T-90 tanks and M1A1 "Abrams" are common representatives of Russian and Western schools of tank development, which are incorporated in various engineering and technological ideas. T-90, the deepest modernization of reliable and well-proven T-72, was created after the collapse of the Soviet Union and has absorbed all the best that has been put in the Russian tanks. As the main gun on a tank installed an upgraded version of 125 mm smoothbore gun 2A46M4. Reservations tank actually increased by 3 times in comparison with the first modification of T-72, and includes both a strong passive armor, with spetsbrnirovaniem "semi-active" type, as well as built-in "active" dynamic defense that has permitted to provide the highest level of reservations from the comfort of weight restrictions due to the performance of strategic mobility.
As the power plant tank installed economical and reliable diesel engine V92S2. With the transition to the production of a new type of welded turret ability to enhance the reservation has increased even more. To build the T-90 is characterized by the highest density corresponding to the Russian school of tank development. This has both advantages and disadvantages. The sealed assembly allows you to make highly secure machine with low silhouette and a small area of the longitudinal and cross-sectional area compared with low weight. Accordingly, the smallest internal volume (for T-90 tank 11.8 m3 and 13 for T-90) requested the smallest mass of booking. Drawback is the constraint of the dense assembly of crew members is difficult replacement crew each other in case of need.
Tank M1 "Abrams" first created not as a breakthrough tank, as an anti-agent, whose task was to stop, or at least, delay the wave of Russian tanks exploding in the English Channel. Creating the tank was conducted very splotchenno with German tank builders, but with the American specificity. As the main gun on the tank, since the modifications set M1A1 120mm gun M-256, which is a slightly modified version of the German gun Rh-120. Book your first modifications of the tank is a multi-layer composite armor includes "chobhem" made in England. In the later versions used armor using uranokeramiki the first and second generations.
M-1 Abrams against the T-90
Assembling the tank M1 "Abrams" is common in the western approach to the tank building, resulting in, booked the tank volume was 19.7 m3, which is actually 2 times superior to that of the T-90.
As the power plant tank installed gas turbine engine AGT-1500 made in one
hydromechanical unit with automatic gearbox.
M1 drawback is the limited ability to self target search commander, a small increase and the lack of stabilization of the field of view sight M919 does not allow confidently detect and identify targets when the tank.
This defect was remedied only by modification of the M1A2. On the M1A2 panoramic thermal imaging device mounted commander, T-90 tanks, like their predecessors, also own such a device to find the panoramic goals and pointing guns, but without the thermal channel.
Firepower and ammunition
M1A1/M1A2 main armament is a 120mm M256 smoothbore gun. The initial speed in the shot M829A2 1675 m / s.
Rate — up to 8 shots per minute.
At present, the main anti-tank weapons M1A1 "Abrams" are armor-piercing shells M829A1 and M829A2. Also began the creation and delivery of the troops of the new M829A3 projectile, which represents a severe threat to the T-90. Developments are under way to create a guided missile TERM, but they are still far from completion.
The main armament of T-90 is an upgraded 125-mm smoothbore gun-launcher ustanovka.2A46M-2 (4)
The initial speed in the shot 3BM-44M 1750 m / s.
Rate — 6-8 rounds per minute
The main anti-tank weaponry T-90 are also armor-piercing projectiles (3BM-42 and 3BM-42M) and a set of guided weapons Reflex-M missiles and 9M119M 9M119M1 that provide M1A1NA defeat tanks in all areas of the frontal projection at a distance up to 5000 m Defeat tank M1A2 provided exclusively in zones of weakness, which make up 40% of the frontal projection. Simulation of an oncoming battle tank companies (10 tanks T-90 vs. 10 M1A1 tanks) showed that, starting with
the firing range TOUR 5000 m, the T-90 have time to range 2000 — 2500 m strike up to 50 — 60% of enemy tanks. Naturally, it may be only if it allows the terrain.
Apart from this perceptive systems are being developed that implement the principle of "fire and forget" and the defeat of the tank is not in a strong frontal armor, but in thin sections of the tower roof and trunk.
In terms of the development and implementation of new troops in armor-piercing shells in the last decade there has been a lag. Answer the emergence of new threats has not been given, because the defeat of the M1A2 tank at all distances from the first hit is not guaranteed. Industry delaying delivery to the troops already developed ammunition, and funding for the work on the new standards is broken.
Equivalent resistance against kinetic munitions: 530-550 mm.
The equivalent resistance to chemical energy attack: 750-800 mm.
Equivalent resistance against kinetic munitions: 770 mm.
The equivalent resistance to chemical energy attack: 1000-1200 mm.
M1A1 tank turret consists of an outer and an inner iron armor plates connected by transverse ribs, between which are laid packages spetsbronirovaniya of iron and non-metallic materials.
Thanks to the highest density (3.19 g/cm3 density of uranium), these small plates with a maximum thickness provide an "explosive" temper the destruction of parts of the shaped charge jet.
Equivalent resistance against kinetic munitions: 800-830 mm with protection Contact 5
Equivalent resistance against cumulative ammunition: 1,150-1,350 mm with protection Contact 5
Equivalent resistance against shaped cased ammunition specified for the first generation of combat units.
Turret of the T-90 refers to the "semi-active" type. In front of the tower has two cavities at an angle of 55 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the tool, are arranged in packets spetsbronirovaniya "semi-active" type. The structure of armor with reflective sheet is a barrier consisting of 3 layers: plates, gaskets and narrow plate. The effect of the "reflective" sheets can be up to 40% in comparison with the whole armor of the same mass. Apart from this, the tank is also used complex integrated dynamic protection "Contact-5" the type DZ works against the cumulative funds (COP), and against armor-piercing projectiles (BPS). The complex provides a powerful lateral momentum to destabilize or damage the core BPS before it starts to interact with the main book.
At the T-90 was first installed as standard optronic counter TSHU-1-7 "Blind-1." "Blind-1" is designed to protect the tank from damage manageable tool to batch-type automatic guidance systems «Tow», «Hot», «Milan», «Dragon», laser homing type «Maverick», «Hellfire», «Copper- head », as artillery systems with laser rangefinders.
Prohibitively large gap between the hull and turret booking. The gap is so large that fall under the tower "Abrams" is possible and on bolshennom distance, it is possible to aim for the upper front plate located under a very great angle — if there is a rebound, then certainly under the tower. In this case neither the highest posodeystvuyut booking frontal body parts, or thick armor of the tower. Rather weak sides in the booking area of the engine and the crew compartment makes the tank vulnerable to fire small-caliber artillery, for example the distance assured destruction using BP shell "Kerner" at an angle of 38 to 90 degrees will be up to 2000 m (500 m for BT projectile).
Vulnerable areas in bookings t-90 are the sections on either side of the gun, not covered by the integrated dynamic protection and do not have spetsbronirovaniya (at the installation coaxial machine gun). The weakened area is also available on the upper front part of the housing inspection device driver. This is a structural feature of Russian tanks, starting with T-64.