The fate of Russian weapons in Eastern Europe

Russian, and then Russian weapons systems in a given volume or represented in almost all Eastern European countries, is not so long since become members of NATO. Russian military products supplied and quite an old alliance members — Greece and Turkey, and the States that are on the verge of joining the NATO. In Eastern Europe, Russian companies are working in the main part of the modernization and repair set back Russian military equipment. But equally there are beginning to create their own versions of modernization of military equipment, weakening the position of Russia on the international arms market.

During the 2000s, representatives of the Russian administration has repeatedly directed his attention to the modernization of Russian weapons in Eastern Europe, calling it the creation of "counterfeit goods". This issue is quite a huge problem of the Russian Federation in the field of business with all the Eastern European countries, which at the time were licensed to the creation of Russian military equipment. His views on the Russian side, all the licenses that have been issued once the Soviet Union — is now the license of, as the country's successor. These licenses were granted for a period of less than five years without the right to re-export them.

That's why all the deals to modernize an old Russian technology for its own essence is illegal. This issue of counterfeit products. Everything that is done without the license of the Russian Federation in the field — counterfeiting, noted in 2005, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov. So he commented Bulgaria announced a tender for the modernization and repair of standards by NATO helicopter fleet "Mi", in service with the Bulgarian Air Force.
According to the director general of state company "Rosoboronexport" Anatoly Isaikina, half of Kalashnikov assault rifles in the world is counterfeit. At the current time in more than 15 countries (including Egypt, Bulgaria, Romania and China) release it without a license or on expired licenses. The only state that produces machines legitimately, is Venezuela.

The director of the Center for Analysis of World Trade instrument Igor Korotchenko believes that fight against counterfeit military equipment needed by inter-state negotiations. While it acknowledges that the impact of such competition is very low. According to him, Anatoly Isaikina these measures are ineffective. For example, if countries such as Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Israel, India, France, Czech Republic and South Africa signed an agreement on the protection of intellectual membership, that there are about 30 companies around, which you can only fight in the courts, but it very expensive and difficult. Meanwhile, the problem is quite acute, especially when you consider that the market for Russian arms modernization of production is estimated at about $ 80 billion. bucks.

The fate of Soviet weapons in Eastern Europe
Polish tank PT-91 «Twardy»

The other day, started in 1999-2000, a further step expansion NATO Our home on the East made a very fundamental mistake. Moscow believes that the expansion of the alliance — is less than a gamble, which can not particularly afraid, but only welcome. It was assumed that the expansion of NATO bogged down because of the expected split of the block on the old and new members, also because of the growth of military spending. Because virtually all of the Eastern European countries of the NATO, were not able to carry out a full re-own armies to Western standards of military equipment. Not much was simply to purchase such equipment, it was absolutely necessary to re-train personnel and to create new maintenance base. All this would lead to a multi-billion dollar cost.

But after the expansion of NATO is not everything went according to this scenario. Eastern European countries behave unpredictably, giving the green light to the acquisition of Western technology only profitable contracts. In addition, they have decided not to get rid of Russian weaponry, and to do his modernization and refinement. Eventually made in these countries the standards of arms from time to time act rivals for Russian defense industry.

One of the first examples of the successful modernization of the countries of Eastern Europe was completed in 2006, long contract for delivery in Malaysia Polish party MBT PT-91 «Twardy», made on the basis of Russian T-72 tank. Part of the price under the contract Malaysia repaid transfer of forward contracts for the supply of coconut oil, which is a Polish company were resold in the EU. The main fraction of this contract went to pay for the work of subcontractors Polish companies that took part in the modernization of the T-72. In total, the agreement Malaysia has received 48 tanks and auxiliary equipment in the amount of 368 million dollars.

In addition to this contract in Poland in 2005 started serial production to finish the Russian MANPADS "Igla", which were produced under the title "Thunder". Start of production in Poland greatly shaken the position of the former monopoly — Russian "Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant" Dome ". Having started creating and modified and adapted to the standards of NATO model, Poland actually deprived Russian venture agreements in Eastern Europe.

The fate of Soviet weapons in Eastern Europe
ZU-23-2TG

Also come from here and for the receiver of an anti-aircraft artillery. Polish engineers have upgraded 23-mm anti-aircraft gun ZU-23-2, also self-propelled anti-aircraft gun ZSU-23-4 "Shilka". As a result of the complex of the works received by the Polish army armament ZU-23-2TG and ZSU-23-4MR «Biała». They all received a new sighting systems, launchers of MANPADS "Thunder", which has significantly increased the properties settings to combat air and ground targets.

In the interests of air defense weapons munitions factory in the town of Grudziadz is upgrading air defense system "Osa", "Square" and "Cube". These complexes are obtained advanced detection system, aiming and tracking of air targets. They are able to quite firmly hit airborne targets and denkov and NIGHT MODE. The same plant from 1999 to 2001 was engaged in the modernization of the S-200 "Vega" to the version of the C-200TS. As a result of work carried out in the company of this SAM stationary reincarnated as a limited-mobile. System has been improved guidance and control of missiles. Electrical equipment has been replaced with an analog to digital.

Not so long ago, the Ministry of Defence of Poland to think about upgrading of currently third anti-aircraft missile brigade air defense systems S-125 "Neva" to the P-125 'Neva-SO. " The modernization is scheduled to perform the following work: to establish control systems and missile guidance and radar systems on separate machines, improved radar P-18, to modernize the automatic control system and communications facilities, air defense missile systems to equip the latest NBC protection system. Price of modernization of the complex is estimated at 95 million dollars. As a result of this work the life
of the complex will be extended for another 10-12 years.

According to the adopted plan "Technical modernization of the Polish armed forces' work will continue to increase the combat capabilities and service life extension of combat aircraft MiG-29 and Su-22, and M-28 transporter« Bryza »(Polish equivalent AN-14) and helicopters W -3 «Sokół» (the future development of the Mi-2).

The fate of Soviet weapons in Eastern Europe
The S-125 'Neva-SC "

In addition to Poland and the modernization of Russian arms export deals and the Czech Republic, which is usually considered the center of the defense industry in Eastern Europe. At the end of 2006, the Czech company «Tesla» graduated modernization of the air defense radar surveillance of the Baltic states. And at the end of 2011 was presented to another project upgrading the S 2K12 «Cube", made by Czech company "Retiya" and a European company MBDA. This project provides for armament latest missile complex "Asp-2000." In the process of modernization is planned to equip each PU 3-transport-launch containers with missiles "Asp-2000", which are capable of destroying airborne targets at a distance of 23 km. These missiles are to change the SAM 3M9M3 whose storage period ends in 2015.

Intensive work on the modernization of Russian art in Romania and Bulgaria, whose yearly export of arms to nedavneshnih has not exceeded 30 and 90 million dollars respectively. With all this Bucharest focuses on the modernization of Russian aircraft types, and Bulgaria, which in Soviet times was a "transit point" for not always legitimate arms transfers during the hot point of the planet, is now engaged in the modernization of artillery and anti-aircraft guns, rocket launchers, also produces different versions AK.

So Makar, forecast, which predicted the new members of NATO and therefore expensive full rejection of Russian weapons, did not materialize. Now 11 member states of NATO use the former Russian weapons and are not ready to turn away from him. On the one hand it is based on the fact that the Eastern European countries are no excess funds to buy weapons in Western Europe and the United States. On the other hand the fact that the long-term service contracts to modernize the Russian guns (in which the design was laid in store high strength) have become a very lucrative and growing sector of the busy modern arms market.

Sources used:
www.belvpo.com/9477.html
www.memoid.ru / node / Sovremennaya_Rossiya_kak_ehksportjor_oruzhiya
www.mfa.gov.ua/nato/ua/publication/content/8191.htm

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