United States and the agony of the Soviet Union, why Sakharov proposed to surround the U.S. nuclear warheads

United States and the agony of the Soviet Union, why Sakharov proposed to surround the U.S. nuclear warheadsWe bring you the sequel (the second part) series of seminars known municipal leader Valentin Falin, held in the "dynamic conservatism of the Institute" (Moscow). The first part was a REGNUM republikovana August 28.

V.M.Falin. In the last time we came to the end of the second world war. Excuse me, but walk through some final milestones of our conversation to comment on the NTV shown on the eve of June 22, the movie, co-authors of the created Rezun (aka Jackson). Phenomenon: in the same Germany seldom meet those hungry for crafts, ready to outrage over history. Prof. russophobes not count. They Russ, our homeland and all the more Russian Alliance have always been a thorn in the side. We are, by definition, can not be right, be right a hundred times.

Despite the defeat of Stalin in 1937-1938. military and political intelligence, data that is coming very difficult test for the Russian people flocked to Moscow abound. The question is about one thing — when the clap of thunder. Approximately two-thirds of the reports of "trusted" agents oriented to the fact that Hitler did not dare to rush to the east, until one way or another whether in shell or not we agree with the United Kingdom. In short, up to 1942 can be expected to take a breath. Do not unnecessarily take into account that London June 15, 1941 based on the fact that the Germans will try to extract the maximum utility of economic cooperation with the Soviet Union, before would lift the visor, move to take "actual place" in the east. Washington on January 10, 1941 had the full text of the plan "Barbarossa", which was painted in the chart anger Third Reich against the Soviet Union. But not share this secret even from the British.

The problem of Stalin in the time of the Nazi attack was to follow. He's better than anyone else, knew how unprepared for the decisive armed clashes were our army, navy and air force. After the Finnish War, and it was preceded by execution with higher and commanders began a radical reorganization of the armed forces and their transfer to the latest military technology, which sought a time. Stalin persistently kept priority — to delay by all means an hour of truth. If useful, cost far-reaching concessions, economic appeasement of Hitler. Since January 1941, he personally oversaw the economic component of the Soviet-German relations. The German proposal for supplies of grain and raw materials (manganese, copper, nickel, etc.) are met. Expressed willingness to increase the volume of sales of Russian oil products, to expand the transit of food through our area from other states. Stalin did not know that the fall of 1940, Hitler gave the order: not to take his time to the question of trade deals with the USSR. And about the Nazis themselves have decided that there is nervousness Stalin additional feature of helplessness and fear of danger of a conflict of Moscow.

More important were the shortcomings of the political and military control of the USSR in understanding the experience of strategies and policies for the Nazis invaded Poland, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Holland and France in particular. It was believed that the Wehrmacht uniform will be introduced into the battle against the main forces of the Red Army, so that we can in two — three weeks to erect a tribute defensive wall. In the reports from friends of the Red Chapel, by Rado and Sorge present the idea that war will begin with ultimatum and so makarom that Moscow will be time for some maneuvering. Get a grasp of Molotov's speech on June 22, he had written by hand and authorized by Stalin without notable amendments. Germany, read Molotov attacked, not making any claims, and without a declaration of war. In the forthcoming when playing the appeal to the people, the phrase about claims fell. In general, suffered from mood did not give a reason for the treachery of the Germans, which led to the fact that in a couple of weeks before the invasion of sovereign refuses to authorize the reduction of Russian military forces in a simple alert.

It should briefly the brakes on speculation, as if in the first hours of the war, Stalin fled to the "near-giving", with no one to meet and no one took. Take a book, "The reception of Stalin," which from afar A.A.Chernobaev and his group. In it (pp. 337-340) played a list of persons who attended Stalin's office in the first hours and days of Russian war. June 22 — 29 meetings, 23.06 — 21 24.06 — 20 25.06 — 29 26.06 — 28 27.06 -30 28.06 — 21. "Black block" hardly appropriate perechernyat.

The creators of the said wittingly or unwittingly movie underestimate the dedication, the heroism of those "assistants" who gave life to fight with us against the Nazi plague. Who have at least an approximate idea of the technology intelligence, know as the time from the last time the clerk can be invaluable transmitter and even fatal for the future of the country's disk imaging. Yes, we did not have time sources, equivalent to Canaris, Oster, Halder, announces first London to within a minute, when there will be a blow to Poland, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands or France. Surely, in this context, should have been asking how and why the French Republic, on 09.03.1939, the was in a state of war with Germany, and is not inferior in numbers, and equipment of the armed forces of the Reich, the Nazis rose to his knees for 17 days. After all, in the eyes of ponositeley Russian Union of Western policy and marshals were immeasurably wiser "Russian barbarians."

In parentheses is usually taken and such a plot. The ruling circles of the United States mired in discord — what position to take in the event of aggression against the Third Reich, the Soviet Union. Fr.Ruzvelt recall, cheer up Winston Churchill: If Albion announce in the "X hour" Russia as an ally, Washington will accept such a reaction from his awareness. But. In a memorandum addressed to the President of 22.06.1941, the Minister of War G.Stimsonom, we read: "This act of Germany (the attack on Russia) almost resembles a gift of providence. This latest illustration of ambition and treachery … the Nazis opens ample opportunities (United States) win Battle of the North Atlantic and to protect our hemisphere in the South Atlantic. " The minister spoke out against the Russian Union aid. The reason is clear. At the funeral service of the Russian Federation, he and his advisers have withdrawn "at least a month, maximum, maybe three months." Against the expression of solidarity with the victims of anger were the State Department, intelligence, Congress. From the standpoint of "promoting" Russian invasion resistance Wehrmacht were G.Gopkins, Advisor to the President, and E.Stettinius (control programs from the Lend-Lease, the Soviet Union will be its users in November 1941).

The right-wing faction of South American establishment, klerus, media magnates Washington imposed the concept of opt in the interest of "the political reorganization of continental Europe" victory Nazis. In any case, according to the model G.Guvera, Dzh.Dallesa and others dreamed Russian Alliance had to withdraw from the war exhausted and bloodless, devoid of the capacity to influence the balance of power in Europe and other parts of the world.

No circumstances Fr.Ruzvelta idealize and even more so, to take on faith the sayings of Winston Churchill. The circumstances of
this — are legion. Mention the Atlantic Charter (available 08/14/1941) In the word of it on the German invasion of the Russian Alliance or the land of the rising sun on China and its readiness to "democracies" to share the burden of fighting contenders for world domination. Washington and London were well aware that the fall of Moscow was to be the signal for entry into the war against the Soviet land of the rising sun in the Far East, in the south of Turkey and perhaps Sweden in northern Europe. Winston Churchill was prepared in this case, cancel the July (1941) deal with Moscow, forbidding separate negotiations with the Nazis and reconciliation with Berlin behind the Soviet Union. After the failure of Operation "Typhoon", which Hitler had built to the rank of "final, decisive battle of the second world war", "Democrats" were engaged estimates, how to prevent "excessive" strengthening of the Union of Russian and, at first, to cut its impact in determining the future configuration of Europe .

Wish in this context to direct your attention to the book V.Loty — "Hidden front of the General Staff," "No room for error," "Undercover operations second world" in which the documents are summarized brain Intelligence Agency Russian armed forces. Of these publications, and other sources can be concluded that as a result of the Capital battle, fought in what Reddish Army and mobilized to the needs of the Wehrmacht all of Central and Western Europe, Nazi Germany could be defeated as early as 1942 Most later, by the summer of 1943 Someone who ranged in a similar assessment, see the South American invite staff documents. As can be seen, the collapse of the doctrine of instant continental wars and global domination could then be capitalized in full and frisky defeat the Nazi monster.

It was at this time (December 1941 — January 1942), Churchill, Roosevelt imposed a purely political strategy of confrontation with Germany, according to which the final stage of the war was recognized in 1944, when the Reich did not happen earlier crash. It followed — no cooperation in the development of operational plans of the Red Army, from "direct aid" Russian Union refrain, provide indirect dosed. How cynically expressed some allied generals, rather it was to maintain "current eastern front." This document references the "democrats" can not be understood as belittling the value of Lend-Lease Act, particularly with respect to the vehicle, industrial materials and equipment, medicines and food.

After Stalingrad, the U.S. and UK politicians overwhelmed doubt, not very cool to grow the prestige of the Soviets. Of course, not the case a week before the surrender of the German group, had broken through to the Volga, Roosevelt made a demand "unquestioning surrender" aggressors — Germany, Italy and the Land of the Rising Sun. In the Wehrmacht at the time brewing mood, do not give a clear "Barbarossa" and throw off the yoke of Nazi. "Democrats" hurried to fix the script Fronde. In order to avoid "chaos" Hitler offered to clean up after the Anglo-American landing on the mainland. The Battle of Kursk showed: the USSR is capable assistants without defeat Germany. The issue of a second front was acquiring qualitatively new population. About that, in what manner the issue open a discussion by the U.S. president and British prime minister at the meeting of the chiefs of staff 08/20/1943 in Quebec, we have a voice in the past times.

Quite briefly about the Warsaw Uprising. In February 1944, Churchill asked his own military, reserves of which are present in order to forestall the establishment of Russian control, namely, the situation in Poland. The prime minister said that the ready Polish Home Army, formed by British agents, armed and trained by the British. In the period from 1940 to 1944 Home Army avoided clashes with the occupiers. Her transition to active operations, first, to disrupt communications Wehrmacht was allocated to the time after the landing of British and American troops in France. Commander of the Army, General Bor-Komorowski held that he is given carte blanche to the operation "Storm", in other words, a company of the Warsaw uprising. What happened after that, of course.

Come on now to the end of the war. All forecasts and intelligence chiefs of staff, predicting the destruction of the west front immediately after the Allied landing in Normandy and the elimination of Hitler denied life alive. Fall of 1944, Roosevelt, after all, put down the signature on the document, prepared by the European Advisory Commission, the division of defeated Germany into occupation zones. I had to in case of unexpected developments bound duties to the Soviet Union. Later, our allies are burned by the Ardennes and Alsace operations when seized with panic, they pleaded with them to give them Stalin's life-saving assistance. With all this, Washington and London were lavish with compliments and assurances of friendship fiery almost to the end of time. And usually at the "fathers of democracy," Churchill gave orders to collect captured German cannon to its likely use against Russian and, without delay, start preparing the operation "unimaginable." Third global war, remember, was preparing against the Yalta Conference. At the peak of Churchill, President Roosevelt was determined 01.03.1945 his vision of "peace for all", which was built on the foundation of the Tehran and Yalta agreements with Cardinal disarmament favorites and losers.

According to the documents, Stalin was preparing to lend a hand of friendship to the United States. Churchill, on the contrary, took the sayings of Roosevelt's hostility. A prominent South American military historian M.Metloff stated: the first cracks in the anti-Hitler coalition denote between the United States and the Soviet Union, and between Washington and London. Note, United States, urging Moscow to support their efforts in the fight against Japan, actually did not allow the British to the final operations in the Pacific Theater.

Next was the Potsdam. Of positive public land perepala from it rose "Gloria Dei". Archive tables abound statements of good intentions. In fact, the people were held hostage, "balancing on the brink of the abyss" committed by Washington in the name of the establishment of "Pax Americana." The splitting of the atom transferred to the category of topical apocalypse danger. No one knows what would have resulted South American atomic monopoly, do not tear off her Russian Alliance In August 1949 For reference: the first information about the "Manhattan Project" in the United States and "uranium project" in the 3rd Reich Russian intelligence received from the management in 1942 The founder of the German "uranium project" was A.Shpeer. At the start step ahead of the Germans South American study about two years. Provided that they will be allocated the necessary resources, physicists and technologists were taken militarize the atom in 1944, Hitler, but ordered to concentrate efforts for improving the design of aircraft, tanks and other systems that ensured him success in the campaigns of 1939-1940.

Uranium project Germans were engaged tightly after the Battle of Kursk. At this point, the United States, mobilized the best scientific staff (A. Einstein, R.Oppengeymer, Enrico Fermi, K.Fuks) already forged ahead. Hitler's incompetence, blame A.Shpeer after the war, prevented the Reich to take over the first tool that could change the course of world events. So Makar, poker "democrats" with a second front in the calculation loaded on to the Russian Alliance main burden of the war was a very risky business. Nazis lacked six months — a year to complete the work on the "wonder weapon" that can not be empty bluff.

Information K.Fuksa, "H
arry" and some other of our friends, whose names are not disclosed, allowed the Russian management anxious to evaluate the factor of time and, as it were up to us, to approach the judgment day. In 1943, we had established a center to coordinate work on the nuclear issue. They ruled Beria and M.G.Pervuhin. Scientific and technological research led by Kurchatov.

In the middle of problems to be overcome Russian side should be called, first, the lack of primary raw materials. Own deposits of uranium-bearing ores have been explored. We are lucky that in the Russian zone of occupation in Germany were uranium mines. A certain number of primary materials we received from Czechoslovakia. If the Western powers took in 1946, our proposal to hold in Germany, one for all areas of law, free elections and the development of their follow-German government, signing a contract with him the peace and the withdrawal within 2-years of German occupation troops from the countryside, our ability to extract uranium in Thuringia could come to nothing. U.S. rudely rejected the Russian proposal, the French said they hear and do not want to merge, the British were in the same spirit. U.S. felt themselves then in the saddle, believing that Russian Union to master nuclear weapon would be more than 10-12 years.

April 12, 1945 passed away suddenly Fr.Ruzvelt. Became the owner of the white houses G.Trumen. Truman rally failed due to resistance from the military to cancel the Yalta agreement. But little by little he and his brand-new team took the erosion of land under the anti-Hitler coalition. Visible halts on this route was the signing A.Yodlem 05/07/1945, in Reims "preparatory" (in our interpretation) the act of surrender Wehrmacht. Seconded to the headquarters of General Eisenhower's chief of staff OKW failed to realize quite abstract Doenitz, Hitler's successor: the war on land, sea and in the air against the Western powers immediately stopped, the war against the Russian Union should be maintained until the last bullet. Americans and Germans agreed on a compromise. Performing an act of surrender was stretched to 48 hours. During this time, the connection Wehrmacht, breaking away from the pursuing units of the Red Army surrendered to the Yankees and the British. In total, from the Eastern Front managed to shoot 1 million 850 thousand soldiers and officers of Wehrmacht and SS.

Russian Alliance insisted on re-signing on May 8 Command of the Wehrmacht in Karlshorst, a suburb of Berlin, a truly general surrender of the German armed forces. The war in Europe ended on May 9, 00 hours GMT. While virtually clashes in eastern Germany with the Nazi parts break through to the West, lasted until May 11-12.

The meaning of these perturbations opens memorandum Acting U.S. Secretary of State Dzh.Gryu, reported them to the President of 19/05/1945, we read: "If in the world there is something inevitable, then this is the inevitable future war between the United States and the Russian Union." The Yankees need to start this war before the Soviet Union to restore war-ravaged economy and send a force of its natural and human resources. In the meantime, should increase pressure on the Russian alliance on all lines. Day or two later the British military reported Churchill vision surgery "unimaginable." Start a war, they stressed, it is easier than its finish. Especially since the idea did not meet the specific approval of the United States.

G.Trumen, according to the documents, was tuned to the break with Moscow after the Russian side posodeystvuet defeat the land of the rising sun. At a meeting with Stalin at Potsdam president elicited that we entered the war on August 8-9. After which he was ordered to throw the bomb on Hiroshima on August 6. The use of nuclear weapons is not justified by military necessity. Incineration of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Truman showed determination to dominate in the post-war world. On the way back to Washington, President Eisenhower commissioned to prepare an operation "Toteliti" against the USSR. At the end of August 1945 craftsmen engaged in the calculations, how much, in view of the atomic attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons will come in handy for the destruction of 15 Russian industrial centers. Japan had not yet surrendered. Its rulers bargain for the United States for the indulgence of the ruler Hirohito. In no case did not have to stand in front of the court.

French Marshal Foch, justifying the interventionist action "democrats" against Russian Russian Federation, stated — if the first global destruction is complete without an outcast, you will need to believe that this war lost. In essence the same idea held Donovan in August 1943, reporting judgments USS Roosevelt and Churchill. If "after the German defeat any single country or a group of powers, in which we (the U.S.) do not have a strong impact, will be able to control the power of Europe, it can be assumed that the United States lost the war." As "the only method to overcome Russian Alliance sheer" USS has named (or recommended) "turn against the USSR, all the power is still strong in Germany, in other words, Germany, controlled by the Nazis or the generals."

Not having the best arguments, the South American rulers to this day give testimony to the commitment of "standards of freedom" to refrain from introducing them against the infidels of nuclear weapons even as the United States had a monopoly or overwhelming The advantage of a composite nuclear military capabilities. Indeed, more than 250 wars and military interventions in different parts of the world the United States did not resort to "vsepobivayuschemu (nuclear) trump." However, this tool has uncovered several times to put pressure on the Soviet Union, China, Korea, Vietnam, India, Arab and other countries.

On the "restraint" of Washington during the nuclear monopoly of almost all utter numbers. Estimation (December 1945) to throw 20-30 nuclear bombs on 20 Soviet cities — in stock 2 charges. Plan "Pincher" (in Russian "ticks") in June 1946, hit 50 bombs and 24 townships — in charge of supplies 9. In 1947, the Yankees 13 bombs. Prior to 1948, as noted by the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission D.Liliental, USA "had neither the usable bombs, nor any of their stores." The turning point came in 1949, Russian alliance made in August test explosion of a nuclear device. U.S. put on the flow of charges creation "Mark-6". South American scenario "Pax Atomic" has been disavowed by the creation of the Soviet Union in 1953-54. ready for the first real application of the hydrogen bomb. This does not mean that the threat of nuclear war went beyond the horizon. The conflicts in Korea and Indochina nearly jumped threshold atomization.

Fast forward to 1961 from the meeting of John Kennedy and Khrushchev in Vienna was a chill. 12-13.08.1961 Berlin wall cut parts. The President of the United States in the middle of October, gave the order to demolish the temporary boundary fence installed around West Berlin. In response, Khrushchev ordered to advance to the distance of direct fire from Russian tanks full warhead and shoot to kill, if the South American bulldozers began to make an order Kennedy. Chief of the Russian army group in the German Democratic Republic was appointed Konev. Without exaggeration, all hung in the balance — the world stood up from the scrum 2-superpowers 80-100 meters. I was in a meeting with Khrushchev, and I know what I'm saying. Both sides had the speed and intelligence to break up with the world.

A month later predsovmina called me in his office and instructed to prepare a response to a message from the President of the United States. Kennedy offered to taxi to a political settlement. In this and the following letters he advocated the upgrading of the status of West Berlin, which reflects the chang
ing realities. Obviously looked through zeal to legalize "bond" with the western sectors of Berlin and Germany to repay the establishment of the Board of Control (1947) that "the big Berlin" was designated as "the area occupied together with 4 powers, while at the same time being the capital of the Russian zone . " In the case of the merits of the agreements on Berlin head of white houses did not rule out making amendments to the harsh policies of Bonn. He undertook to provide a corresponding impact on the Adenauer Foundation.

Gorbachev once said, were the designers of the Berlin Wall Western powers. In the South American sector of Berlin was located naikrupneyshaya zabugornye CIA headquarters. The appearance of the wall at the public recognize the control of the headquarters for years to upset the infrastructure of the planned NATO operations against USSR. West German leaders called West Berlin "the most a cheap atomic bomb" laid down in the space controlled by Russian Union. In 1961-63. my business schedule looked like this: from 9.-00 to 17.00 in the service of the Foreign Ministry, and from 18.00 until late at night — in the secretariat Khrushchev. My views in favor of or against the construction of the wall did not ask, but watch and hear what was going on in the corridors of power, not forbidden. The decisive reason for the elevation of the border between the municipalities, the antipodes was: divide between Warsaw Pact and NATO strategically necessary. Americans have long held out the atomic zone along the border with East Germany, mined all bridges and other basic facilities prepared for flooding vast areas on the Weser and the Rhine. Naturally, the role played intrigued by the GDR in the suppression of economic sabotage and the final of the West of people of the country. After Vienna, Khrushchev constantly play up the theme conclusion Russian Union peace treaty with East Germany, in which the country passed to full control, namely, the lines of communication linking West Berlin and West Germany. These statements are buoyed flight. At the peak of a day took up to three thousand people.

Cuban crisis broke dialogue with Khrushchev Kennedy German dilemma. At a meeting in Vienna, the president took responsibility for the anti-Castro mercenaries landed in the Bay of pigs and gave my word that this will not happen again. But almost in the same days are started preparations for the invasion of Cuba permanent U.S. Army in support of air and naval forces. She was engaged in the commission of 400 men led by R.Kennedi. The operation, codenamed "Mongoose" was supposed to be realized in October 1962 Was there a connection between "Operation Mongoose" and Khrushchev's decision to make Cuba our missile base, I do not understand. Formally, the transfer of medium-range missiles was a response to the nomination of the Yankees missiles "Jupiter" in Turkey and Italy. It seems however, U.S. intelligence only in late September — early October 1962 spotted fact everything in the Peninsula of Liberty positions for Russian missiles. Immediately convened a crisis headquarters. In it, except for the president and his brother, the participants were in favor of strike at Cuba, with the prospect of a possible escalation of the crisis in the global conflict. It was believed that Moscow gave rise to the implementation of detailed back in Eisenhower's presidency plans applying vseunichtozhayuschego blow to the Russian Union and at the same time in China. According to one of the projects that were lying on the desktop Eisenhower, in the first hours of the war here and in China had killed 195 million people.

In the 90-ies. Washington revealed the secret: when 3-decades earlier cash potential of the USA, Britain and France also alerting to crush the unwanted, the "democrats" were based on the agents' data Penkovsky. They denied bragging Khrushchev, as if the country had a tribute to the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles, to erase from the face of the Earth at least some of the enemy. In fact it had enjoyed half a dozen missiles capable of hitting targets of the United States. Our distant aircraft on all indicators did not go in comparison with the U.S. Air Force, Navy, and a read is not necessary. Together with the fact the CIA misled politicians, arguing that nuclear warheads to missiles to Cuba imported. Meanwhile, they were already on the peninsula to the delivery of missiles and remained there after the evacuation of missile weapons. And God forbid, start then the poor — the "nuclear winter" would not pass.

Khrushchev quickly sobered up, being faced with a choice — to be or not to be. John Kennedy's ultimatum, limited tough period, immediately proceed to the conclusion that Russian missiles from Cuba, he instructed Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin to respond positively and duplicated it in the open air, to have gained the consent of the President of the United States before the expiration of the ultimatum. Eight months later, in June 1963, Khrushchev ordered his own adviser O.A.Troyanovskomu and I make an explanatory note to the members of the Politburo with a statement of the reasons which led him to throw nuclear missiles in Cuba. This commission has confirmed that the Politburo as the High Court did not accept that fateful decision. Sinful practice of autocracy is fully capable to bring the country to a fatal failure.

The United States is part of the settlement, in turn, went on to make concessions. They pledged not to use force against Cuba and "voluntarily" withdraw its medium-range missiles from the territory of Italy and Turkey. The concept of "voluntariness" opened my last U.S. Defense R.Maknamara. We met with him in Geneva at the sessions of the Pugwash movement. After leaving the post of minister of defense, McNamara declared himself ready to impartial reflection on the past, present and future. From him I heard that the United States and the Russian Union to protect their national interests rather than a 400 nuclear warheads. Then I asked the former Minister of the question, "Mr. McNamara, remains in force if the order according to which, the commander of American submarine can in the absence of communication with the center for more than 6 hours in a crisis situation unauthorized launch missiles against these goals?" The interviewee replied indignantly: such an order was not. We agreed that when he returned home, he will deal with the matter. A week later I get the message: "The order was to remain in force." That's it. I do not know whether to make a similar annotation captains of our submarines. In any case, decades of biological life on Earth could end at any moment a stray.

At the end of the Brezhnev Americans have arranged to Germany's strategic missile "Pershing-2". They were designed as a means of defeating underground command centers and beheadings, so Makarov, the armed forces of the USSR. To achieve the goal they needed 6 — 8 minutes. Our gallakticheskaya defense was based on the premise — if within 2 — 3 minutes confirmed that "Pershing" is heading east, automatically in response to Russian rocket launched by NATO facilities. It is easy to imagine for themselves what fate awaited Germany and its allies. Let me remind spearhead against the tip was not our choice. Sakharov generally offer not to serve Washington's strategy to ruin Russian Union arms race. He played for the placement along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the U.S. nuclear charges of 100 megatons each. And in anger against us or our friends, to press the button. It was said to them to quarrel with Nikita Sergeyevich in 1961 due to differences over nuclear bomb tests in the capacity of 100 megatons of the newest Earth. Sugars are not alone warn against Russian control of the country's dive into a bottomless vortex of the arms race. I.N.Ostretsov associates argued in the 70's and
80's., What to do in KB Utkin missile "Satan" (according to NATO systematization), with its 16th MIRV any personal guidance by 2 megatons — a reliable defensive shield. And one could make a break for 15-20 years.

But our military-industrial complex did not yield conversion. Metastases militarism struck imperative structure, the state apparatus, science and the economy. I refer to the fact that 83% of scientists and engineers engaged in military and paramilitary theme. Over a quarter of the GDP of the Union of Russian sucking insatiable Moloch. Specialists in clear tried to convince the powers that be: we are engaged in self-hatred service doctrine United States, aimed at bringing the country to economic and social collapse.

Another topic related to the current exchange of views. The overthrow of Stalin and Khrushchev podium accompanied abolishing the archives. Was withdrawn or edit out anything that provoked the question, and what the band kept himself Nikita Sergeyevich, when done by a business in Ukraine, Burke dissidents in Moscow. After all, his "hit list" father of nations shortened to two — three times. No, nepoprostu Khrushchev to repay their sins gave Ukraine Crimea.

In October 1964, Russian government headed by a triumvirate. Brezhnev was the Secretary General of the party. Unacceptable for bravery and bravado during the war he received from Stalin serious suggestion. In general, and in time of peace, Leonid Ilyich did not mind showing off. But the warehouse character, Brezhnev — a man of compromise. And as such, as the opposite of predecessors, he arranged for different currents, bordering the Russian Olympus. The post of chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, the nominal president, went to Nikolai Podgorny. The government headed by Alexei Kosygin. In the beginning, the principal decision was caused by the presence of a consensus of naming a trio. Soon, but began to give yourself to know when it is not good for business, the differences in the minds of 3 favorites.

I refer to the example of an eyewitness who happened to be me. 1967 in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs I was responsible for the affairs of the countries of the Commonwealth of England. In addition Gromyko, without explaining the circumstances, I have laid them on Middle Eastern affairs, namely: the problems of the Arab-Israeli confrontation. When it came to the Six-Day War, when the crisis was made secretary general headquarters. I have included in its composition. In his meetings were attended by Podgorny, Kosygin, Grechko, Chief of Staff Zakharov, deputy Gromyko Fighters.

Of early morning Brezhnev convened. At night, he told the ambassador received a telegram S.A.Vinogradova. Nasser requested to immediately throw in Egypt tanks, artillery, and some other equipment to make the barrier to the Israelis, who have crossed the Suez Canal and the move to Cairo. "I gave the order — continued Brezhnev — ship equipment on the aircraft …" It is in this moment attendant reported: Extraordinary received a telegram from Vinogradov. At Nasser heavy heart attack. Secretary General appeals to those present — how to decide? And he adds, the coming flight E.I.Chazovu fly to Cairo. The word takes Podgorny, "I Chazova for a business trip, but with a tool you need to wait." Brezhnev asks, "How and how much to wait? Israelis in Sotk km from Cairo" Piedmont insists: "It's unclear how things will turn out. Propose a tool to wait until tomorrow." Piedmont gets up and then removed. Brezhnev was beside himself. Instructs the tool to send, without the consent Podgorny. The fate of Nikolai Viktorovich was sealed.

"Group of friends" came to talk and became lay a mine for another member of the 1st triumvirate. I accompanied Kosygin during his visit to the municipal to the UK in 1967 Productive talks with Harold Wilson and Dzh.Braunom brought the sides to the conclusion of the Anglo-Soviet cooperation agreement. Alexei gathered his companions in the hotel suite. Suddenly the phone rang on the open internationalist phone. "Alex, — heard the voice of the Brezhnev — that we enjoy watching on television your performance in the Golden Hall. Congratulations to you. Regarding a possible agreement, for several reasons it is not worth it to force. Going back — details of the negotiations." Kosygin's face was haggard. He closed up within itself, and the remaining one and a half day or was in a depressed mood. It was clear to him and to us, the premiere weaned from foreign affairs. In 1970 Kosygin awarded the rights to put under contract with the Metropolitan Germany to sign. But even more clearly given to understand that his destiny — to engage in economic affairs (under the supervision of M.A.Suslova and others like him) also represent the USSR at the funeral zabugornyh municipal leaders — such as Nasser, Indian Prime Minister Shastri etc. Personally, I do not exclude that Kosygin did not forgive his opposition to the intervention in Czechoslovakia.

Finally, on this day. When it began to die Russian Union? In most cases, they say — everything came out of the blue. In my opinion, this is not the case. I will not indulge in analysis of how the de-Stalinization was, I invite you to understand the impact of redevelopment Khrushchev our agriculture. Specifically with him from 1962-1963,. USSR began to buy millions of tons of grain. Together with G.A.Arbatovym N.N.Inozemtsevym and we tried to convince Nikita Sergeyevich: pay our farmer as much as the South American farmer pays the Ministry of Foreign Trade — in a few years, there will be a blockage of grain. "Do not encourage private-trend!" — This was the verdict. On a whim Khrushchev was derailed consumer cooperatives, while our experience was extended to other "socialist countries" rather than caused them very tangible harm. In the GDR and Czechoslovakia, for example, the share of small producers and consumer trade amounted to almost a third of their economies. On the economic councils and read nothing.

With the removal of Khrushchev voluntarism economy, unfortunately, did not recognize the recovery. Ends meet in no way failed to link. Press MIC prevailed harder. Social climate deteriorated. Disruptions and distortions in the consumer market, health care, culture, science, school — daily occurrences. Separatism throwing challenge the integrity of the "unbreakable union of free republics." In the last 5 years of their lives, LI Brezhnev reigned but did not rule. Fatally unhealthy Andropov was not destined to give stability municipal vehicle. Troubles added by Konstantin Chernenko. To live in the country the previous regime could not. Categorical Imperative said changes need high quality. Change is designed to bridge the gap between word and deed.

Ready to answer your questions.

K.A.Gevorgyan. As I am not a historian, and scholar, and I have long been interested in matters concerning the expression "cool war". I tried to find his roots. It was found that for the first time (but maybe it is not so) applied it in relation to Hitler situation of Yugoslavia in 1939, the same way the term "metal curtain" is owned by Goebbels. I would be very grateful if you can somehow clarify this or commented. For me that would be the key to some upcoming reflections.

V.M.Falin. In two volumes of memoirs A.M.Kollontay can read that the term "metal curtain" was used initially 1920s. in Norway as a method of sharing thoughts with the threat of October. When he entered the term "the cool war"? Answer to this question can not. Most likely, the authorship for the Truman administration. I can still lead the Eastern proverb: "War is war, and war polvoyny too."

G.Ya.Misuna. In connection with the beginning of the nuclear project in the Russian Union referred to a letter of Lieutenant ZHoru Flerova specifically Stalin in the summer of
1941, in which he wrote that a few months of Western scientific magazines (Flyorov — a physicist by training, he graduated from the Moscow State University) did not publish material on the nuclear issue. Letter Flerova as the impetus.

V.M.Falin. As I remember, Fleur drew attention to the disappearance of publications on nuclear development in 1942 His letter was to Stalin and was superimposed on the information acquired from Rado and a bit later by Fuchs. Then it was ordered mathematicians, physicists and other scientists to withdraw from the army, so they went in nuclear matters. Repressed spetsy partly hit the "sharashka."

V.G.Budanov. There is a theory, it is reflected in the movie "17 Moments of Spring," as if, through the efforts of our intelligence, the German project "Edge of Darkness" went down the wrong way: the Germans took no thoughts of splitting the nuclei of uranium, and tried to set fire to the languid water thermonuclear reaction. No one without a fuse atomic solve this puzzle without success. Were there in fact some conscious act to encourage Nazi Germany to move in a nuclear project on the right track?

V.M.Falin. In the course of a huge number of versions. We are given to choose more reliable. A couple of years back in the Russian language was posted book "Dark Sun Third Reich." Creator Dzh.Farrel compiled there for the German technological developments. Mentioned in the middle of the rest, following fact: the first in 1945 on the peninsula of Rügen was produced by the explosion of a device, accompanied by the appearance of the fungus, familiar to us from the nuclear tests. Surveys conducted by our spices, that neither is painstaking, showed no traces of radioactivity. Some clues may be in the archive syschutsya von Ardenne, involvement in "uranium project". After the war, the GDR ran Ardenne Institute, designed for implementing the mind of a scientist. According to Farrell, in the 3rd Reich on projects of creation of nuclear weapons were two main groups. One led by Nobel laureate Heisenberg (scientists, it focused, did not show special diligence). Another group operated under the wing of the SS, at this very successfully. As noted by Speer's own post-war memoirs, "uranium project" failed due to a whim and incompetence of Hitler, who refused in 1942 to give it a higher value. In addition, the German development co-operation is seriously interfered Norwegians and the British had destroyed the only factory producing the heavy water in Norway.

Toward the close of the war the Nazis in Europe, in response to a request from the Japanese sent their allies submarine with a group of German physicists and a cargo of uranium-235. On the way to the place of destination captain, who raised the boat to recharge BATTERY, caught a radio message about the surrender of Germany and gave the Yankees. They say that a captured uranium was used by the United States in the manufacture of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima.

Farrell leads curious information about the works of the German flying saucer, about any Nazi bases in Antarctica. The lead in this project is the SS-ing Centre for New Technologies, stationed in Prague. At the end of April — beginning of May, the center of all the documents, models of new types of weapons together with the majority of design frames were destroyed. Perhaps best to. Einstein himself bequeathed to burn all his unpublished calculations and drawings that they have not been used to the detriment of the public land.

V.G.Budanov. In the context of the nuclear project commemorated some "komplot physicists." And Oppenheimer, Bohr and Einstein proceeded from the fact that in the name of parity data on the militarization of the atom should not be accessible to only one power. Because they organized a leak of information. The same is done at the time Tesla.

V.M.Falin. Fuchs adhered specifically such positions.

K.A.Gevorgyan. My friend Olga Tabachnikova, it was simultaneous translator at the Nuremberg trials, spoke very notable things. When the word was given to people who have been silent, South American officers passed, namely her some materials with a saying: "do not make our progress with you arrangements, and it has to be you." It was about the specific characteristics of the materials. I am at the moment especially zakavychivayu — the type of material of the Institute "Ahnenerbe." One gets the impression that some of these files moved to the United States as part of ours. Can I hear a few words about the fate of these developments?

V.M.Falin. Archives defeated Germany were interested, first, the Americans and British. Our side of the more zealous in dismantling plant equipment, other equipment, important principle to rebuild our shattered economy and infrastructure, as tracing the prototypes of the new instrument. To the United States actually got quite personal archive office of Hitler.

K.A.Gevorgyan. But we have got Goebbels diaries?

V.M.Falin. I held them in their hands. A long time we did not recognize that the diaries from us. The reason — Gebels took notes about the hidden annexes to the treaty in 1939, as others know it was not supposed to. Along the way, we got a lot of documents and records, including the most hidden, and the question is how to get along with them Moscow. I will refer to such an example. There was a "special literary archive." Exactly what is it? It settled the Gestapo materials, personal papers of Joseph Wirth, Rothschild (French and German), the French captured files and other intelligence agencies. On behalf of Molotov, I happened to glance at some of these files. A huge number of papers have been written by hand in Gothic script, and professionals who are able to read — without exception. Records was conducted names of those who could cooperate with the Nazi secret services, and before the war — with intelligence the UK, France and the United States. When the USSR collapsed, the archive has been abolished and its contents Volkogonov & Co., do not bother to make copies of at least the most important papers, squandered.

K.A.Gevorgyan. Who and where to give? In Germany?

V.M.Falin. In Germany, France, though what those who are not too lazy to bend or detach the donors for their daily bread.

There was no order and in other archives. In Podolsk, as you know, to this day have not figured out most of the bags stuffed with documentation of Nazi commandant that rioted in the occupied Russian countryside. Hand-written, frankly, hard to read the paper, and of wanting to crush his eyes for 3 — 4 thousand rubles per month is not enough. The proposal to put the Germans in Podolsk professionals who are on the instructions of the research institutes of Germany donated would classify this layer, the response is not received.

Father John (Mirolyubov). Once I was a scientist in the field of applied mechanics. My question is related to the arms race. I would like to deeply ponder over its ideology. The military and political components to me more or less clear, but the financial and technology components? Was not this the arms race imposed on us by the same order, so that 83% of Russian scientists were working on military hardware, and everything else was doomed to technological backwardness?

V.M.Falin. At the turn of the XIX-XX centuries, politics degenerated into a continuation of war by other means, will be like, borrow Goethe's aphorism, rock. Guise of violence diversified. Not necessarily drive the people became "bombs to the stone age" than the United States were engaged in Korea, Indochina, and before that in the Philippines. Lime intended victim can be such a kind of siege, as the arms race, the accumulation of "vsepobivayuschih trump cards" that the other side does not syschetsya adequate response.

From 1946 until the mid 80's the concept of "preventive actions" against th
e Soviet Union, China and their allies were based on the application of Washington, except for nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and (illegal to use international conventions in 1925). "Plainclothes defense" did not close the window of vulnerability. Possible villain ought to know in advance that the payback will not force myself to expect.

In 1981, the United States and their environment, NATO adopted two applets — "Army 2000" and "Fofana." Russian Union was asking race in the sector of so-called "smart weapons." Its design and creation sought in 5 — 7 times more investment than a nuclear weapon. "Democrats" calculate — Russian economy will not cope with such a challenge. A similar calculation pawned in the program "Star Wars" Reagan. This just make cognizance of the report the Minister of Defense Weinberger, partly uncovered in 1986, the newspaper "New-york Times."

Russian Alliance came from the world stage. Mirage danger dispelled. Summed to tectonic shifts in the planetary landscape to the downturn of the American militancy? How unfortunate it did not sound. This year, the U.S. Department of Defense unfastened 761 billion. dollars (being wasted on the war in Iraq and Afghanistan do not count), plus 580 billion. allocated to the acquisition of new military technologies. The name which exceeds the military spending of all other nations combined. Stating this, do not forget that the competition in the field of military technology is the catalyst of the arms race.

George W. Bush, Jr., passing the baton of power to Obama, opened the sense of what is happening: the U.S. does not want to roll up a crusade for initiation of the population of both hemispheres to the imperatives of American "democracy." Compassionate Bush refrained from inclusion in the list of nations, eager South American goodwill, the Redskins. Until now they are in the reserves, in which the intruders were expelled during the development of "feral West." It seems that the emphasis is on the fact that time itself somehow solve the problem of the natives. In the twentieth century in the United States ended the earthly existence of more than 20 Native American tribes.

M.V.Demurin. Let me go back to the 50 th year. I would like to find out your opinion about Beria. There is a perception that it had its own foreign aaplet good from Khrushchev. Did he have such internal political programm and if she could be implemented in the Soviet Union?

V.M.Falin. As given to me to judge, I Beria was the concept of the struggle for power, and specifically derived from it both external and internal applets. Certainly, Beria was almost the most far-sighted leadership in the USSR, and from the standpoint of organizational capabilities, not many knew none. His fate in a different way, Beria is unlikely to be reborn lamb. Maybe my eyes on this figure is painted subsequent episode of his life. In 1951, with the approval of Beria in Georgia was inspired by "Megrelian business." The main accused was Interior Minister G.T.Karanadze. With his offspring I studied at the Moscow State Institute together closely and was friends with him. So here, I was led by bestowing a case from 1951 to 1953 as a resident of French intelligence in the Russian Union. Beria come to power, similar to me, apparently, and the atom would have failed to find.

But all the same. After the death of Stalin, Beria, bypassing the Politburo ordered his "personal agents" (in Germany were Chekhov and Olga Prince Radziwill) clarify what compensation the United Kingdom and the United States are willing to give consent for the reconstruction of Moscow in Germany about the criteria for "democracy." In the center of Beria charges of treason, etc. standing intention to pass socialist ally — the GDR. "Guilt" Beria was not softened his order not to spare ammunition in the oppression of the events of June 1953 that shook East Germany.

V.G.Budanov. At the last meeting you were that Stalin was against the division of Germany, that he wanted the creation of one of the country as opposed to the Anglo-Saxons. It turns out that Beria went on the same line?

V.M.Falin. In a sense, Beria continued the line of Stalin. With significant, though, as amended. Once the "democrats" dismembered Germany, Stalin was averted for the restoration of the unity of its 5 — 7 years. Beria speed up the process, considering that the GDR is not able to compete economically with West Germany. Further. Stalin linked the unification of Germany with the acquisition of its status as a "non-aligned countries." Beria, as you know, did not make a similar slip of the tongue.

V.G.Budanov. Allow me a question about nuclear weapons in China. Does it have a thermonuclear charges? Sinologist me but know that Beijing holds a different strategy — a strategy asymmetric response. When the Americans tried to blackmail them, drawn into an arms race, like they came from the Union of Russian, Chinese Tipo articulated: our trump card — trade, cargo and container ships have a duty charge.

V.M.Falin. Thermonuclear charges in China, of course, there is. But Beijing bid does not only and not so much on military power. I will repeat what I have heard in 1991 by Zhao Ziyang, associates and followers of Deng Xiaoping. He reasoned that "China having 5 thousand years. How much ahead, no one knows. Either way, the Chinese do not rush for anything. By 2040-2050, we catch up with the Yankees, and later surpass States. Direct conflict with the Yankees Beijing is not needed, and as Russian Alliance with him, such a conflict is unlikely. The situation is, of course, could get worse, if one of us stumble … "

Now China is in control of 95% of global rare earth supplies parts needed for the production of electronics. Living in the country of the rising sun is not so long ago detained two Chinese fishing vessel in disputed territorial waters and the protests of the PRC did not react. Beijing Then cut the supply of these most parts of the inhabitants of the land of rising sun, and almost in one day anglers have been released. Up to 45% of electrical devices U.S. military made in China or made on the basis of China's electricity. On the home appliances, and there is nothing to read.

Decent magazine "Economic Strategy" in recent issues highlighted differences of practice in the Russian Federation and China's implementation of the "adjustment." In 1989, at the invitation of the Bureau of China I visited a number of areas of the country. I showed millionaire city, built over 10 years on the site of the village with 10 thousand inhabitants. Neither 1st hectares of land not sold to foreigners. Would you like to open a company, rent a site for them for a period of 30 years. At the end of 3 decades — the new bid. If there is a desire to extend the use of the land, offer no worse than that of rivals conditions. Under the privatization fell only loss-making enterprises. Direct investments conditioned by the transfer or the introduction of new technologies in the production. We have, as we know, all the opposite. "Prihvatizirovat" only profitable enterprises, such as the "Norilsk Nickel".

Naturally, it is hard to deny that the Chinese have a special mindset. Living far away overseas native of this country through the years, decades and even centuries continued to consider themselves Chinese. He does not lose touch with the Middle Kingdom, visiting graves of relatives who remain, as they say, a thousand years. We find it hard to understand it all, but, nevertheless, need to try to avoid stupid things on which we whale.

M.V.Demurin. Valentin, the next question on the years 1950-1960. Apparently, the latter because we work long enough. We read as antagonism of the USSR, on the one hand, and the United States and Great Britain,
on the other. On one side were France and Germany. When, at what time and on what the story, in your opinion, the two countries declared for themselves as a power capable not only to defend their interests, and have a serious impact on world politics?

V.M.Falin. In France, it is clear: it acquired the status of a fully fledged powers when she came in nuclear club. Germany regained a stronger role for itself thanks to the economic and technological developments. With all of this should take note of the subsequent. Ingrained idea, as if the unification of Europe was performed by the internal needs of the region. This is only partially correspond to reality. From the formation of the European "six" Paris has put in dependence consent to the creation of West Germany and its rearmament. The Bundeswehr was the first to be removed from under the sovereignty of the country and is integrated into NATO, subordinated to the command unit. Control of heavy industry in West Germany passed to institutions such as "Coal and Steel" and "Euratom". In addition, Germany should unfasten bolshennye funds for the maintenance of U.S. troops, the United Kingdom and France, as in the treasury of the Common Market.

Selection of Bonn provides a very narrowed. Konrad Adenauer believed that at some point will come to Germany an ideal option. Meanwhile, L.Erhard, the father of the social market economy, preferred to the European scene "third world." The Social Democrats also linked the economic odds Germany, with its access to the markets of the countries, dumped colonial oppression (SPD congress in 1953). A similar line of spent adviser Erhard Gross, chief editor of the influential body of business "Handelsblatt" …

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