The war in the settlement of
In December 1940, Adolf Hitler began to plan an attack on, which consisted then in alliance with Nazi Germany, the Russian Communist Alliance. The operation was codenamed "Operation Barbarossa." During the preparation of Hitler gave to understand that we are not talking about the classic seizure of territories, and oh-so-called, the war on liquidation (Vernichtungskrieg). In March 1941, he said the management of the Wehrmacht did not enjoy a lot of military victory and the eastward expansion of German contemporary space (Lebensraum). According to him, the Russian Communist Alliance, "… to kill using the most fierce violence." He said that "zhidobolshevistskuyu" intellectuals and functionaries of the Communist Party must be put to death.
"Commissar order" from June 6, 1941, Hitler ordered destroyed, captured, political officers of the Red Army. (The commissioners were responsible for bringing the army in the spirit of communism and ideological training, also produced political control of the commanders). Between the SS and the army concluded an agreement on the implementation of the order. According to him, the commissioners and members of the Communist Party in the middle of the prisoners were filtered before being sent to the camp. The Nazi Party and the SS assigned to this puzzle spice SS Security Service (SD — Sicherheitsdienst). Identified in the mass of prisoners of war "dangerous elements" were transferred later responsible for the safety of front-line areas, special SS units, which they immediately shot. On the basis of the "commissar order" were executed, the very few, 140 thousand Russian prisoners of war before they have gained the camps. The order, in the end, canceled in May 1942 because of objections by the German army commanders, because, in their view, it only strengthened the resistance of the Red Army. After that, the commissioners were to forward to the concentration camps (for example, in Mauthausen), and there executed.
The German Army and Russian prisoners of war: logistics
In accordance with preparatory plans, the German army was preparing for an instant win and just did not count on prepyadstviya logistics and food supply that occurred in the war against of the Red Army. Because of a poor security front, the Wehrmacht was not prepared for transportation of prisoners of war — millions of Russian fighter pedestrian columns longer than 100 km walked towards the camps. Lagging were shot at civilians who were trying to convey food starved prisoners, just opened fire. As directed by the commander, prisoners of war were transported in open wagons. Without looking at the fact that in November began constantly freezing and snowing, and only at the end of the month was authorized transportation in covered wagons. But the essential configurations to no avail: in motion they were given food, and the cars had no heating. Under these criteria at first December 25-70% of prisoners perished on the road.
Follow the problem was that at the end of foot marches, almost always, instead of equipped camps, waiting for them just surrounded with Stitching wire area. Out and the necessary conditions for survival: the barracks, latrines, health posts. Chief, that headed camp network, has received 250 tons of Stitching wire, but not the logs for the construction of buildings. Millions of Red Army had to endure the terrible winter of 1941-1942. in mud huts, often with 20-40 degree weather.
Famine and epidemics
Indifference to the Wehrmacht prisoners increased by the fact that who planned the economic exploitation of occupied Russian territories, departments had been calculated in advance the possibility starvation death of 20 — 30 million Russian, due to the export of food to Germany. In the preliminary calculations to ensure the Wehrmacht POW laid low costs. First, in the 1st Human calculated 700 — 1000 kkalory times a day. But, over time, and increased numbers of prisoners of war, this — and so little — the portion was reduced even more. Ministry to supply Germany with food considered it "every portion of food for the prisoners is very high, because it is drawn from our own families and our Army soldier."
October 21 1941goda responsible for supplying the Chief Quartermaster-General of the Army as Wagner led the latest, reduced, a portion of the Russian Prisoner: 20 g cereals and 100 grams of bread without meat or 100 grams of cereals without bread. According to calculation, it was equal to a quarter, the right to survival, minimum. After that, it is logical that in the middle of several millions caught in the camp, the prisoners fighter was horrible famine. Unfortunate, in the absence of a tolerable food, cooked herbs and shrubs, gnawing the bark of trees, ate field mice and birds.
After October 31 prisoners allowed to work. In November, Wagner said that the non-performing "… should be thrown in the camps breathe with hunger." Because Russian Alliance was not inclined to sign the international agreement guaranteeing the rights of prisoners of war, the Nazis were only provided with food bodied prisoners. One of the documents can be found subsequently: "In the case of the supply of food Bolshevik prisoners did not bind its international obligations, as in the case of the other prisoners. Because the size of their rations should be determined for us on the basis of the value of their labor. "
Since the beginning of 1942, makes it possible for a protracted war, began to be felt shortage of workers. The Germans want to change your own recruiting contingent Russian prisoners of war. Because of the mass deaths due to hunger, the Nazis experimented with different solutions prepyadstviya: Goring offered to feed them inapplicable for consumption in food carrion, experts at the Ministry of Supply developed a special "Russian bread ', consisting of 50% rye bran, 20% otzhimok sweet beet cellulose and 20% flour and 10% straw flour. But "Russian bread" was not applicable to human food and, as the men fell ill because of it en masse, it finished the ready.
Because of hunger and lack of common criteria POW camp soon became hotbeds of epidemics. It was impossible to wash, no latrines, lice spread typhoid fever. In the winter of 1941-1942., Also at the end of 1943, rage because of the lack of vitamins tuberculosis has become a prerequisite for mass death. Wounds without medical care rottenness, developed in gangrene. Covered with sores, cold, coughing skeletons spread unbearable stench. In August 1941, German intelligence officer wrote his own wife: "Keep coming from the east, once again terrible. Our loss is, of course, significant. It is still bearable, but hecatombs of corpses lay a burden on our shoulders. Ceaselessly, we learn that in arriving shipments of Jews and prisoners of war were still alive, only 20%, hunger — a common phenomenon in the camps, fever rages and other epidemics. "
The German guards belonged to the weakened Russian prisoners of war, usually as human beings inferior race (Untermensch). Often, they were beaten and killed simply out of joy. Rough appeal to them was part of the duty. In an order dated
8 th September 1941 ordered: "Disobedience, active or passive resistance to immediately put an end to the power of the gun. The introduction of weapons against prisoners of war — legally and properly. " General Keitel, and later executed as a war offender after the Nuremberg trials, in the summer of 1942 ordered the branding of war: "The Stamp has the shape of an acute angle of approximately 45 degrees with a side length of 1 centimeter, placed the tip up and placed on the left buttock at a distance from the palms the anus. " Poe, who was trying to escape, the prisoners need to open fire without warning, the captured fugitives — transmit the coming Gestapo. This was tantamount to immediate execution.
In such criteria (transportation, maintenance, nutrition, appeal) Russian prisoners of war were killed en masse. According to German reports, between June 1941 and January 1942 came a gust times a day on average 6,000 prisoners of war. In overcrowded camps located in the occupied Polish territories, until February 19, 1942 killed 85% of the 310 thousand prisoners. In the report, is under the control of Goering's office "four-year plan," says the subsequent: "We have had 3.9 million Russian prisoners. Of them survived — 1.1 million. Only between November and January died 500 thousand Russian. "
In 1941, Himmler gave an indication of Auschwitz commandant Rudolf Hess to begin construction of the new camp, applicable to house and support the work of 100 thousand prisoners of war. But, contrary to the original plan, in the fall of 1941 arrived in Auschwitz only about 15 thousand Russian prisoners. According to Hess's memoir, "Russian barbarians" were killing each other because of the bread and were frequent cases of cannibalism. They built a new camp. By the spring of 1942, 90% of them were killed. But Auschwitz II, at Birkenau concentration camp was ready.
During the second world war prisoners were about 5 million Red Army soldiers. About 60% of them, in other words, 3 million — were killed. It was the worst ratio in all theaters of war second world war.
Stalin and Russian prisoners of war
A heavy burden of responsibility for the death of millions of captured Red Army soldiers lying on their their government and running it, the communist dictator Joseph Stalin. In a time of great terror 1937-38 Reddish Army has not escaped the purges. Of the 5 marshals were executed three (Tukhachevsky, Blucher, Yakir) of 15 army commanders — 13, from 9 admirals — eight out of the 57-mi corps commanders — 50 out of 186 division commanders — 154 in total — about 40 thousand officers on charges of false komplote and espionage. All this happened just before approaching the second world war. Because of cleansing before the German attack on 22 June 1941 most of the commanders of the higher and the respective officers had training and experience.
The crimes of Stalin compounded his errors. In spite of the warnings and intelligence headquarters, until the last moment, he believed that Hitler was only bluffing and would not dare poruha. Under pressure from Stalin Reddish Army possessed only offensive plans and has not developed a defensive strategy. For his mistakes and misdeeds country has paid a big price tag: the Nazis took about 2-million square kilometers of the Russian countryside, the war was lost a third of state property, worth about 700 billion rubles. Russian Alliance survived the terrible loss: during the German occupation killed 17 — 20 million inhabitants of the peace, on the fronts of fallen soldier 7,000,000 5 million more were taken prisoner. Among the prisoners of war killed 3 million people.
In connection with the disaster of war with Stalin is a special responsibility. Russian Communist Alliance has not signed the Hague Convention — an international agreement on the rights of prisoners of war, that did not guarantee who were captured Red Army soldiers of the respective appeals, at the same time, he refused to protect their military base. Because management solutions communist Russian Alliance actually had no connections with international Reddish Cross, in other words, maintenance of relationships through the company (letters, information, parcels) was impossible. As a result of Stalin's policies at least some control over the Germans was not feasible, and Russian prisoners of war were defenseless.
Red merciless torment intensified eyes of Stalin. Teran is believed that only cowards and traitors are captured. Soldier of the Red Army had to fight a war to the death and had no right to give up. Because in the Russian military reports no specific space for prisoners of war, which declared missing. Means officially Russian prisoners of war does not seem to exist. At the same time, the prisoners were considered traitors and their families, branded as enemies of the people, were deported to the Gulag. Russian fighter escaped from the German environment thought possible traitors, they fall into the special filtration camps of the NKVD. Many of them after a grueling interrogation were sent to the Gulag.
Stalin did not forgive defeat. In the summer of 1941, not having the ability to suspend the German coming, he gave the order to execute the command of the Western Front: Pavlova, Klimovskikh, Grigorieva and Korobkova. Missing in action generals Ponedelina and Kachalina, was sentenced in absentia to death. Though later it became clear that Kachalin died, his family was arrested and convicted. Ponedelin was captured wounded, unconscious, held in a German prisoner of four years. But after his release he was arrested, and he spent the next 5 years — now in Russian — camps. In August 1950, he was again convicted and executed.
Stalin was ruthless ways tried to suspend the general retreat, fleeing from the Germans, Russian troops. From the commanders of the fronts and armies, he continually sought "… cowards and traitors to destroy the place." August 12, 1941 in the order at number 270, he ordered: "Commanders and political workers, during a fight tears off his insignia and deserters in the rear of surrendering or captured enemy be considered malicious deserters whose families are subject to arrest as relatives violated the oath and betrayed their homeland. Require all higher commanders and commissars shot on the spot similar deserters from the command staff … If the chief or a part of the Red Army instead of organizing resistance to the enemy will choose to surrender — to destroy them by all means, both terrestrial and aerial, and families who have surrendered to the Red Army captured deprive municipal grants and assistance. "
July 28, 1942, at the peak of the German coming, Teran took the time to slow down his fierce new order: "Not one step back! So now should be the top prize … Syndicate within the army … armed defensive squads … require them in case of panic and chaotic retreat of the division, shoot panic-mongers and cowards … ". But Stalin ordered to shoot not only the retreating soldiers. In autumn 1941 from Leningrad was told that the Germans are coming in ahead of him as a shield Russian ladies, kids and old people. Stalin: "They say that in the middle of the Leningrad Bolshevik come across some that are not likely to open fire on such delegations. Personally, I think that if there are people in the middle of the Bolsheviks, you first need to kill them. Because they are more dangerous than the Nazis. My advice: do not sentimental. Enemy or volunteer, or caught a rope accomplices to peel everywhere … everywhere lupite Germans and their messengers, be they anyone smite the enemy, all the same, a volunteer, he or caught a rope. "
Stalin's great insensitivity shown by the fact that when he uttered that his son, Lt. Yakov Dzhugashvili, was in German captivity and the Nazis prepared to be changed by a German prisoner Teran made no reaction to the news, and never mentioned t
he offspring. Jacob made a suicide in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, throwing himself on the Stitching wire.
The consequence of Stalin's terror was the fact that it was the first war in which Russian masse over to the enemy. About 2-million people served as volunteer assistants (grooms, cooks, work, etc.) in different parts of the German army. Of the 10 prisoners of thousands joined the Russian Liberation Army.
After his release in 1945, suffering civilians and prisoners of war is not over. Russian authorities until February 1946 repatriated 4.2 million Russian people. 360 thousand of them had been deported as traitors to the Gulag by assigning them a sentence of 10-20 years. Another 600 thousand were sent to forced labor to rebuild, usually for two years. Several thousand Vlasov Army soldier executed, and 150 thousand people were deported to Siberia or Kazakhstan.
In the end, we can find that on the eastern front, the second world war two ruthless totalitarian dictatorship were really together an all-out war on the settlement. The main victims of this war — the civilian population of Russian and Polish territories, as the Red Army, loyal to their homeland and are not considered by people from the enemy. Considering the role of the Nazis, it is possible to find that the crash Russian prisoners of war was an integral part of the German policy towards the Slavs, therefore falls within the definition of genocide.