Japanese aircraft carrier "Akagi" (Figure above) initially designed as a battlecruiser, but in 1923 he began to rebuild the aircraft carrier ship. "Akagi" was launched on 22 April 1925 and became one of the first aircraft carriers Japanese fleet. Specifically, "Akagi" led the raid on Pearl Harbor, and in the middle of the first echelon aircraft A6M2 was nine of its air group. It is in this form, "Akagi" took part in the last battle of its own — the Battle of Midway in June 1942 first st.
At first, "Akagi" had a three-tier flight deck: the upper, middle and lower. The first was meant for take-off and landing of all aircraft types. The average flight deck began in the bridge it could start with only a small biplane fighter. In the end, the lower flight deck was designed to take off the torpedo. Flight deck had segmental construction and was a sheet of steel 10 mm wide, laid on top of the teak trim on steel beams, strengthening lennye on the ship's hull. The missing functionality similar flight deck layout has led to frequent tragedies and disasters aircraft, because before the war, removed the extra flight deck and main deck extended the full length of an aircraft carrier. Instead dismantled decks have an additional fully enclosed hangar. After the reconstruction, and to his own death, "Akagi" had the longish flight deck of aircraft carrier in the middle of the Japanese fleet.
We had two carrier and, after upgrading even three samoletopodemnika [1, 2, 3], arrester. First it was the 60th British standard cable experimental design, and from 1931 — 12-arrester cable design engineer Shiro Kabai.
The structure of the aircraft carrier air group consisted of three types of machines: fighters "Mitsubishi" A6M "Zero" dive bombers "Aichi» D3A «Val" and бомбардировщикторпедоносец "Nakajima» B5N «Kate." In December 1941, there were based on 18 "Zero" and "Val" and 27 aircraft B5N. Three hangar ship can hold more than 60 aircraft (very 91).
In late spring 1942, the arena was a new air battles South American carrier-based strike aircraft — dive bomber reconnaissance SBD-3 "Dauntles", who had self-sealing fuel tanks, crew armor-plated, bulletproof glass in the lamp cabin, the new engine Wright R-1820-52 armed with 4 machine guns. With all of this in order to reduce the mass of the machine with it removed all the equipment to keep the plane afloat when landing on water. Specifically, "dauntlesy" in the Battle of Midway in June 1942, killed four Japanese aircraft carriers, including the heavily damaged "Akagi", later sunk by the Japanese themselves.
About what perceptible role in the second world war played a sub-machine guns, much has been written. Meanwhile, the role of head automatic gun submachine gun (in the Red Army for the sake of brevity called his gun) took almost the case. Even where its design and development has received considerable attention (as, for example, in Germany and the USSR), he was listed as an auxiliary weapon only for certain categories of soldiers and officers. Contrary to the misconception vserasprostranennomu German Wehrmacht was not entirely armed pistoletamipulemetami. In the duration of the war their number (in the main it was MR.38 and MR.40) in the Wehrmacht was much less than the shops carbines "Mauser". On September 1939 the Wehrmacht Infantry Division was on the staff of 13,300 rifles and carbines and only 3,700 submachine guns, and in 1942 — 7400 and 750 respectively.
Contrary to another misconception in the USSR first second world war, and even more so to the top of Russian stateliness, when behind them already had experience fighting with the Finns on the Karelian Isthmus, pistols, machine guns is not "neglected". But the main focus was still semi-automatic rifle. Already in the first period of the war related to the "machine" has considerably changed. According to staff at the same 1943 Russian Infantry Division was to have 6274 rifles and carbines and 1,048 submachine guns. As a result, during the war, the troops raised 5.53 million sub-machine guns (in the main PCA). For comparison: in Germany in the years 1940-1945 produced a bit more than a million MR.40.
What did so lured into sub-machine guns? After all, even such a massive pistol cartridges like 9mm Parabellum or 7.62-mm TT, did not give an effective firing range of 150 — 200 meters. But the pistol cartridge allowed to use the Ordinary comparable scheme of automation with a free gate, to ensure the highest reliability in the applicable instruments of weight and compactness increment carried ammunition. A widespread use in the manufacture of stamping and spot welding allowed in the criteria of the war quickly "saturate" forces of light automatic weapon.
For the same reason, in England, where more recently the war "not beheld need gangster weapons", launched in the mass production of hastily made, not very successful, but very common in the production of "Stan", of which in various versions produced more than 3 million. In the U.S., after their entry into the war issue submachine gun also had to decide on the move. There was a lite "military" version of the sub-machine gun "Thompson", and found in the middle of the other models. And closer to the end of the war has gone into making the M3 model with extensive use of punching.
And yet a good combination of processability with good combat and operational properties showed Russian PPP.
After the second world war as a war weapon pistoletpulemet began to descend from the stage. The main focus was an automatic weapon chambered for the crotch of power. It is said that its development also recently started the war, and the beginning of a new era marked the emergence of German guns "assault rifle" MR.43. In general, this is a slightly different story.
British 9 mm submachine guns, "Stan" made whole family. Here are shown from top to bottom
 as a lightweight Mk III,
 Mk IVA,
 Mk V,
 Mk IVB (with butt folded)
The tanks are gaining weight
The leading role of medium tanks in battles second world war seems trivial. Although the experts at the beginning of the war did not doubt that on the modern battlefield tanks need protivosnaryadnogo reservation preference in most states gave the machines at the interface between the light and medium weight class. Shared their limit of 15 tons, then match the power available engines, which would provide a good machine mobility in armor protection, opposing anti-tank gun, 37-40 mm.
In Germany, two tanks were made — Pz III (Pz Kpfw III) with a 37-mm gun and Pz IV with 75-mm gun, both with a width of 15 mm armor. Pz III revision D weighed 16 tons and a top speed of 40 km / h And right up to the 1942 easier Pz III was produced in greater numbers. However, obtaining a modification of E armor, 30 mm wide, it "weight by" up to 19.5 tons, and after re-50mm gun (version G, 1940) has passed for 20 tons. The "light-medium" tanks were converted to average.
In the new system, a tank weapons made in the USSR in 1939-1941, an important place was given a light T-50. 26-ton T-34 was listed as still very expensive to produce, and the "light tank protivosnaryadnogo reservations" seemed a better solution as the media machine to support infantry and tank units to equip. When the mass of 14 tons, the T-50, first put into service in 1941, carried a 45-mm cannon and armor widths up to 37 mm with the optimum angles armor plates. Speed up to 57.5 km / h and 345 km in store progress to meet the requirements of "maneuverable" tank. And the other day, almost the war the T-50 planned to equip 57-mm or 76-mm cannon.
Even in the first months of the war T-50 remained the main "competitor" T-34 production plans and equipment of tank units. But the T-50 and did not go into a big series, gave preference to true T-34. Laid it in store modernization has permitted strengthen arms, increment in store security and progress, and improvement of adaptability has given record levels of production. In 1944 he went to the army, in fact, the new T-34-85 with a long-barreled 85mm gun.
The main opponent of the "Thirty" was a German Pz IV, the chassis of which withstood repeated with increasing modernization of booking and setting long-barreled 75-mm cannon. Pz III left the stage in the middle of the war. The separation tank guns on the "anti" and "support" (for anti-infantry) lost its meaning — now all made a long-barreled gun.
Similar to the German system of 2-medium tanks — the "battle", the armed anti-tank gun, and "support" with a larger caliber gun — exists in the land of the rising sun. By the beginning of the second World War, armed with tank regiments were two medium tanks in a single chassis — a 14-ton "Chi-ha" (Type 97) with a 57 mm gun and a 15.8-ton "Shinhoto Chi-ha" with 57 mm cannon, both with a width of 25 mm armor. This compares poorly protected, but moving machines have become the core of the Japanese armored forces: in the power and industrial capabilities, and the criteria used in any Japanese armor.
The British chose to heavy booking for kopotlivyh "infantry" tanks, while agile "cruising" in the model Mk IV, for example, carried the armor of width only 30mm. This 15-ton tank developed a speed of 48 km / h It was followed by "Crusader", which received increased bookings and a 57 mm cannon instead of 40 mm, and "overcome" the 20-tonne limit. Suffer with upgrades cruiser tanks, the British in 1943, came to the languid cruising Mk VIII «Cromwell" that combines good mobility with wide armor to 76 mm and 75-mm gun, in other words to the same medium tank. But obviously too late with this, so that the base of the tank forces were South American M4 "Sherman" made after the start of the second World War and in view of its experience.
The rapid development of anti-tank weapons changed the requirements for the combination of the main parameters of the tanks. The boundaries of light and middle classes by weight shifted upward (by the end of the war there were already light vehicles weighing up to 20 tons). For example — the South American Light Tank M41 and Russian intelligence floating PT-76, adopted in 1950, a number of features consistent with a medium tank war. A medium tanks made in the years 1945-1950, has exceeded 35 tons — in 1939, they would refer to the weary.
Russian 7.62-mm submachine gun mod. 1943 AI system Sudaev (PPP) is considered to be the best sub-machine gun the second world war
Rocket and jet
The revival of missiles began in the 1920s. And their greatest enthusiasts could not wait rapid progress 1940s. There are two poles: one will be unguided (missile) missiles, on the other — a guided missile for various purposes. In the latter area, then all the advanced German developers. Although the practical application of this tool (ballistic and cruise missiles and long-range anti-aircraft missiles and aircraft, etc.) and started specifically on the war it had an errant impact. But the rockets played in battles second World War, a very significant role, which before the war from them again is not expected. Then they seemed a means of solving specific problems: for example, the delivery of chemical weapons, in other words, toxic, smoke-or incendiary substances. In the USSR and Germany, for example, such rockets were developed during the 1930s. Explosive or high-explosive rockets seemed the least fascinating instrument (for ground troops, at least) because of a little hit and accuracy of fire. But the situation changed with the transition to multiply launchers "battery" fire. The number of crosses in quality, and that is comparable easy installation may at one point for the opponent to release the shells with a rate, inaccessible ordinary artillery battery, cover volley area target, and immediately change position, coming out of retaliation.
With years of success greater Russian designers have created in the years 1938-1941 from the complex multiply-installation on the car chassis and rockets with engines with smokeless powder: first, not counting the chemical and incendiary shells in their planning to use weapons designed for high-explosive air ROFS-132. The result has been renowned Guards mortars or "Katyusha". From the first volleys of July 14, 1941 most experienced battery BM-13 high-explosive and incendiary host PC at railroad crossings and Orsha on the river Orshitsy new tool shown to be effective for strikes against concentrations of manpower and equipment, the oppression of the enemy's infantry and received in the course of the war frisky development and general application. There are longer-range missiles and improved accuracy, 82-mm BM-8-36, BM-8-24, BM-8-48, 132-mm BM-13N, BM-13-CH, 300-mm M-30, M-31, BM-31-12 — all for the war is at the creation of structures 36 launchers and 10-ka shells. 82-mm and 132-mm PC very well used aircraft (for example, the Il-2), and the ships of the Navy.
A striking example of the introduction of multiple launch rocket systems allies began landing in Normandy on June 6, 1944, when the bank "worked" missile ships LCT (R). On the American landing sites were released about 18,000 rockets at English — about 20,000, it complemented the ordinary naval artillery fire and air strikes. Allied air as the final step of the war used the rockets. Multiple r
ocket launchers allies mounted off-road, towed trailers, battle tanks, such as, for example, 114.3 mm installation "Calliope" in the tank "Sherman" (Russian troops in 1941 tried to use the PC launchers on tanks).
German medium tanks Pz Kpfw III modifications already passed by weight of 20 tonnes:
 Ausf J (ka vypus 1941)
 Ausf M (1942), with long-barreled 50-mm gun,
 "Assault» Ausf N (1942) with a 75 mm gun
The main frustration of admirals in the war were battleships. Designed to gain control of the sea, these armored "by the ears" and bristling with guns countless giants were virtually defenseless against the new scourge of the fleet — ship-based aircraft. Be based on aircraft carriers, bombers and torpedo planes, as if the clouds of locusts flew into groups and compounds warships and convoys, causing them languid, irreparable loss.
Command of the navies of the leading nations of the world are not taught anything the experience of World War II, when the linear naval forces for the most part proved to be passive observers. The parties simply economized own armored leviathans for a decisive battle, so in the end, is not held. In the saturated sea war battles with the role of battleships can be counted on one hand.
As for the increased danger of submarines, most of the naval professionals have come to the conclusion that the submarine not bad in the main to break the enemy's merchant shipping and destruction of individual warships, unable to find a fit and fine resist the enemy submarines. The experience of their implementation during the First World War against the linear forces was found insignificant and "do not pose a danger." And therefore, it is concluded admirals, battleships as before remain the primary means of gaining dominance over the sea and their construction should continue, with all this, of course, battleships have to have tremendous speed, increased horizontal reservation, a stronger parent-caliber artillery and anti-aircraft artillery certainly strong and several aircraft. Voices of those who warned that the submarines and carrier-based aircraft pushed the linear force on the second plan, were not heard.
"Linear ship still remains the backbone of the fleet, "- said the South American Vice Admiral Arthur Willard in 1932.
Exclusively in the years 1932-1937 on the stocks of shipyards leading maritime nations was laid down 22 battleships, aircraft carriers, while only one more. And despite the fact that a significant number of dreadnought fleets were in the last two decades of the twentieth century. For example, the British in 1925 was launched on the head of a pair of battleships of "Nelson" who had total displacement of 38,000 tons and armed nine 406-mm caliber guns head. However, they were able to develop a course of no more than 23.5 node that was not enough.
The eyes of naval theorists on the war at sea in the late 1930s led to the golden age of linear forces.
As aptly noted one of his contemporaries, "Battleship long years was the same for the admirals than the cathedral for the bishops."
But the miracle did not happen, and the years of the second world war, went to the bottom 32
battleship of the 86 were in the part of all the actors of her role fleets. The vast majority — 19 ships (out of eight of the new type) — were drowned in the sea or in the air force bases specifically ship and land-based. Italian battleship "Roma" became "famous" that was sunk by the new German guided bombs X-1. But the fire of other battleships sunk only seven of their two new type of submarine and recorded on his own account in general only three ships.
In such criteria talk about the upcoming development of such class of ships as battleships, was not walking because projected even more massive capital ships have been to the second half of the war still removed from the building.
 The Japanese Medium Tank Type 2597, "Chi-ha" (commander, 1937)
 Although the Russian 9.8-tion tone light tank T-70 (1942), "descended" from the intelligence of machines, the properties were "reach out" to the level of battle tanks, installation of 35-45-mm front armor and 45 mm Guns
"Floating airports" begin and win …
Naval genius of the rising sun, Admiral Yamamoto wrote off the battleships in store for a long period of time before the second world war. "These ships resemble religious calligraphic scrolls that old people hang out in their own homes. They have not substantiated their own values. It's just a matter of faith, not reality "- said naval commander and … remained in command of the Japanese fleet in the minority.
But specifically "non-standard" gaze Yamamoto gave the Japanese fleet for the war strengths aircraft carrier force that set the heat to a South American battleships at Pearl Harbor. With such a difficult and expensive built supergiants "Yamato" and "Musashi" did not even have time to give any 1st salvo in its main opponents and without glory were sunk enemy aircraft. Because it is logical that in the years of the second world war fever was replaced by carrier-based drednoutnaya race: the one in the South American fleet at the end of a day of the war there were 99 "floating airfield" of various types.
It is interesting that, despite the fact that the aircraft carriers — Air transport aircraft carriers and then — and there were quite well proved in the First World War, in the interwar period, most of the maritime nations have treated them, to put it mildly, cool: Admirals gives them a supporting role, and policies are not beheld himself in their usefulness — it allowed the battleships "bargain" in the negotiations or as intensively implement gunboat diplomacy.
The lack of precise and definite views on the development of aircraft carriers is not enabled them to pay tribute to the development — the future ruler of the oceans were in a while actually in its infancy. Did not develop special equipment not issued gaze at what size, speed, Fleet Air Arm, the properties of flight and hangar decks are necessary for these vehicles, the composition of the carrier battle group, and methods of use of aircraft carriers.
The first, in 1922, the "real" aircraft carrier entered the fleet in battle inhabitants of the country of the rising sun. It was "Jose": a standard displacement — 7470 tons, speed — 25 knots Air Group — 26 aircraft defensive weapon — four 140-mm and two 76-mm guns, two machine guns. The English, though, and found his own "Hermes" a year earlier, they brought him into operation two years later. And in the last prewar decade creating vsepolnotsennyh carrier forces seriously involved Americans. Tried to build a modern aircraft carriers, France and Germany. We inherited from the last unfinished "Graf Zeppelin" after the war became a victim of Russian pilots are working out on it bombed.
As well improve aircraft and ship-based hardware and software-weather vsesutochnogo implementation, such as radars and homing systems, by improving air
tools and features to improve techniques and methods of implementation of carrier-based aircraft, not so long ago "toy" and awkward carriers uniformly become more severe in the power struggle at sea. And in November 1940, 21 "Swordfish" English aircraft carrier "Illastries" at the cost of 2-planes in Taranto sank three of the six Italian battleships were there.
During the war, the class of aircraft carriers constantly expanded. Quantitatively: at the beginning of the war there were 18 aircraft carriers, and over the next couple of years has been built spaceships A 174. Cancelled: there subclasses — large aircraft carrier, light and escort or patrol, aircraft carriers. Began to divide them and for the purpose: to attack ships and shore facilities for anti-submarine warfare or support landing operations.
And we all hear
Ample power and the rapid development of radar made it one of the major technical innovations 2nd World War, which determined the future development of military technology in the 3 verse.
Obviously, the development of so complex and "high-tech" industries began a long time before the war. Since the early 1930s in Germany, the USSR, Britain and the United States were developed scientific and research and development work on the "radio detection" of objects, first in the interest of defense (detection of distant aircraft, prompting anti-aircraft artillery, radar for night fighters). In Germany in 1938 made the detection of distant station "Freya", then "Würzburg", and by 1940, the German air defense has a network of such stations. Then the south coast of the UK radar network covering (line Chain Home) detects enemy aircraft at a distance of bolshennom. In the Soviet Union to top majestically Russian war has already been taken on board "radio traps aircraft" EN-1 and EN-2, created the first single-antenna radar "Pegmatite", aviation radar "Gneiss-1" ship "Redoubt K". In 1942 he came to the defense forces gun station pickup SON-2a (supplied under Lend-Lease, the British GL Mk II) and SON-2by (Russian copy of the British station). Although the number of Russian stations was low, in the course of the war under the Lend-Lease, the Soviet Union was more radar (1,788 anti-aircraft artillery, and 373 marine and 580 aircraft) than released at (651). On radiodetection looked on as a helper method is very complex and as yet unreliable.
South American Medium Tank M4 ("Sherman") with a 60-tube launcher T34 "Calliope" for the 116-mm rockets. Such installations restriction applies to the Yankees in August 1944
Meanwhile, from the very beginning of the war the role of radio locators in the air defense system grew. Already in the reflection of the first flight of German bombers in Moscow July 22, 1941 using data from the station RUS-1 and the Experimental Station "porphyry" and the end of September in the Metropolitan zone defense worked for 8 stations RUS. Those RUS-2 played an important role in the defense of besieged Leningrad, the station gun pickup SON-2 worked intensively in the defense of Moscow, bitter, Saratov. Radars are not only superior optical instruments and sound locator in range and accuracy of target detection (EN-2 and EN-2s were planes at ranges of up to 110-120 km, allow for evaluation of the number), and substituted a network of posts airborne surveillance, warning and communication . A imparted anti-aircraft gun divisions station pickup allowed to increase shooting accuracy, to move from defensive fire to the cover, reduce the consumption of shells at solving puzzles reflection of air raids.
Since 1943, the common practice in the defense of the country and in the army air defense fighter aircraft was pointing a distant stations detect the type of RUS-ENG-2 or 2c. Fighter pilot, VA Hares from 27 June 1944 wrote in his diary: "House" learned about the "redoubt" radar installation … It needed a clear operational information. Now it will be, hold on, Fritz! "
Although distrust of the ability of radar manifested constantly and everywhere, to observe with binoculars used to believe anymore. Lieutenant General MM Lobanov recalled how in the anti-aircraft artillery regiment on the use of data radiodetection said, "Who the hell knows, they are correct or not? I can not believe that the aircraft can behold the clouds. " Adviser to the Prime Minister Churchill on Science, Dr. FA Lindemann (Viscount Lord Cherwell), spoke about the development of radar bombsight H2S succinctly: "It's cheap." Meanwhile H2S gave British bomber forces not only bombsight in restricted visibility, and navigation aid. When the nodes of the locator from the downed in February 1943 near Rotterdam bombers ("Rotterdam device") is understood German spices, Reich Marshal Goering with surprise exclaimed: "My God! The British can really build in the dark! "And at this time its subordinate German defense has long be successfully used several types of radars (to pay tribute, the German engineers and military have done a lot for wide practical application of radar). But now it was a previously underrated microwave range — before the Allies began the development of the centimeter wavelength range.
What's in the Navy? First naval radar appeared in 1937 in England, and in a year Such stations were on English ships — the battlecruiser "Hood" and the cruiser "Sheffield". Radar has received and South American battleship "Newyork" and German designers have established their first naval radar to "pocket battleship" "Admiral Graf Spee" (1939).
In the South American fleet by 1945 have been developed and adopted a 2-10-s radar used to detect surface targets. With the help of their South American sailors, for example, found an enemy submarine on the surface to a distance of 10 miles, and airborne radars, which emerged from the Allies in 1940, provided the detection of submarines at distances up to 17 miles. Even going to a depth of several meters, "steel shark" was detected onboard radar patrol aircraft at a distance of more than 6.5 miles (the radar since 1942, matched with a massive spotlight of the "Lei" with a range of acts over 1.5 kilometers). First a big success in a naval battle was achieved using radar in March 1941 — when the British blew in down and the remains of the Italian fleet at Cape Matapan (Tenaron). In the Russian Navy in 1941 the CD "The Hammer" was a Russian radar "Redoubt K", however, to detect air targets, not surface (for the latter purpose in the Russian Navy preferred if the optics and direction finders). During the war in the Russian Navy ships have been used to a greater extent radar zabugornogo production.
Radiating setting radar gun pickup SON-2a (British GL-MkII). At its base produced by Russian SON 2by. In the air defense for
ces of the Red Army SON-2 allows you to undo increase the combat effectiveness of anti-aircraft artillery srednekalibernoy
Were placed on the radar and submarines: it allowed commanders to successfully storm the ships and vessels NIGHT MODE and bad weather criteria, and in August 1942 the German submariners have at their disposal a system FuMB, allowing them to determine the time of exposure radar ship or submarine patrol aircraft of the enemy. In addition, the commanders of submarines, dodging enemy ships filled with radars, have been intensively use small radiocontrast wrong target, imitating a submarine control room.
Far stepped forward and underwater acoustics, which before the war, the huge rates admirals did not do: have been developed and brought to mass production with active sonar and passive paths, station sonar communication. In June 1943, the U.S. Armed ASW aircraft came first sonobuoys.
Despite the complexity of the practical use of the latest technology, the Allies managed to achieve with the help of some results. One of a more efficient and successful cases of the introduction of martial sonobuoys is a joint operation by sinking the German submarine U-575, which was conducted March 13, 1944 in the north-west of the Azores.
After the U-575 was damaged by bombs dropped from patrol aircraft "Wellington", a few hours later, she found the aircraft out of service the ship's wing escort carrier "Bogue". The aircraft exhibited a series of RSL, and brought with them to the enemy's anti-submarine ships and aircraft. In the winding up of German submarines took part anti-submarine aircraft from the 206th squadron of the Royal Air Force, the South American ships "Haverfild" and "Hobson," as the Canadian "Prince Rupert."
By the way, the U.S. Navy sonobuoys successfully exhibited and from surface ships and vessels of small displacement: as a rule they were boats, submarine-chasers. And to deal with the German acoustic torpedoes allies have developed a device acoustic noise was towed astern Korab la. German submariners also widely used simulation cartridges, misled enemy acoustics.
On the other hand, virtually throughout the war Russian submarine had no radar, no fade. In this case, the antenna and periscope appeared on the Russian submarines exclusively in mid-1944, and even then only 7 submarines. Russian submariners could well operate in the black time of the day, could not go besperiskopnye attacks have become the norm in the fleets of other nations, and to send and receive radiodoneseny had to float on the surface.
And while I am speaking about the Navy, recall that the second global war has become a golden era torpedo guns — all the fleets used in those 10 years of thousands of torpedoes. Only the Navy submarine force spent almost 15,000 torpedoes! It was then determined the direction of the torpedo many guns, work on which lasted up to the present time: the creation of traceless and homing torpedoes, the development of systems bespuzyrnoy firing, creating a proximity fuse different types, design of new, non-standard power units ship (boat) and aircraft torpedoes. But the artillery weapons submarines descended almost to nothing.