We all remember our great AS Pushkin and his famous story, "The Tale of the Priest and his Worker Balda." But we are reading a story, rarely thought about the question that the product is — spelled? Why do we never heard about it?
True to my worker Balda.
Listen, pay pledged devils
I rents for most of my death;
Better had no need of income,
Yes they have arrears for three years.
As you naeshsya its spelled,
Gather a minute with me full of devils dues. "
If we turn to the dictionary, we get the following answer: spelled (spelled) — a type of wheat, wheat progenitor of today. The problem of its cultivation, as it turns out, goes back to ancient times.
Why it is not growing — but because spelled does not tolerate any chemical fertilizers. And not just any soil suitable for its cultivation. Grain spelled like the grain of wheat, but larger and more rigid scales protected than wheat. Since the 2nd century ago, no one defended the culture of weeds, pests, drought, etc., scales and pulled her ears from all these misfortunes. Spelled and so retains its nutrients.
What's interesting, now you can meet sometimes spelled in Jewish shops abroad. For example, in the U.S. and in Germany. And gradually, people will come back to this plant, almost lost, but revived again.
It turns out that in the old days in Russia polbyanaya wheat or spelled, was distributed as much as usual. Its culture has a lot of fiber and protein. Those who ate the porridge of spelled, were healthy and strong for Mother Russia. Emmer did not require a lot of attention on the part of man, was almost a wild variety, but gradually began to be used for human consumption. Spelt is highly resistant to the vagaries of weather and grows well in a variety of climatic conditions.
This culture is very popular among the population in the 17-18 age as easily vyraschivaema. Ears of corn and its quite strong and do not break when the wind and rain. The only drawback is that it is difficult to handle — thrash. For this reason, when they were new varieties of wheat, spelled gone by the wayside. Besides wheat gave a larger volume of grain than the spelled, and this increased production of wheat flour and bread products. Emmer wheat crops began to decline, giving way to a more soft and yielding wheat.
Today, in some regions of Russia are trying to revive this culture: in Dagestan, Bashkortostan. She studied breeders for future cultivation. About 10-15 years ago in Europe began to appear different dishes spelled. In addition to cereal, soup and bread from her flour started to do make desserts. It became popular in India and Italy, was even named "caviar grains."
Spelled (spelled), grown in the U.S., in the warm Arizona and Florida, is on sale today in Russia under the brand name "Kamut", which makes it difficult to understand. But these are different names for the same plant. Spelt contains many nutrients needed by the people. It has a balanced mix of all the essential elements and vitamins, and keeps all the nutritional value in the manufacture of flour.
And surprisingly — this culture is not genetic modification potdaetsya
Spelt (It — spelled, kamut, dvuzernyanka, emmer) — is a half-civilized type of wheat, or rather, a group of wheat ears and brittle pletenchatym zernom.Ona has many beneficial and healing properties. Spelt is an ancestor of wheat. Based on the ancient spelled withdrew all its modern varieties. Spelt — wheat, containing the highest amount of protein — from 27% to 37%. Porridge spelled has a pleasant nutty flavor and is incredibly useful, especially children. Protein gluten, which is particularly rich in this cereal contains 18 essential amino acids for the body that can not be obtained from animal food. In spelled higher content of iron, protein and B vitamins than conventional wheat. Because of its low gluten content people who are allergic to gluten, you can include in your diet spelled.
Spelt — soft wheat, of beans used to make a rough brown rump, with a touch of carmine, shade. In the European tradition, it is called spelled, but now with a little use to the fullest, with the exception of Northern Italy, where the name spelled farro and spelled groats — Farro-Perlato. In fact, the barley. True, our barley — is not wheat, and barley. But in general — is a near relative. Emmer, in itself devoid of serious taste qualities, has a wonderful ability to disclose the dignity of others. In Italian cuisine, it acts as both a canvas and painted backdrop. In emmer (farro, spelled), soft, slightly fibrous texture. Imagine a person who has both the material properties of red caviar and cashew nuts, bursting on the teeth and at the same time dense fibrous granules gently enveloping the bright flavors of basil, mussels, mushrooms and lemon juice — and you'll understand why the Italians for five thousand years can not get rid of this obsession.
Emmer used by people in the food back in the Neolithic era. Gradually spelled moved to the north and spread throughout most of Europe. In the ancient civilizations of Babylon, Sumer and ancient Egypt was the main spelled wheat used in the daily diet. In Russia the culture spelled also known from ancient times — from the V century BC. e. The largest area it occupied in in the XVIII century. Spelled porridge until XVIII-XIX centuries were very popular in Russia in those days. Emmer was very popular in the first place thanks to its excellent agricultural characteristics. Her ears do not crumble when ripe, stems not lodge even in strong winds and rains, the plant itself does not hurt and does not damage by pests. Lack was one — gave little grain spelled and poorly cleaned, but it is more than offset by the fact that caring for her had to spend a minimum of force. Emmer — the most ancient and simple species of wheat. Grain spelled vymolachivaetsya of brittle ears are not clean, and with flowering and glumes, glued to it. Causing it to grind flour is difficult. Therefore, the shift came spelled hull-less wheat, higher quality, and more demanding of soil fertility. Unfortunately, with the XIX century in Russia began a sharp decline of its crops against expansion as more wheat yield.
In recent years, as the resistance to the increasing dominance of synthetic food became apparent interest in natural, organic products, including and spelled. Today, in some regions of Russia are trying to revive this culture: in Dagestan, Bashkortostan. Nutritionists talk about its beneficial properties and the chefs have to cook from it more and more food. In dietary restaurants can be found not only porridge, bread or soup of spelled, but air creams polbyanye crackers, fancy sauces with ground polbyanoy cereal. In Italy, however, spelled out traditionally prepared risotto, and in India, Iran and Turkey, which is also growing spelled — quite unthinkable garnish for fish and birds. She became so popular that it was even named "caviar grains."
Spelt grown in the United States, in the warm Arizona and Florida, is on sale today in Russia under the brand name "Kamut", which makes it difficult to understand. But these are different names for the same plant. Spelt contains many nutrients needed by the people. It has a balanced mix of all the essential elements and vitamins, and keeps all the nutritional value in the manufacture of flour.
Kamut (Spelled, emmer) — the name "Kamut" comes from the word, which in ancient Egypt called wheat. It is believed that kamut — distant ancestor of modern wheat, which never were selected with a high protein content. At the end of 40 years of the twentieth century, 36 Kamut grains were brought to Montana, and since this type of wheat is grown only in one state, under the brand name «Kamut». Kamut grain is 2-3 times larger than the usual grain of wheat and not only have a pleasant nutty flavor, but also contain more nutrients than a grain of modern wheat varieties. For comparison, Kamut has:
— 29% more protein;
— increase of 27% lipids;
— 23% more magnesium;
— 25% more zinc;
— much more vitamin E;
— 16 amino acids with higher rates;
— higher levels in 8 of 9 mineral salts found in conventional wheat.
In most countries, kamut is available for sale only in processed form. It is used when cooking pasta, air flakes, crackers. Because of limited production, products with Kamut can be found only in health food stores.
But what about the community reporter roskazyval Mokos: "Mistress of the hut warmed Mokosh travelers, drunk herbal tea, fed the baked pumpkin, hot vegetable soup (the inhabitants of the community — vegetarians) and porridge of spelled (wheat) with honey."
Polbyanaya porridge I 1 cup spelled, 0.5 liters of yogurt, 0.5 cups water, 0.5 liters of milk, 100 g of oil. Spelled soak for 4-6 hours (or overnight) in a mixture of yogurt (or sour milk) and cold boiled water. Then rinse in cold water, cook on low heat for naplitnom in milk or a mixture of milk and water until cooked (not boiled soft porridge, each grain remains whole, ready to taste the sample is checked after a full boiling liquid). Porridge wrap and give persevered 30-40 minutes, then fill it with oil and serve.
II Take 1 pound of cereal "spelled", wash in cold water, put in a pot, Bay 4 cups of boiling water, put 2 teaspoons of salt and cook, stirring to keep from drying out and burnt up until the water boils away, shift the mess in a clay pot, put a spoonful of oil, pour it a glass of boiling milk, stir again, cover, place in the oven with a pan of hot water, which gradually throw on not to boil away. 1.5-2 hours porridge is ready. Serve with butter or milk it.
III 1 cup spelled, prostakvashi 0.5 liter, 0.5 cups water, 0.5 liters of milk, 100 g of oil /
Spelled soak for 4-6 hours (or overnight) in a mixture of yogurt (or sour milk) and cold boiled water. Then rinse in cold water, cook on low heat for naplitnom in milk or a mixture of milk and water until cooked (not boiled soft porridge, each grain remains whole, ready to taste the sample is checked after a full boiling liquid). Porridge wrap and give persevered 30-40 minutes, then fill it with oil and serve.
IV Spelled prepared simply — polbennuyu rump brewed salty boiling water and put in the oven for 2 hours.
Dolma (Armenian cuisine) 80 grams of lentils, 160 g spelled, 80 grams of beans, 80 g onion, 120 grams of vegetable oil, 80 g of dried apricots (pitted), 400 grams of grape leaves, 40 g raisins, parsley, pepper, chili powder, salt . Cooked lentils, spelled, beans mixed with roasted onions, dried apricots, raisins, herbs, salt and pepper. The resulting stuffing wrapped in grape leaves scalded in an envelope. Tolman rows are placed in a pan, add the apricots, pour water and sunflower oil and pripuskayut until done. When served with greens.
Roast spelled with a cream sauce
1 onion, 2 carrots, 1 stalk of leek, 40 g butter 200 g of crushed spelled, 400 ml vegetable broth, 80 g of grated nuts, 2 eggs, 40 grams of grated cheese, 80 g bread crumbs, sea salt, pepper, nutmeg nut on a branch of thyme and tarragon.
1 onion, 1/2 bunch parsley, 1 tsp. vegetable oil, 1/4 liter of vegetable broth, 1 tbsp. l. cold butter, 1 tbsp. l. wheat flour, 1/4 liter of cream, salt with herbs, pepper, the juice of half a lemon
Onions and carrots peeled and cut into very small cubes. Clean the leek and cut it into thin rings. Heat the butter in a saucepan and simmered it crushed spelled. Add the vegetables and vegetable broth, bring to a boil. Simmer for 15 minutes, stirring occasionally. Turn off the burner and leave to simmer, covered for 15 minutes. Add to Emmer nuts, eggs, cheese and bread crumbs. Season with spices and finely chopped parsley. Grease the tray without holes fat. Molded pulp made from spelled, put in a pan and bake as directed. Roast leave for a while, before chop.
For the sauce, onion peeled and cut into small cubes. Pluck parsley and coarsely chop. Together, fried in vegetable oil. Add vegetable broth, cover and leave for 15 minutes to prepare. Rub the sauce through a sieve. Mix the cold butter with the flour and add to the sauce. Add the cream, season with spices and lemon juice for a zesty flavor.
According to Internet materials.