15 (28) July the crowded streets of the Bosnian town of Sarajevo motorcade moved from the several open cars. On the waterfront Applel motorcade turned onto the street Franz Joseph, Gen. Oscar Potiorek began to scold the driver that he drove the wrong way. The driver tried to turn around, but in the narrow space filled with people, it was difficult. At this time, the crowd went paly boy raised his pistol and fired twice, due to the stress and horror shook hands, hit the lady, the man put his arm around her, closing, there was a third shot. He struck the heir of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Franz Ferdinand, was killed and his wife Sofia. Mass of twisted young man — it was Gavrilo Princip, he tried to poison himself, but he vomited.
In this day of Archduke already attempted — Nedel'ko Chabrinovich threw a grenade at the motorcade, but missed, an explosion destroyed the driver's third car (the goal was in the second) and injured her passenger, police and people in the mass.
This event led to a global catastrophe — World War II, the results of which fell four empires: the Austro-Hungarian, German, Russian, Ottoman. It is clear that the murder of the heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and his wife could not have led to such consequences in the Russian Empire in 1881 destroyed the ruler — and nothing else, no global, even regional war. Just some forces needed war, it has long been prepared and launched. There were two Moroccan crisis, the two Balkan wars, Austria-Hungary has just announced a pair of mobilization, but always with the deterrent role of the Russian Federation world crises resolved through negotiation.
Map of the last route of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand
War then lusted simply craved many of the elite, almost exclusively RF War was not needed — we had no territorial claims, disputes, foreign colonies we were not required to own enough land surplus. All economic disputes can be resolved peace, peaceful development promised more benefits than war. That's why its hard drawn into a confrontation with Germany, United Kingdom, where the Russian Empire was called "the country of the whip, massacres and executions of revolutionaries," went on the division of spheres of influence in Persia and Tibet, began high-level visits. Bankers France did not stint on the loans.
In Germany hyping "pan-German" hysteria created plans for a "Greater Germany", which would include most of Europe, the Russian Baltic States, Poland, Ukraine, Crimea, the Caucasus, there were theories of "superiority of the Germanic race." Chief of the German General Staff, Moltke wrote: "The European war break out at some point, and it will war between the Teutons and Slavs. " German Rohrbach ideologue, "Russian colossal government with 170 million population in general should undergo section in the interests of European security." German generals and commoners increasingly addicted to the idea of the "world," the German Empire, however, financed propaganda campaign German industrialists and bankers (tied with "financial Internationale", or were part of it), for which no matter what war — It's profits. They have sponsored numerous and warlike organization, such as "Sea League", "Defence League", "military alliance", "pan-German Union", "German colonial partnership", etc.. They whirled arms race, its so dispersed that by 1914 Germany had driven a "financial deadlock" — it was necessary either to make war or violent advancing money crisis. Fascinating that one of the managers of the German Secret Service has become naikrupneyshy German financier — Max Warburg. His brother, Paul Warburg, was made vice-president in 1913, on the eve of the war of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
German military were convinced of victory in 1905 was developed by the Schlieffen Plan, which takes into account the difference in the timing of the mobilization of the Russian Federation and Germany. According to him, as long as our homeland, to mobilize, German armed forces concentrated all its might against France and crushing her before the British will have time to contribute, and the mobilization of graduates from our homeland. Then together with the Austro-Hungarian armies in Berlin wondered swiftly brought to their knees and Russia. Term of the war — Summer 1914 — sounded a further meeting with the governor of the German generals December 8, 1912. German military applets, first designed in the end of 1916, have been revised, with the end of the spring of 1914. In May 1914 at a meeting in Carlsbad Moltke said Austrian own employee background Gettsendorfu: "Any delay reduces the chances of success."
Planned to make any provocation, the Balkans for that fit the most — "powder keg" of Europe. After a series of wars and conflicts in the Balkans in fact all parties are unhappy with the current situation — the Turks, Serbs, Bulgarians, Romanians, Greeks, Austrians. There were intertwined interests of virtually all the majestic powers: Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, Britain and France. There was a lot of nationalist organizations, acted virtually all intelligence agencies, one after another appeared secret organization.
Thus, the organization of the "Black Hand" was created by Colonel Dragutin Dmitrievich, nicknamed "Apis" chief Serbian counterintelligence. Its subsidiary in Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia was the organization "Mlada Bosna", to which belonged to the killer heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne. "Apis" was a patriot Serbian opponent of the "Pan-German" and … Mason, as well as the other founder of the organization, the Serbian Minister A. Chupa, who had connections with the Masons of Belgium and France. The organization's activities conducted under the slogans patriotic and pan-Slavic, promoted the idea of "Greater Serbia" within the ages 13-14. But to achieve this goal could only be by means of war, involving the forces of, when, after the defeat of Austria-Hungary, it will be possible to build a "Greater Serbia." Their eyes did not divide the master and the prime minister of Serbia, made remarks and Russian salting Hartwig, a military attache Artamonov. But the organization had a tremendous impact in the yard, in the middle of the officers.
Dragutin Dimitrijevic (Apis)
Well, the victim chose not the case — Franz Ferdinand was an opponent of the war with the Russian Empire. His death unleashed the hands of "militarism". In addition, was a supporter of equal rights in the Empire Slavic peoples, with the Austrians and Hungarians, which could lead to a reduction of separatist tendencies.
To give the Austrian and German side more "bargaining chips" in charge of Serbia, a group of conspirators are brought to Serbia, in Belgr
ade, trained in target shooting the royal park, hand guns and bombs Serbian production of the state arsenal, not in secret — open. In other words, do confirm the charges for Serbia. July 2 boys smuggled across the border, already the 15th in Serbia coup, King Peter forced to abdicate in favor of son Alexander, who was young and inexperienced, and more liable to attack.
Serbian and Russian Prime Minister Pasic salting Hartwig had his agents and learned of the impending assassination. They both rushed to warn the Austrian side, but ignored the warnings, the Austrian side, the visit to Sarajevo is not canceled, the security measures are not strengthened.
When the governor Wilhelm II of Germany received a message about the murder, he wrote in the margin telegram: "now or never" and gave the order to prepare Moltke blow to France. Immediately global press, as if on cue, began to escalate war hysteria. Although in theory there is not a lot was done in the world of assassinations? In the Russian Empire killed the Minister for the Minister, the mighty are destroyed Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, Stolypin, etc.
Yad conspirators was not working for some reason, even though the Nazis in the 3rd Reich did not complained etched one by one, all captured alive split. July 23 Vienna presents an ultimatum to Serbia, and gives a total of 48 hours for an answer (that did not have time?) Pasic and Alexander could not accept it, he violated the sovereignty, Pasic was clear that the Austrian investigators blame on the Serbian countryside and went out and brought the situation is even more complicated. Lord of Alexander sought protection from the Russian Federation, Nikolai II provides measures for the settlement. Serbian Prime Minister, showing the wonders of diplomatic flexibility, accepts all items ultimatum, not counting the 1st — instead of Austrians permission to conduct an investigation on the ground Serbia refer the matter to the Hague court internationalist, promising to accept his decision.
Vienna was quite this 'opt out' of the 26th and she broke the case with Serbia on July 28 announced the war began shelling of Belgrade. All samples Petersburg suspend diplomatic conflict have been ignored. Our homeland takes a decision to provide military pressure — announced a partial mobilization of Kiev, Odessa, Kazan, the Capital District, 31 th and full mobilization. Russian Foreign Ministry said that if the military action and suspend will convene a conference to mobilize immediately suspend.
Germany used this move as an excuse for war, saying the danger of the Russian Federation — August 1, declared war. Although the German press and Kaiser stated the danger of the Russian Federation's own ally Austria-Hungary and the logic of the army had to bring to the borders of the Russian Federation in order to force it to make concessions — German armies moved westward. In other words, the world and did not want the wanted war. August 1 German army occupied Luxembourg, Belgium neutral, third, Germany declared war on France.
Nascent war could suspend the firm position of the UK, it has not stopped a single conflict. But London showed "indecision", the Germans are not reasoned, Russian and French support is not promised. In the cabinet of ministers and parliament were debates, consultations with the United States. In the end, of Berlin, was created the appearance that the United Kingdom on his own habit stays out of the conflict. Because of Germany's entry into the war the United Kingdom — August 5, on the side of France and Russia — was a surprise, but it was too late to stop, the flywheel of the war was launched.
Murder in Sarajevo was not profitable Serbia, Russia, which suffered heavy casualties. Austria-Hungary and Germany also have not received the benefits of the script has been entered in a global scenario, the scenario of "financial International." Paris also lost more than got was bled white, even though he was in the camp favorites. Most of all won the U.S. is nominated from the second row as world powers, becoming the global lender. Or rather the hosts USA, moneyed interest, which had offices in New York, London, Washington, Paris, Berlin, Switzerland.
Governors "Black Hand" in imaginary charges — Tipo planned to open the front to the Austrians, who could not stand my entire adult life — first arrested and executed in 1917. Conspirators of "Mlada Bosna" was tried, adults were shot, juvenile arrested. In 1917, the young terrorists principle Gabrilowitsch, Grabech held in solitary confinement Austrian fortress of Theresienstadt and all with synchronicity in a few weeks "by themselves" died. Managing the "Young Bosnia" Vladimir Gachinovich in 1914 escaped and lived in Paris, and later in Switzerland, died in August, most likely, he was poisoned. In autumn 1918 the Sarajevo Process archives were lost. In 1919, when the Austrian authorities decided to return the archives of Serbia in Belgrade, after the occupation of the occupied Serbia, boat, vezshy documents went missing on the Danube, together with a team. That's right, all the ends of the water, even in the literal sense …
After the war began active implementation version, allegedly behind the assassination in Sarajevo was our homeland, its military attaché in Serbia, Colonel General Staff Artamonov. But the hidden archives of documents pravitelskogo military and diplomatic agencies placed under Russian power, this version is one hundred percent deny. Artamonov was a determined opponent of plans conspirators. About this version written in Europe, the historian MN Pokrovsky, it reflected the novelist Vladimir Pikul's novel "an honor."
This is the usual course of Western intelligence agencies — "cover version" of this situation, the benefit of specific documents and witnesses killed.
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