdom of Chu, to become the leader in the Middle Kingdom and scare the feudal princes, if you do not specify a Sun-tzu's commander in chief, who will be able to move the Huai, cross Sy and go to a thousand to join the fight? "
The governor then I was inspired. He gave the order to thrash drums to collect the army headquarters, summoned troops and attacked Chu. Sun Tzu took Shu, killing 2-generals-defectors: Kai Yu and Zhu Yun. "
In the biography contained in the "Chi Chi", goes on to say that "in the west, he defeated the mighty kingdom of Chu and came to John. In the north, frightened Qi and Jin, and his name became famous in the middle of the feudal princes. It came through the power of Sun Tzu. "
After 511 BC Sun Tzu was never mentioned in written sources nor as commander of troops, or as a court. Apparently, Sun Tzu, as a purely military man is not desired to participate in the political games of the court since then and stayed away from the palace intrigues and chroniclers.